DEFINITION OF CONSTRUCTIVISM Constructivism is a theory on how humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas. Based on observation and scientific study about how people learn. It says that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.
HISTORY OF CONSTRUCTIVISM Giambattista Immanuel John Dewey Vico Kant (1859–1952) (1668–1744) (1724–1804) Władysław Maria Jean Piaget Strzemiński Montessori (1896–1980) (1893–1952) (1870–1952) Heinz von Jerome Lev Vygotsky Foerster Bruner (1896–1934) (1911–2002) (1915- now) Ernst von Paul Herbert Glasersfeld Watzlawick Simon (1917–2010) (1921–2007) (1916–2001)
HISTORY OF CONSTRUCTIVISM Jean Piaget and John Dewey developed theories of childhood development and education, what we now call Progressive Education, that led to the evolution of constructivism. Piaget believed that the logic of children and their modes of thinking are initially entirely different from those of adults. Dewey called for education to be grounded in real experience. Inquiry is a key part of constructivist learning. Vygotsky introduced the social aspect of learning into constructivism. He defined the zone of proximal development. Bruner initiated curriculum change based on the notion that learning is an active, social process in which students construct new ideas or concepts based on their current knowledge.
HOW DOES CONSTRUCTIVISMTHEORY DIFFER FROMTRADITIONAL IDEAS ABOUTTEACHING AND LEARNING?
TRADITIONAL CLASSROOM CONSTRUCTIVISM CLASSROOMCurriculum begins with the parts of the whole. Curriculum emphasizes big concepts, beginningEmphasizes basic skills. with the whole and expanding to include the parts.Strict adherence to fixed curriculum is highly valued. Pursuit of student questions and interests is valued.Materials are primarily textbooks and workbooks. Materials include primary sources of material and manipulative materials.Learning is based on repetition. Learning is interactive, building on what the student already knows.Teachers disseminate information to students; Teachers have a dialogue with students, helpingstudents are recipients of knowledge. students construct their own knowledge.Teachers role is directive, rooted in authority. Teachers role is interactive, rooted in negotiation.Assessment is through testing, correct answers. Assessment includes student works, observations, and points of view, as well as tests. Process is as important as product.Knowledge is seen as inert. Knowledge is seen as dynamic, ever changing with our experiences.Students work primarily alone. Students work primarily in groups.
Constructed Previous knowledge is the raw material to create new Active Evolving knowledge StudentsStudents compare participate in new knowledge learning activities with their prior knowledge Methods of Constructivism Reflective Inquiry based Students reflect Ask questions, their prior investigate a Collaborative knowledge & topic, and use to Students review & experiencefind solutions and answers. reflect learning process among another
Students learn more and enjoy learning Learning processPromotes social be meaningful and becausecommunication concentrates on skills among thinking, instead of students rote memorization. Advantages of Constructivism Students can Students can use develope abilities the same to retain and knowledge of transfer the new thinking with other knowledge to real field of life. knowledge.
Not convenient with poor students who lack such Do not always resources. actively construct Lead to meaning andmisunderstanding building an and unsure appropriate knowledge. knowledge structure Disadvantages of Constructivism Not involve all Require a lot of students ‘s voices resources and when doing time. discussion.