SEMINAR ONECall-Compliant Early Crash Notification Service for Portable and Nomadic Devices Submitted by SHEETHAL RAJAGOPAL 111006065 Under the guidance of Mrs. Deepthi . R.S
OVERVIEW Introduction Architecture and standardization of eCALL Implementation Analysis Conclusion
INTRODUCTIONRoad accidents have earned India a dubious distinction. Withover 130,000 deaths annually, the country has overtaken Chinaand now has the worst road traffic accident rate worldwide.
Situation To provide immediate assistance to victims on spot we need to know basic information like Location of the accident site, the severity of crash , the number of people in the crash site ,etcSolution An intelligent emergency call system• utilising sensors to automatically detect a crash and usingwireless network to send critical systems to emergencyservices•Invehicle telematics control unit with a GPS receiver andcellular network connectivity ,As in a GSM communication,connected to the car sensors
Generic Architecture of existing emergency call system
ARCHITECTURE AND STANDARDIZATION OF eCALL•Use GSM Network to communicate between the vehicle inthe incident and the PSAP•In Europe , the emergency call number E112 used•Two main issues for the standardization •The transport protocol by which the Minimum Set of Data (MSD) will be sent. •The content and the format of the MSD. It could amount to 140 bytes including info like time stamp, vehicle number and location. European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is incharge in setting the standards for the architecture.
IMPLEMENTATION Experimental implementation of the proposed emergency call system is shown bellow.
Crash sensor An accelerometer was chosen as the crash sensor It is a low-cost solution capable of detecting frontal, lateral and roll-over crashes. Can Use pressure sensors to react to side impacts monitoring changes in air pressure in vehicle body cavities Crash Impact Sound Sensor ,detects vibrations in material for judgement of deformation being experienced can also be used Censor should be placed in a suitable place In car, at the front . In Bike , below the seat or in the helmet
eCall Box The eCall box is a communications-enabled device, Shall encompass at least GSM and may include Short- Range Communications (SRC) if the crash sensor is physically separated from the eCall box hosting the proposed emergency call service. Communicates with the crash sensor through wired or wireless link.
Crash Detection Algorithm Flowchart Implementation of the crash sensor and eCall box on a motorbike
MSD The MSD includes vehicle location information, time stamp, number of passengers, Vehicle Identification Number (VIN), and geographical locations along with other relevant information SRC helps detecting the number of Bluetooth active handheld devices which provides the estimation of the number of people in the car. The other ways of finding the number of people can be seat belt sensors and also pressure on the seats can be used for the same
ANALYSIS Advantages: Studies show that the emergency response time could be reduced by about 50% in rural areas and 40% in urban areas. It is estimated that the e-Call system could save up to 2 500 lives a year in the EU and, in particular, could significantly reduce the severity of the injuries sustained in 15% of cases. Also the GPS tracker in the vehicle helps to find the location of the car when it is stolen, thus it helps to find about missing vehicles also. The system will also ensure a corresponding reduction in the number of traffic jams.
CONCLUSION To improve the notification of road accidents and speeding up emergency service response. This service, which was expected to be offered in all new four- wheeled vehicles by 2010, will provide E112 with information about the vehicle and its location. As a future work , implementing sensor in a miniaturised board containing an accelerometer ,a controller, Bluetooth transreceiver , and autonomous battery . Implementation of the system on mobile phones resulted in battery drain out in 2.5 to 3.5 h Characterize the system on bike , if in case is ejected out due to a crash and is unreachable
REFERENCES  US Patent 6141611, “Mobile vehicle accident data system”, 2000.  US Patent 7133661, “Emergency information notifying system, and apparatus, method and moving object utilizing the emergency information notifying system”, 2006.  US Patent 6587042, “Automatic accident informing apparatus for two wheel vehicle”, 2003.  eCall Driving Group, "Recommendations of the DG eCall for the introduction of the pan-European eCall", 2006.  European Committee for Standardization TC 278 WG, “Road transport and traffic telematics - ESafety - ECall minimum set of data”, 2008.  E. Zafeiratou, “Options for eCall MSD signalling”,GSM Europe, 2006.  M. Feser, et al., “Advanced crash discrimination using crash impact sound sensing”, in Proc. SAE World Congress & Exhibition, 2006.
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