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Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training of Trainers (TOT)
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Training of Trainers (TOT)


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  • 1. Presentation on Training
  • 2. What is Training ? A planned and systematic effort to modify or develop knowledge, skill and attitude to achieve effective/satisfactory performance to fulfill organizational goal. Its purpose in the work situation is to enable a person to acquire abilities in order that he or she can perform adequately a given task.
  • 3. What is knowledge
    • Knowledge is awareness or understanding of information such as fact, concepts and principles which are needed.
  • 4. What is skill ?
    • A skill is what a performer be able to do.
    • To bring knowledge into practice.
  • 5. What is attitude ?
    • An attitude is a state of mind or feeling in regard to some other.
    • An attitude determine how a person tends to behave.
    • An attitudes are very difficult to define precisely but very important to understand.
    • Changing attitude is very much slower.
  • 6. Training vs Education
    • In terms of precision, Training usually involves the acquisition of behavior, facts and ideas that are more easily defined in specific job context. Training is more of job oriented than person oriented.
    • Education is on the other hand is more person oriented. It has a broader process of change and its objective are not focused to precise definition.
  • 7. Training vs Education
    • Training is related to minimizing individual differences. In training the learning of specific behavior implies a certain degree of uniformity within the limits set by individual differences.
    • By contrast education is attempting to increase the variability of individual differences by teaching such a manner that each individual comes to behave in a way which is particular to him.
  • 8. Training vs Education
    • Differences between training and education can also be identified with respect to course or program content. Training aims to provide knowledge and skills and to inculcate the attitude which are needed to perform specific task.
    • Education usually provides more theoretical and conceptual framework designed to stimulate an individuals analytical and critical ability.
  • 9. Training vs Education
    • Finally the effects of training, education and development can be considered on a time scale. The changes brought about by training are often observable in the short term.
    • Where as education and development are more likely to show their influence in the longer term and possibly in more profound way.
  • 10. Learning
    • Learning connotes observable change in behavior
    • Learning refers only to those behavioral changes which are relatively permanent in nature
    • Learning results from experience and practice
    • The experience or practice needs reinforcement to be able to lead learning occur
    • A process where by individuals acquire knowledge, skills and attitude through experience, reflection, study or instruction
  • 11. Development
    • The general enhancement of growth of an individuals skills and abilities through conscious and unconscious learning
  • 12. Principles of learning
    • Differentiation
    • Motivation
    • Involvement
    • Readiness
    • Reinforcement
    • Intensity
    • Association
    • Distribution
    • Effectiveness
    • Capacity
  • 13. Principles of learning
    • Differentiation
    • We can remember how we started to learn different things which were unknown to us. It was simply we started to differentiate.
    • Involvement
    • we are more likely to remember a solution we have
    • worked out for ourselves than one which has not been thought out for us.
    • Readiness
    • Learning needs mental readiness. Learning will take place more quickly if we want to learn and ready to learn.
  • 14. Principles of learning
    • Reinforcement
    • Repetition and meaningful exercises in a non hostile environment will overcome interference from other learning
    • Intensity
    • Intense and dramatic or vivid experiences are likely to make an impression by capturing the attention and strengthening the impact
  • 15. Principles of learning
    • Association
    • Learning that is related to our experiences is more likely to be remembered
    • Distribution
    • Learning that is distributed over several short lessons is more effective than it is crammed into a single, long lesson
    • Effectiveness
    • Learning is more likely to occur when it is satisfying than it is embarrassing or annoying. Approval encourages learning
    • Capacity
    • Most of us remain at a stage that is far below our real capacity for learning , working and achieving
  • 16. Active learning principles
    • Motivation
    • Social relationship
    • Physical environment
    • Structure or organize
    • Clarity
    • Speed
    • Feedback
    • Relevance to the future
    • Relevance to the practical experience
  • 17. Active learning principles
    • Motivation
      • Naturally some people are self motivated to
      • learning and some are less interested in
      • Learning.
      • Relating learning to future benefit will make the
      • learning more worthwhile and interesting
  • 18. Active learning principles
    • Social relationship
    • Learning is affected by the social relationship between the people involved.
    • Relationship between learner and trainer and relationship between learners are important factor in learning.
    • Participants will not ,learn if the trainer humiliates them or makes them look foolish in front of their fellow students.
  • 19. Active learning principles
    • Physical environment
    • The physical surrounding can also affect learning. The basic principle is that learning takes place best when there are no distractions
    • Structure or organize
    • Learning will be more rapid when the information or skills are presented in a structured way
  • 20. Active learning principles
    • Clarity
    • For students to learn, the message communicated
    • to the student must be clear.
          • Words/ sentence
          • Structure/ Flowchart/ Diagram
          • Visual aids
  • 21. Active learning principles
    • Relevance to the future
      • Participants will learn more rapidly when they
      • realize that what they are learning will be useful
      • to themselves in the future
    • Relevance to the practical experience
    • People learn faster when the new information or skill is related to what already know or can do
  • 22.
    • Feed back
    • When information is actively recalled or used by the student he needs it be sure that he is recalling it correctly.
    • Speed
    • Learning is fastest when the speed of presenting information matches the speed at which can learn
    Active learning principles
  • 23. Why Training ?
    • It is for growth situation
    • Target key areas development to gain or attain immediate result
    • To ensure return on investment
    • To prepare for future responsibility
    • To reduce cost by making employees more knowledgeable and skillful
  • 24. Steps of Training
    • Planning
    • - Analysis
    • - Design
    • Preparation
    • - Design
    • - Development
    • Presentation
    • - Implementation
    • Post training analysis
    • - Evaluation
    • - Records keeping
    • - Review and revise
  • 25. Analysis
    • Need analysis
    • - Performance analysis
    • - Cause analysis
    • Need assessment
    • - Job analysis
    • - Context analysis
  • 26. Need analysis and Need assessment
    • Need analysis and Need assessment are not same
    • Need analysis refers to an investigation into whether training or some other organizational intervention can solve a performance problem in the work place
    • Need assessment is the process of determining knowledge, skills and employees
  • 27. Need Analysis
    • Org. Performance Cause analysis
    • analysis
    • Mission Desired Incentives/Rewards
    • Strategy performance Data/Information
    • Tools/Resource
    • Goals Gap Environment
    • Motivation
    • Actual performance knowledge/Skill
    • Attitude
  • 28. Need Analysis
    • Cause analysis Intervention
    • Incentives/Rewards Compensation
    • Data/ information Documentation
    • Environment Health and safety
    • Team building
    • Resource/Tools Job aids
    • Motivation Supervision/Training
    • Knowledge/Skill Training
    • Attitude Counseling/Leadership
  • 29. Need assessment
    • Task analysis/Job analysis
    • Task analysis is the process of breaking a given job down into its component tasks, discovering the relationship among tasks and the prerequisite knowledge and skill required to perform the task.
  • 30. Task analysis model
    • Job description
    • Task and steps
    • Divide the task into sub task if needed
    • Observe employee performing the task
    • Write a sequenced list of function and task
    • Get task list approved
    • Determine needed knowledge and skill for the tasks
    • Write the areas of improvement through training
  • 31. Context analysis
    • Context analysis
    • Context analysis examines the environment in which trainees will learn.
        • Organizational demand
        • Training group size
        • Trainees facilities
        • Presentation method
        • Training frequency
        • Time frame
        • Delivery cost
        • Transfer strategies
  • 32. Design/Development
    • Objectives set up
    • Course design
    • - Selection of course content
    • - Organizing the content
    • Methodologies
    • Lesson plan
    • Material development
    • - Handouts
    • - Visuals
    • Developing test /assessment
  • 33. Objective set up
    • A training objective for a particular group is a target or an achievement. It should specify the type of change that is expected when it will occur and finally, how it will be measured to determine its level of success
  • 34. Objective characteristic
    • An objective must
      • Describe the final result
      • Be specific and precise
      • Describe a change that is measurable or observable
      • Mention all the essential conditions under which the results can be achieved
      • Specify an end point
  • 35. ABCD of writing objective
    • A. Audience
    • - whom are you going to train
    • - Back ground of trainees
    • B. Behavior
    • - What type of change do you expect.
    • - Advantages of change
    • C. Condition
    • - What are the conditions needed to change
    • D. Degree
    • - How much do you expect
    • - will it fulfill the objective
  • 36. Course design
    • Purpose of training
    • Prepare out line of the content
    • Classify and select content
    • Organize the content
  • 37. Classification of content
    • Classify content in to
    • What must be known
    • knowledge + Skill for basic task
    • What should be known
    • knowledge + Skill for additional task
    • What could be known
    • knowledge + Skill for rare task
  • 38. Organizing the content
    • Job performance order
    • Problem order
    • Simple to complex
  • 39. Methodologies
    • Lecture
    • Group discussion
    • Field visit
    • Case studies
    • Simulation
    • Seminars
    • Contests
    • Workshop
    • Brainstorming
    • Demonstration
    • Role playing
    • Debates
    • VIPP
  • 40. Which Training ways should you use
    • To transfer knowledge, use
      • Lectures
      • Group or individual exercises
      • Group discussions
      • Seminars
      • Films and videos
      • Field visit
  • 41. Which Training ways should you use
    • To develop skills
      • Demonstration
      • Case studies
      • Role playing/Learning by doings
      • Programmed instructions
      • Brainstorming
  • 42. Which Training ways should you use
    • To practice analytical ability/problem solving
      • Brainstorming
      • Case studies
      • Simulation
      • Discussions
      • Debates
      • Survey
  • 43. Which Training ways should you use
    • To change attitude
      • Counseling
      • Debates
      • Displays
      • Role playing
      • Individual exercises
      • Demonstrations
      • Campaigns
  • 44. Lesson plan
    • Lesson plans and worksheets should list the steps and activities and equipment needed in the training sessions.
  • 45. Lesson preparation topics
    • Title
    • Content
    • Training method
    • Desired result from the participants
    • Location
    • Equipment and materials required
    • Time in class room
    • Time outside classroom if needed
  • 46. Training material
    • Writing basics
    • What trainers write
  • 47.
    • Introduction
    • Writers need to be read
    • Choosing your words
    • Presenting your material
    • Editing
    • Revision
    Writing basics
  • 48. What trainers write
    • Job description
    • Procedure
    • Job aids
    • Manuals
    • Questionnaires
    • Course visuals
    • Reports
  • 49. Implementation
    • Develop of environment
    • Budget approval
    • Selection of methodologies
    • Train the trainer
    • Conduct training
      • Class room delivery
      • Non class room delivery
  • 50. Environment development
    • Before training
    • During training
    • After training
  • 51. Budget
    • Depends on Training.
  • 52. Selection of methodologies
    • Right selection of methodologies depend
    • upon
    • Objective
    • Time frame
    • Level of participants
    • Knowledge, skill and attitude
    • Advantages and limitations of methods
    • Budget
  • 53. Train the trainer
  • 54. Conduct training
    • Get to know your participants
      • Needs, their ambitions and background
    • Start with the basics
    • Make it participatory
    • Give variety
    • Remember
    • Tell Show Ask Discuss Do Review
  • 55. Conduct training
    • Use good visual aid
    • Allow plenty of time while acquiring new skills
    • Depending on the objective you must be ready to change the content of your course and your training methods
    • Use imagination while conducting program to anticipate future problem
    • Make your training lively by humor, fun ,by story telling or by event discussions
  • 56. Evaluation
    • Role of evaluation
    • Evaluation of reactions
    • Evaluation of learning
    • Evaluation of performance
    • Evaluation of impact
  • 57.
    • Value of this training in relation to my job
    • Presentation method used
    • Training facilities
    • Opportunities for participation
    • Value of handouts/ manuals
    • Duration of training
  • 58. Structured on the job training checklist
    • Phase Activity
    • Analysis Define the scope of training
    • Conduct a job task analysis of the task to be trained
    • Conduct a learner analysis to determine current skill levels and identify the skill gap
    • Design Prepare training objective from the job task analysis
    • Determine delivery method who will, when and where
    • determine teaching method and learning activities
  • 59. Structured on the job training checklist
    • Develop create learner materials
    • create an instructor guide or lesson plan
    • create proper aid and visual
    • create tests and other learning tools
    • Implement Development of environment
    • Or deliver Selection of methodologies
    • Budget and schedule approval
    • training of trainers
    • Class room and non class room delivery
  • 60.
    • Evaluate
    • Determine how learning will be measured
    • Determine satisfaction will be measured
    • Determine how skill transfer will be measured
    • Create a system to monitor delivery and result and to take corrective action when needed
  • 61. Methods of training
    • Active Inactive
    • Spoken Lecture, observation, visit
    • Group discussion
    • Simulation exercise
    • interview
    • Seminar
    • Written letter, brocure, manuals, reports
    • Assignment, survey, Problem solving
    • Visual
    • Role play, constructing visual aids
    • Audiovisual
  • 62. Thank You