Hybrid seed production in brassica napus (canola)


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Shehzad Ahmad Kang
PhD Scholar-Plant Breeding & Genetics
Email ID: shehzadpbg@gmail.com

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Hybrid seed production in brassica napus (canola)

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. By Shehzad Ahmad Kang PhD Scholar P.B.G.Email ID: shehzadpbg@gmail.com 2
  3. 3. Hybrid Seed Production inBrassica napus (Canola) 3
  4. 4. Introduction Brassica genus consists of approximately 100 species, including Brassica napus L., commonly known as oilseed rape. It is originated in either the Mediterranean area or Northern Europe. It is thought to have originated from a cross from two closely related diploid species, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. (Jessop & Toelken 1986) 4
  5. 5. Conti… An important phenomenon in biology, the hybrids show better growth and fertility over their parents (Darwin, 1876). Such hybrid vigour or heterosis was rediscovered nearly a century ago as an amazing agricultural fact that has been found to occur in many crop species (Shull, 1908). 5
  6. 6. Conti…… Sprague and Tatum (1942) discovered the concepts of general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA). General combining ability and Specific combining ability are associated to additive and non additive genetic effects respectively (Rojas and Sprague, 1952). 6
  7. 7. Conti… The importance of heterosis in agriculture is clear from the impressive increases in yield calculated follow the entry of hybrids to crop production over past 50 years (Duvick, 1999). Heterosis enhances crop production by at least fifteen percent which in combination with modern, higher seed yielding (Fu, 2007). 7
  8. 8. Conti….. Inbred lines and better agronomic techniques have resulted in constant increase in performance (Duvick, 2001). Additive gene effects mainly contributed to hybrid performance because the mean squares of GCA were higher as compared to SCA {Qian et al. (2007)} 8
  9. 9. What is Hybrid Seed & its Uses 9
  10. 10. Hybrid Seed“A seed developed after crossing two selected homozygous pure lines (Self pollinated crops) or inbred lines (Cross pollinated crops)”. 10
  11. 11. ROLE / IMPORTANCE OF HYBRIDS High yield {Sincik et. al. (2011)} Price stability Extension in Canola oil availability {Sing et. al. (2010)} 11
  12. 12. Characteristics of Hybrid Seed High yielded Larger hybrid seed size boosts early vigor for quicker ground cover {Turi et. al. (2011)} Uniform maturity and excellent standability makes harvest easier {Prat et al. (2002)} 12
  13. 13.  Hybrid heterosis increases yield and oil content to maximize profitability{Hu (1999)} Improved stress tolerance reduces the seasonal variability Unique hybridization system optimizes hybrid seed quality 13
  14. 14. Uses of Hybrid Seed Used only to raise F1 crop Not useful as F2 crop because of segregation Useful under high and precise input system 14
  15. 15. Breeding ObjectivesHigh yield (Malek et al. (2012)Earliness {Vaghela et. al. (2011)}More Seed weight {Prat et al. (2002)}More No. of seeds/podMore No. of pods/plantDisease/insect pest resistance 15
  16. 16. Steps involved in Hybrid Seed Production 16
  17. 17. Steps involved in Hybrid Breeding Development of inbred lines (07 Generations of selfing) Combining ability testing{Grant, W. D. Beversdorf. 1985} Induction of male sterility and fertility restoration systems in selected lines ( Pathania A. et al. Hybrid seed production 17
  18. 18. STEPS INVOLVED IN INBRED LINE DEVELOPMENT Selfing up to F7  e.g. Brassica napus (canola)  Controlled selfing  Identification of flower  Flower bagging 18
  19. 19. STEPS INVOLVED IN COMBINING ABILITY TESTING No. of combinations: n (n – 1)/2 n : 12 (12 – 1)/2 = 66 (Only direct crosses are required) Synthesis of F1 Saha,. S. C. 2011} { Emasculation Pollination Evaluation of F1hybrids 19
  20. 20. EXPLANATION OF SPECIFIC COMBING ABILITY Inbred line development {Etedali and Khandan,2012} Combining ability testing (Chapi et al. (2008)) Male sterility induction(Renard,M. et al. 1993)  Genetic  Cytoplasmic  Chemical e.g EMS,Mustred gas (Inhibition of male flowers) (Sumie et al. 2003)  Manual  Emasculation 20  Clipping of male flowers
  21. 21. SELECTION CRITERIA OF HYBRIDS Indeterminate (Continuous growth/tall) Determinate (Dwarf) Disease resistance Insect pest resistance 21
  22. 22. • Acceptable morphological characteristics  Seed Weight (Nasrin et. al. 2011)  Shape/Size (Faraji,.A 2012)  Colour  Oil Contents (Azizinia 2012)  Yield per acre (Rameeh 2012) 22
  23. 23. PURITY MAINTENANCE Highly uniform  Leaf colour  Plant height  Pod shape  Pod length  Pod colour  Stem colour 23
  24. 24. Fertile flower of male canola inbred showing stigma and stamen 24
  25. 25. Sterile flower of female canola inbred 25
  26. 26. PollinationCross pollination requires pollen movement from the male to the female inbred plants. Placement of bees in the field during flowering assists pollen flow to maximize cross pollination. 26
  27. 27. Canola Field 27
  28. 28. Crossed pods 28
  29. 29. Differences between hybrid and open-pollinated Variety Hybrid canola generally has a higher yield potential(45 mon/acre) than in-bred OP varieties(27 mon/acre). This improved yield is achieved through a combination of superior traits, such as larger seeds assisting with early vigor and better stress tolerance. The early vigor of hybrids provides competition with weeds (Lakshmi et al. (2001) ). Hybrids can produce more biomass, making them a better choice for grazing when grown as a dual purpose crop. Seeds of hybrid is around two and a half times more expensive than OP canola seed. 29
  30. 30. Canola HybridsPioneer Seed Company: 44Yo6,45Y77,46Y78,Hybrid mustardICI Seed Company: Hyola 76,Hyola 50,Hyola 571CL,Hyola 401 Auriga Seed Corporation: Omega 3, Shahkaar 30
  31. 31. OP Varieties of CanolaNARC Islamabad: Westar, Shiralee, CON-I, CON-II, PakolaAARI Faisalabad: Punjab sarsoon, Faisal canola 31
  32. 32. References Azizinia, S. 2012. Combining Ability Analysis of Yield Component Parameters in Winter Rapeseed Genotypes (Brassica napus L.) j. Agric.Sci. 4(4): 87-94. Chapi, O.G., A.S. Hashemi, E. Yasari and G.A. Nematzadeh. 2008. Diallel analysis of seedling traits in Canola. Int. J. Plant Breed. Genet. 2 (1): 28–34 Darwin, C.R. 1876. The Effects of Cross- and Self-fertilization in the Vegetable Kingdom, John Murray. Longman, Essex, UK. Duvick, D.N. 1999. Heterosis: feeding people and protecting natural resources. In The Genetics and Exploitation of Heterosis in Crops (Coors, J.G. and Pandey, S., eds), pp. 19–29, American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. Duvick, D.N. 2001. Biotechnology in the 1930s: the development of hybrid maize. Nat. Rev. Gene. 2: 69–74. Fu T D. 2007. The quality improvement of rapeseed. Crop Research, 3, 159-162. (in Chinese) 32
  33. 33. Conti…… Grant, W. D. Beversdorf. 1985. Heterosis and combining ability estimates in spring-planted oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). anadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology, 1985, 27(4): 472-478. Hu, M.H. 1999. Some correlated aspects on the utilization of heterosis in tuber mustard (Brassica juncea L. var. tumida). Zhejiang-Nongye-Kexue 5:234-236. Jessop J.P., H.R. Toelken, 1986. Flora of Australia. Part 1: Lycopodiaceae-Rosaceae. South Australian Government Printing Division: Adelaide, Australia. Lakshmi, K., L. Kant and S.C. Gulati. 2001. Genetic analysis for yield, its components and oil contents in Indian mustard (Barssica juncea L. Czern and Coss). Ind. J. Plant Breed. 61(1): 37-40. Malek,M.,A. M. R. Ismail, M. Y. Rafii, and M. Rahman,2012. Synthetic Brassica napus L.: Development and Studies on Morphological Characters, Yield Attributes, and Yield. The Sci. W.J. 2012 (6). Nasrin, M., F. Nur, M.K. Nasreen, M.S.R. Bhuiyan, S. Sarkar and M.M. Islam, 2011. Heterosis and combining ability analysis in Indian mustard. (Brassica juncea). Bangladesh Res. Pub. J. 6(1): 33 65-71.
  34. 34. Conti… Prat ,. P.E. and M. M. v. L. Campagne,. 2002, Hybrid seed production and the challenge of propagating male-sterile plants. Trends in Plant Science, Volume 7, Issue 5, 199-203 Pathania A and S. R.Bhat. 2003, Cytoplasmic male sterility in alloplasmic Brassica juncea carrying Diplotaxis catholica cytoplasm: molecular characterization and genetics of fertility restoration. Theo and App. Genet. Volume 107, pp 455- 461 Qian, W., O. Sass, J. Meng, M. Li, M. Frauen, C. Jung. 2007. Heterotic patterns in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.): I. Crosses between spring and Chinese semi-winter lines. Theor. Appl. Gene. 115(1): 27-34 Rojas, BA. and G.F. Sprague. 1952. A comparison of various components in corn yield traits: General and specific combining ability and their interaction with locations and year. Agron. J. 44:462-466. Renard,M. M. Denis, R. Delourme, J. P. Gourret and C. Mariani.1993. Expression of Engineered Nuclear Male Sterility in Brassica napus (Genetics, Morphology, Cytology, and Sensitivity to Temperature), Amr Soci of Pl. Biologists,vol. 101 no. 4 1295- 1304 34
  35. 35. Conti…… Etedali ,.F, A. Khandan.2012. Determination of hybrid vigor and inheritance for Regeneration in rapeseed (Brassica napus). Int. J. Agr and Pl. Prod. Vol., 3 (4), 145-153 Faraji,.A.2012. Oil concentration in canola (Brassica napus L.) as a function of environmental conditions during seed filling period. Int. J. Pl. Prod. 6 (3), Rameeh, V., 2012. Combining Ability Analysis of Plant Height and Yield Components in Spring Type of Rapeseed Varieties (Brassica napus L.) Using Line × Tester Analysis. Int. J. Agric. Forest. 2(1): 58-62 Shull, G.H. 1908. The Composition of Field of Maize. Am. Breed. Assn. Rep. 4: 296–301 Sprague, G.F. and L.A. Tatum. 1942. General vs. specific combining ability in single cross of corn. J. Am, Soc. Agron. 34: 923-932. Sumie, I., H. Katsunori, and O. Kiyotaka. 2003. Antisense inhibition of a nuclear gene, BrDAD1, in Brassica causes male sterility that is restorable with jasmonic acid treatment. J. Mol. Breed. Volume 11, pp 325-336. 35
  36. 36. Conti…. Saha,. S. C. 2011. Performance of Source Nursary of Pollen Parent and Cms Lines of Brassica napus L. J.Agri.sci. Vol. 3, No. 2. Singh, M., L. Singh and S.B.L. Srivastava, 2010. Combining ability analysis in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss). J. Oilseed Brassica, 2010 1(1): 23-27 Sinick, M., A.T. Goksoy, Z.M. Turan, 2011. The Heterosis and Combining Ability of Diallel Crosses of Rapeseed Inbred Lines. Not. Bot. Horti. Agrobo, 2011, 39(2):242-248. Turi, N.A., Raziuddin, Farhatullah, N.U. Khan, G. Hassan, J. Bakht, S. Khan and M. Shafi, 2011. Combining Ability for Yield Related Traits in Brassica juncea. Pak. J. Bot., 43(2): 1241-1248 Vaghela, P.O., D.A. Thakkar, H.S. Bhadauria, D.A. Sutariya, S.K. Parmar and D.V. Prajapati. 2011. Heterosis and combining ability for yield and its component traits in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). J. Oilseed Brassica, 2(1): 39-43. 36
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