Dreaming with Seniors
Andragogy <ul><li>Malcolm Knowles, father of adult learning </li></ul><ul><li>Andragogy  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The art a...
Key Assumptions <ul><li>Motivation  – Inner rather than external </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation  - Life-centered, practical...
Fundamental Principals of Learning <ul><li>Participants have learned when they: </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate and apply new ...
Motivation <ul><li>Adults are motivated more by internal factors than by external rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Ask Questions ...
Orientation <ul><li>Adults are life-centered  </li></ul><ul><li>Adults are willing to learn new things which will help the...
Experience <ul><li>Connect new learning with past experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Ask Questions like:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Style <ul><li>Self image - responsible for their own decisions and life choices </li></ul><ul><li>Self-directed learning i...
Differences <ul><li>Adults have greater range of experience than youth </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, individual differences...
How Do People Learn? <ul><li>Through associative process </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing new attitudes, knowledge and skills ...
Key Elements of Adult Education <ul><li>Adult education is supportive: </li></ul><ul><li>Safe environment for experimentat...
Key Elements of Adult Education <ul><li>Adult education is relevant: </li></ul><ul><li>New information and skills are rele...
Key Elements of Adult Education <ul><li>Adult education is participatory: </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are actively engaged ...
Key Elements of Adult Education <ul><li>Adult education builds on learners experience: </li></ul><ul><li>Builds on and val...
Key Elements of Adult Education <ul><li>Adult education fosters opportunities for self-directed learning: </li></ul><ul><l...
Adults Retain… <ul><li>20% of what they hear </li></ul><ul><li>30% of what they see </li></ul><ul><li>50% of what they hea...
Learning Recall Type of presentation Ability to recall after 3 hours Ability to recall after 3 days Verbal (one-way) lectu...
Adult Learning Cycle: Introduction <ul><li>Adults learn by analyzing and applying new information to their own lives </li>...
Adult Learning Cycle Phase 1 Experiencing Doing Phase 2 Processing Reflecting Phase 4 Applying Taking Action Phase 3 Gener...
Adult Learning Cycle <ul><li>Phase 1:  Learners experience new information </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2:  Learners process ne...
Learning Cycle Example:  Experiencing: Dreaming Processing: Dream Journal Dreamwork Application: Honoring the dream Genera...
Adults Learn Best When… <ul><li>They feel safe, valued and respected </li></ul><ul><li>The learning experience is active a...
Adults Learn Best When… <ul><li>New material is related to what they know </li></ul><ul><li>The learning environment is co...
References <ul><li>Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (1998).  The adult learner: The definitive classic in a...
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Adult Learning Principles Cycle

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Malcom Knowles principles for adult learning - Andragogy

Adult Learning Principles Cycle

  1. 1. Dreaming with Seniors
  2. 2. Andragogy <ul><li>Malcolm Knowles, father of adult learning </li></ul><ul><li>Andragogy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The art and science of helping adults learn - built upon two central, defining attributes: First, a conception of learners as self-directed and autonomous; and second, a conception of the role of the teacher as facilitator of learning rather than presenter of content” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Key Assumptions <ul><li>Motivation – Inner rather than external </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation - Life-centered, practical </li></ul><ul><li>Experience – Personal experience is the richest source for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Style - Need to be self-directed </li></ul><ul><li>Differences - Individual differences and aging </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fundamental Principals of Learning <ul><li>Participants have learned when they: </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate and apply new information </li></ul><ul><li>Change their perceptions, feelings or values </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the way they perform old tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the ability to perform new tasks </li></ul>
  5. 5. Motivation <ul><li>Adults are motivated more by internal factors than by external rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Ask Questions like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“What do you hope to get out of this group?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Why do you want to learn about …?” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Orientation <ul><li>Adults are life-centered </li></ul><ul><li>Adults are willing to learn new things which will help them to cope with real-life situations </li></ul><ul><li>Ask Questions like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“How will learning this help you?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“What effect will participating in this group will have on your life?” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Experience <ul><li>Connect new learning with past experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Ask Questions like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“How does this relate to what you have done before?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“How did you become interested in …?” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Style <ul><li>Self image - responsible for their own decisions and life choices </li></ul><ul><li>Self-directed learning is a hallmark of the adult learning style </li></ul><ul><li>Ask Questions like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“What questions do you have about …?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“What do you want to learn about this topic?” </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Differences <ul><li>Adults have greater range of experience than youth </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, individual differences increase with age </li></ul><ul><li>Ask Questions like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“How do you learn best?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“What kind of a learner are you?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(i.e. auditory, visual, experiential, verbal, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. How Do People Learn? <ul><li>Through associative process </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing new attitudes, knowledge and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding rather than memorizing </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing retention by repetition </li></ul><ul><li>When they are motivated </li></ul>
  11. 11. Key Elements of Adult Education <ul><li>Adult education is supportive: </li></ul><ul><li>Safe environment for experimentation and practice with new information and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive feedback to help improve on knowledge and skills </li></ul>
  12. 12. Key Elements of Adult Education <ul><li>Adult education is relevant: </li></ul><ul><li>New information and skills are relevant to personal interests and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities are available to apply knowledge and skills immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are motivated to learn to fulfill new tasks and roles in their lives </li></ul>
  13. 13. Key Elements of Adult Education <ul><li>Adult education is participatory: </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are actively engaged in the learning process in a variety of ways </li></ul><ul><li>Creates opportunities to practice applying new knowledge and skills </li></ul>
  14. 14. Key Elements of Adult Education <ul><li>Adult education builds on learners experience: </li></ul><ul><li>Builds on and values existing perspectives, knowledge and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Links new knowledge to real-life contexts </li></ul>
  15. 15. Key Elements of Adult Education <ul><li>Adult education fosters opportunities for self-directed learning: </li></ul><ul><li>Learners take responsibility for what they want to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are active participants in the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>During a course, learners move from dependent to self-directed learners </li></ul>
  16. 16. Adults Retain… <ul><li>20% of what they hear </li></ul><ul><li>30% of what they see </li></ul><ul><li>50% of what they hear and see </li></ul><ul><li>70% of what they hear, see and say </li></ul><ul><li>90% of what they hear, see, say and do </li></ul>
  17. 17. Learning Recall Type of presentation Ability to recall after 3 hours Ability to recall after 3 days Verbal (one-way) lecture 25% 10-20% Written (reading) 72% 10% Visual and verbal (illustrated lecture) 80% 65% Participatory (role plays, case studies) 90% 70%
  18. 18. Adult Learning Cycle: Introduction <ul><li>Adults learn by analyzing and applying new information to their own lives </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is most effective when it is designed with this cycle in mind </li></ul>
  19. 19. Adult Learning Cycle Phase 1 Experiencing Doing Phase 2 Processing Reflecting Phase 4 Applying Taking Action Phase 3 Generalizing Deriving Meaning
  20. 20. Adult Learning Cycle <ul><li>Phase 1: Learners experience new information </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: Learners process new information </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3: Learners generalize the experience </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 4: Learners apply the experience to actual work or life situations </li></ul>
  21. 21. Learning Cycle Example: Experiencing: Dreaming Processing: Dream Journal Dreamwork Application: Honoring the dream Generalizing: Reflection
  22. 22. Adults Learn Best When… <ul><li>They feel safe, valued and respected </li></ul><ul><li>The learning experience is active and not passive </li></ul><ul><li>The learning experience fulfills their needs </li></ul><ul><li>They accept responsibility for their learning </li></ul><ul><li>Their learning is self-directed and is personally meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Their learning addresses ideas, feelings and actions </li></ul>
  23. 23. Adults Learn Best When… <ul><li>New material is related to what they know </li></ul><ul><li>The learning environment is comfortable </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is reinforced </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is applied immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Learning occurs in small groups </li></ul><ul><li>The facilitator values their contributions </li></ul>
  24. 24. References <ul><li>Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (1998). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (5th ed.). Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company </li></ul><ul><li>Reischmann, Jost (2004): Andragogy. History, Meaning, Context, Function . At: http://www.andragogy.net. Version Sept. 9, 2004. </li></ul>

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