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Ch01    historical perspective

Ch01 historical perspective






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    Ch01    historical perspective Ch01 historical perspective Presentation Transcript

    • Sub-chapter 1 Historical PerspectiveHistorical Perspective FID26002 Safety Management
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 2 Course ObjectivesCourse Objectives • To describe the historical development of OSH management over the centuries • To recall the background to the development of OSHA:1994 legislation and its underlying philosophy • To recall the development of occupational safety and health management system
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 3 Course TopicsCourse Topics • OSH before and during the industrial revolution • Development in OSH management between the 1930’s and 1970’s • Development of self-regulation legislation • Modern OSH management
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 4 Early Recognition OfEarly Recognition Of Occupational DiseasesOccupational Diseases • In 1473 a German physician, Ellenborg, published the first known pamphlets on occupational disease from gold miners. • In 1556 the German scholar, Agricola, described the diseases of miners. • In 1713 Ramazzini, who is regarded as the father of occupational medicine, suggested that in diagnosis doctors should ask patients about their occupations.
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 5 Emergence Of IndustrialEmergence Of Industrial Accident - 1Accident - 1 • Industrial accidents arose out of the Factory System during the Industrial Revolution in Britain in 18th Century (1700s). • Women and children worked as heavy labourers under unsafe and unhealthy workplaces.
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 6 Emergence Of IndustrialEmergence Of Industrial Safety LegislationSafety Legislation • In 1833 English Factory Acts was the first effective industrial safety law. • It provide compensation for accidents rather than to control their causes. • Insurance companies inspected work places and suggested prevention methods • Problem: • Safety became Injury and insurance oriented
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 7 Emergence Of SafetyEmergence Of Safety Management - 1Management - 1 • Role of Herbert W. Heinrich (1930’s), – Developed Domino Theory and promoted control of workers behaviour. • Problem; • Focused on worker behaviour and not management • Caused people to think that safety is about policing worker
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 8 Emergence Of SafetyEmergence Of Safety Management - 2Management - 2 • Frank Bird (1970) developed Loss Control Theory. • Suggested that underlying cause of accidents are lack of management controls and poor management decisions. • Problem: – Not so popular: blames management (responsibility and control).
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 9 Emergence Of SafetyEmergence Of Safety Management - 3Management - 3 • In 80’s Behavioural Based Safety (BBS) was introduced; • Based on Heinrich’s findings. • Work by recognizing safe work habits and offering rewards and punishment. • Problem: – Focuses on workers and not on hazard or management – Reward and punishment system have flaws
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 10 Emergence Of SafetyEmergence Of Safety Management System - 1Management System - 1 • Current development of Occupational Safety And Health management system was driven by two parallel forces: A. Self-regulatory legislation in the United Kingdom (1974), B. Quality management movement
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 11 A-Self Regulation Legislation - 1A-Self Regulation Legislation - 1 • Lord Robens, Chairman of a Royal Safety Commission Report noted that: – There was too many OSH legislation, – Was fragmented, – Limited in coverage (specific hazards & workplace), – Out of date and difficult to update, – Inflexible (prescriptive), – People thought that safety was what government inspectors enforced.
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 12 A-Self Regulation Legislation - 2A-Self Regulation Legislation - 2 • Lord Robens recommended – Self regulation • Report resulted in the Health and Safety of Workers At Work Act in the UK in 1974 • Similar legislation was enacted in Australia in 1984 • Enacted in Malaysia in 1994 after the 1992 Bright Sparkler accident in Sungai Buloh
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 13 A-Self Regulation Legislation - 3A-Self Regulation Legislation - 3 • Features of “Robens style” legislation: – General duties of care by: • Employer, employee, manufacturer, designer, supplier • Duty of employer to make the workplace safe – Consultation with employees through Safety Committees – Safety Officer as advisor and coordinator – Improvement and prohibition notices
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 14 A-Self Regulation Legislation - 4A-Self Regulation Legislation - 4 Legislation follow major accidents and reinforce need for management system ACCIDENT REGULATION/PROGRAMME Flixborough (1974), CIMAH regulation Bhopal (1984) “Responsible Care” / Process safety Piper Alpha (1988) Risk Assessment / Management system
    • Flixborough (1974),
    • Bhopal (1984)
    • Piper Alpha (1988)
    • Adriatic IV & Temseh
    • P-36 Platform
    • Thunderhorse
    • Number of death cases reported from 2000 – 2004
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 28 Quality Management Approach toQuality Management Approach to Occupational Safety and HealthOccupational Safety and Health Management – 1Management – 1 • There are similar issues in safety management as in quality management • Example: – Productivity – Worker involvement – Proactive approach – Scientific approach – Customer and human rights
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 29 Quality Management Approach toQuality Management Approach to Occupational Safety and HealthOccupational Safety and Health Management – 2Management – 2 • Management system standards: – ISO 9000 QMS was proven successful and ISO 14000 EMS was introduced in 1996 – UK published BS 8800 and Australia AS8401 OSH management systems in 1996 – International and auditable OHSAS 18001 OSH Management System published in 1999 – ILO approved an OSH management system for governments to adopt during 2000
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 30 SummarySummary – The industrial revolution cause of industrial accidents. – Laws were enacted to compensate and protect workers in 1833. – Safety management guidelines began with Heinrich and followed by Frank Bird and others. – Lord Robens in 1972 recommended self-regulatory legislation. Adopted by Malaysia in 1994. – Outcome of accidents in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in OSH management system today.
    • FID26002 - Safety Management 31 SummarySummary - Health problems due to occupation has been known from ancient times - Industrial accidents became rampant after the industrial revolution - Accidents in the 70’s & 80’s resulted in OSH-MS today