Principles of Scientific Management by FW Taylor and Theory of Motivation


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Presentation on the Principles of Scientific Management propounded by Fredrick Winslow Taylor and the Theory of Motivation with relevant examples

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Principles of Scientific Management by FW Taylor and Theory of Motivation

  1. 1. Motivation People often say that motivation doesn't last. Well, neither does bathing - that's why we recommend it daily. - Zig Ziglar
  2. 2. March 20, 1856 – March 21, 1915
  3. 3. Fredrick Winslow Taylor • One of the first contributors to Motivation Theory • Formulated the Scientific Principles of Management with which he sought to improve industrial efficiency • A mechanical engineer himself, he tried to establish a theory for what could improve worker and industry efficiency • He suggested that workers are primarily motivated by pay, and probably just pay alone.
  4. 4. • He also propagated that the workers should be closely supervised and controlled to ensure maximum productivity from the workers. • Any surprises if we reveal that this greatly inspired Henry Ford? • Ford adopted these principles and designed his assembly line. This eventually led to the inception of concepts like mass production and economies of scale
  5. 5. The Scientific Principles • I – Science, not Rule of Thumb Taylor maintained that the rule of thumb should be replaced by scientific knowledge. While rule of thumb emphasizes mere estimation, scientific method denotes precision in determining any aspect of work. This should be done with the help of careful scientific investigation.
  6. 6. • II – Harmony, not discord Taylor emphasized that harmony rather than discord should be obtained in group action. Harmony means that a group should work as a unit and contribute to the maximum. Within it there should be mutual give and take situation and proper understanding.
  7. 7. • III - Cooperation, not individualism Scientific management requires that parts of industrial body co- operate with each other, scientific management is based on mutual confidence, co-operation and goodwill. It requires a complete mental revolution on the part of both workers and management.
  8. 8. • IV - The Development of each man to his greatest efficiency and prosperity In order to maximize production all possible efforts are made to increase the efficiency of workers. Workers are selected according to the nature of work. It includes scientific training, scientific allotment of work, implementation of incentive wage plan above all, development of workers to the fullest extent for themselves and also for the companies highest prosperity
  9. 9. Most strongly propagated Incentive Wage System Taylor for the first time advocated an incentive wage system in the form of differential piece wages instead of time wages. Under differential piece system two wage rates are prescribed, i.e. one lower and the other higher. Those who are unable to perform standard work within standard time are paid wages at lower rate per unit.
  10. 10. On the contrary, those who attain standard or even more within the standard time are paid wages at higher rate per unit. Thus, there is considerable difference in wages between those who attain and those who do not attain standards. For instance, if the standard for unloading wooden boxes is 20 in an hour, anyone who manages to unload 20 would get a wage of $5 and also an extra dollar for each extra box unloaded within that stipulated time. On the other hand, anyone who is unable to attain the standard of 20 boxes in an hour just gets $3 as his final wage.
  11. 11. So Taylor suggested that this difference of $2 and more is enough to motivate the workers to improve their efficiency, effectiveness and the overall productivity of the factory. What if the same was applied to us? Imagine this. Our college creates an arbitrary standard of completing 5 assignments in a week out of 25. Anyone who manages to complete 5 gets an assured GPA of 1.6, and every time we complete another assignment over and above 5, we score a little more.
  12. 12. Anyone who does not complete even the minimum number assignments, scores lower than 1.6 Here the assumption is that those extra marks are a great motivator for us to be on fire with our assignments. However, what the authority will fail to realize is that the quality of the work in the assignment will degrade tremendously because of the monotony and undue pressure. Our lives would probably revolve solely around assignments (little different from the present scenario) and would make us a fossil of our own times.
  13. 13. • This brings us to the criticism of Taylor’s philosophy. Harry Mintzberg, a Management Theorist suggests – “an obsession with efficiency allows measureable benefits to overshadow less quantifiable social benefits completely, and social values get left behind.” • Also among Taylor’s more favourable scientific principles are – Standardisation of tools and techniques, Scientific recruitment of labour, Scientific allotment of tasks.
  14. 14. One of the best motivational messages by a single man. (Abhishek would particularly agree) • "Here's to the crazy ones, the misfits, the ones who think differently. While some may see crazy, we see genius.” • "Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart. Stay hungry. Stay foolish."