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Adult Learning Principles Cycle


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Malcom Knowles principles for adult learning - Andragogy

Malcom Knowles principles for adult learning - Andragogy

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Dreaming with Seniors
    • 2. Andragogy
      • Malcolm Knowles, father of adult learning
      • Andragogy
        • “ The art and science of helping adults learn - built upon two central, defining attributes: First, a conception of learners as self-directed and autonomous; and second, a conception of the role of the teacher as facilitator of learning rather than presenter of content”
    • 3. Key Assumptions
      • Motivation – Inner rather than external
      • Orientation - Life-centered, practical
      • Experience – Personal experience is the richest source for learning
      • Style - Need to be self-directed
      • Differences - Individual differences and aging
    • 4. Fundamental Principals of Learning
      • Participants have learned when they:
      • Integrate and apply new information
      • Change their perceptions, feelings or values
      • Improve the way they perform old tasks
      • Demonstrate the ability to perform new tasks
    • 5. Motivation
      • Adults are motivated more by internal factors than by external rewards
      • Ask Questions like:
        • “What do you hope to get out of this group?”
        • “Why do you want to learn about …?”
    • 6. Orientation
      • Adults are life-centered
      • Adults are willing to learn new things which will help them to cope with real-life situations
      • Ask Questions like:
        • “How will learning this help you?”
        • “What effect will participating in this group will have on your life?”
    • 7. Experience
      • Connect new learning with past experiences
      • Ask Questions like:
        • “How does this relate to what you have done before?”
        • “How did you become interested in …?”
    • 8. Style
      • Self image - responsible for their own decisions and life choices
      • Self-directed learning is a hallmark of the adult learning style
      • Ask Questions like:
        • “What questions do you have about …?”
        • “What do you want to learn about this topic?”
    • 9. Differences
      • Adults have greater range of experience than youth
      • Therefore, individual differences increase with age
      • Ask Questions like:
        • “How do you learn best?”
        • “What kind of a learner are you?”
          • (i.e. auditory, visual, experiential, verbal, etc.)
    • 10. How Do People Learn?
      • Through associative process
      • Practicing new attitudes, knowledge and skills
      • Understanding rather than memorizing
      • Increasing retention by repetition
      • When they are motivated
    • 11. Key Elements of Adult Education
      • Adult education is supportive:
      • Safe environment for experimentation and practice with new information and skills
      • Positive reinforcement
      • Constructive feedback to help improve on knowledge and skills
    • 12. Key Elements of Adult Education
      • Adult education is relevant:
      • New information and skills are relevant to personal interests and needs
      • Opportunities are available to apply knowledge and skills immediately
      • Learners are motivated to learn to fulfill new tasks and roles in their lives
    • 13. Key Elements of Adult Education
      • Adult education is participatory:
      • Learners are actively engaged in the learning process in a variety of ways
      • Creates opportunities to practice applying new knowledge and skills
    • 14. Key Elements of Adult Education
      • Adult education builds on learners experience:
      • Builds on and values existing perspectives, knowledge and skills
      • Links new knowledge to real-life contexts
    • 15. Key Elements of Adult Education
      • Adult education fosters opportunities for self-directed learning:
      • Learners take responsibility for what they want to learn
      • Learners are active participants in the learning process
      • During a course, learners move from dependent to self-directed learners
    • 16. Adults Retain…
      • 20% of what they hear
      • 30% of what they see
      • 50% of what they hear and see
      • 70% of what they hear, see and say
      • 90% of what they hear, see, say and do
    • 17. Learning Recall Type of presentation Ability to recall after 3 hours Ability to recall after 3 days Verbal (one-way) lecture 25% 10-20% Written (reading) 72% 10% Visual and verbal (illustrated lecture) 80% 65% Participatory (role plays, case studies) 90% 70%
    • 18. Adult Learning Cycle: Introduction
      • Adults learn by analyzing and applying new information to their own lives
      • Learning is most effective when it is designed with this cycle in mind
    • 19. Adult Learning Cycle Phase 1 Experiencing Doing Phase 2 Processing Reflecting Phase 4 Applying Taking Action Phase 3 Generalizing Deriving Meaning
    • 20. Adult Learning Cycle
      • Phase 1: Learners experience new information
      • Phase 2: Learners process new information
      • Phase 3: Learners generalize the experience
      • Phase 4: Learners apply the experience to actual work or life situations
    • 21. Learning Cycle Example: Experiencing: Dreaming Processing: Dream Journal Dreamwork Application: Honoring the dream Generalizing: Reflection
    • 22. Adults Learn Best When…
      • They feel safe, valued and respected
      • The learning experience is active and not passive
      • The learning experience fulfills their needs
      • They accept responsibility for their learning
      • Their learning is self-directed and is personally meaningful
      • Their learning addresses ideas, feelings and actions
    • 23. Adults Learn Best When…
      • New material is related to what they know
      • The learning environment is comfortable
      • Learning is reinforced
      • Learning is applied immediately
      • Learning occurs in small groups
      • The facilitator values their contributions
    • 24. References
      • Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (1998). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (5th ed.). Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company
      • Reischmann, Jost (2004): Andragogy. History, Meaning, Context, Function . At: Version Sept. 9, 2004.