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Settlers in the Ohio Valley 1730-1755: Transitional period. Lifestyle on frontier was changing. Transients: Explorers who investigated the land, then moved on to new lands. Settlers: wanted permanency. Frontier continued to move west with more settlers.
Conflicting Land Claims Rivalry between France and Great Britain Series of wars for 100 years Seven Years War: (1756-1763) Last seven years of the wars and fighting in Europe Known as the French and Indian War in North America
Think ahead: 1. Why do you think the war is known as the Frenchand Indian War? Why not the British and French War?2. What are allies?3. Who do you think become allies, if any, whenfighting occurs in North America? French and Native Americans? British and Native Americans? No allies. Everyone fights against everyone?
Claims of the Ohio River Valley de 1669: French – Robert Cavelier La Salle’s exploration of the Ohio River 1671: British - Batts and Fallam exploration of New River Waters flow into the Kanawha, Ohio, and Mississippi rivers. 1749: French strengthened – Celeron de Blainville buried lead plates along the Ohio River
Lead Plate Translation In the year 1749, reign of Louis XV., King of France, We, Celeron, commandant of a detachment sent by Monsieur the Marquis de la Galissoniere, Commandant General of New France, to re-establish tranquillity in some Indian villages of these cantons, have buried this plate at the mouth of the river Chinodashichetha, the 18th August, near the river Ohio, otherwise Beautiful River, as a monument of renewal of possessions, which we have taken of the said river Ohio, and of all those which fall into it, and of all the lands on both sides, as far as to the sources of said rivers; the same as were enjoyed or ought to have been enjoyed, by the preceding Kings of France, and that they have maintained it by their arms and by treaties, especially by those of Ryswick, Utrecht, and Aix-la- Chapelle.
Views on Treaties and Land Ownership Indians: British: Avoided difficulties by Treaties are seen as the negotiating treaties with end of warfare or as Indians trade agreements Treaties had nothing to Used treaties to take do with land ownership control of property Saw treaties as Saw treaties as binding changeable. French: Permanent ownership of land was not a major consideration. More interested in fur trade. Did not pose a threat to Indians.
Setting the Scene Nemacolin Path: Path cut by Nemacolin (Delaware Indian) and Thomas Cresap Wills Creek in Cumberland, Maryland to beginning of Ohio River, near Pittsburgh. Brought French and British into direct contact with the Ohio Valley Treaty of Logstown: Signed by Christopher Gist of the Ohio Land Company, Delaware, and Shawnee tribes Gave Virginia control of the Ohio Valley
Governor Dinwiddie’s Proposal (1753) Virginian Governor Robert Dinwiddie: Diplomatic mission to Fort LeBouef, near Lake Erie. Led by 21 year old George Washington. Mission was to ask the French to leave the Ohio Valley
George Washington Followed the Nemacolin Path to the forks of the Ohio River where Monongahela and Allegheny rivers meet. There, joined by: Christopher Gist Jacob Van Braam, French interpreter Half King, Indian chieftain and guide
George Washington at Fort LeBouef Washington met with French leader, Jacques Legardeur de Saint Pierre Dinwiddie’s proposal was rejected Group prepared to go home. Found out that the French had bribed the Half-King to convince him to stay with them. (didn’t succeed)
War Breaks Out Captain William Trent Ordered by Dinwiddie to build a fort at the forks of the Ohio River. May 1754: Washington sent as back up. Learns of Trent’s defeat French destroyed British’s partially built fort Replaced with Fort Duquesne French actions are considered an act of war. Washington prepares to march against the French.
Let the War Begin! Washington and 40 men French scouting party Skirmish is over in 15 minutes: Washington’s troops had killed 10 men, including French leader, Joseph Coulon de Villers de Jumonville. Marks the beginning of the French and Indian War.
Advantages French: British: Larger land claim Larger population Already-existing Powerful Iroquois system of forts in the allies Ohio Valley Control of the oceans Majority of Indian Population that was allies concentrated in a very Superior military small area officers and army. Desire to protect their own property
Disadvantages French: British: Sparse Population Military organization Soldiers with no Poorly organized personal interest in the frontier volunteers land Less qualified officers. Poor lines of supply
Battle at Fort Necessity Immediate retaliation from the French: Set out in search of those responsible for Jumonville’s death Washington ordered the completion of Fort Necessity at Great Meadows July 3, 1754: 1,600 French soldiers and Indians; 300 British men 1/3 of Washington’s men were sick or wounded Washington surrendered
Terms of Surrender Washington was required to leave the Ohio Valley and not return to build forts for a year. Washington agreed to return all prisoners taken in Jumonville battle. French agreed to return Fort Duquesne and build no more forts in the Ohio Valley
Battle of the Monongahela Dinwiddie asked the King of England for reinforcements. Sent two regiments of British Regulars General Edward Braddock Started training 1,000 Virginia Militia – disliked them, and saw them as undisciplined Aided by George Washington
Braddock’s force All met at Fort Made up of: Cumberland, then 1,400 British soldiers headed to Fort 60 sailors Duquesne 2,400 colonial troops 300 Indians 150 wagons 2,000 horses
The Shawnee andMary Draper Ingles Attacked a settlement at Draper’s Meadows the day before Braddock’s defeat. Killed many and took prisoners: Took Mrs. William Ingles (Mary Draper Ingles), her two sons, her sister-in-law (Mrs. Mary Draper), and Henry Lenard prisoners. Mary Ingles gave birth to her third child a few days after her abduction. Group was split up; Mary Ingles and her baby were taken to a salt lick near Cincinnati, Ohio.
Escape Mary Ingles and a Dutch woman managed to escape. Mary left her baby behind. They had no supplies Lived off the land: ate berries and nuts Followed the rivers for six weeks and covered 500 miles. The Dutch woman turned on her, even tried to kill Mary. They separated, but both reached Draper’s Meadow.
Native Americans Fight Back Major Andrew Lewis and a After Braddock’s defeat, the Indians waged war against company of militia were sent beyond the Ohio River. (340 the settlers. men) Pioneers took refuge in Ran short of supplies. forts: Made canoes to try to save Fort Pleasant, Edward’s what they had, but hit rapids and lost most of what they Fort, Forman’s Fort, Evans’ had. Fort, Fort Ashby Men threatened to desert. Settlers asked for help from Lewis disbanded men in at Dinwiddie Devon in Mingo county. Never reached Shawnee towns.
Tides of War April 1756 Group of French and Indians attacked Edward’s Fort in Hampshire County. Totally wiped out British forces Four months later, Dinwiddie issued a formal declaration of war. May 1758 Band of Shawnee attacked Fort Seybert in Pendleton County Indians promised that if the frontiersmen surrendered, their lives would be spared. It was a trick. All eleven who surrendered were put to death.
Success with William Pitt British government changed priorities. They put William Pitt in charge of the war. Pitt reorganized armed forces Poured money and supplies into the war effort Instantly saw positive results. July 26, 1758: British defeat French at Louisburg and Fort Frontenac. British gained control over Lake Ontario French were stopped from reinforcing their forts in the Ohio Valley British moved toward Ft. Duquesne, but French blew it up and left. British rebuilt it and renamed it Fort Pitt.
Battle of Quebec British victories at Ft. Niagara, Ft. Ticonderoga, and Crown Point preceded the Battle of Quebec. September 12, 1759, Quebec Both French and British generals were killed. French retreat signaled beginning of the end of the French empire in North America. Great Britain gained control of all of the land east of the Mississippi River. British won the war.