(Deep)	
  Energy	
  Retrofits	
  
by	
  House	
  Type	
  
	
  
Inves7ng	
  in	
  Exis7ng	
  Housing	
  
Shawna	
  Henderson...
Energy	
  Efficiency	
  programs	
  aim	
  for	
  a	
  20	
  to	
  30%	
  
reduc7on	
  in	
  space	
  and	
  water	
  hea7ng...
St.	
  Margarets	
  
Bay,	
  1992	
  
St.	
  Margarets	
  
Bay,	
  1998	
  

St.	
  Margarets	
  
Bay,	
  1996	
  

Lunenb...
New	
  SINGLE	
  FAMILY	
  housing	
  =	
  about	
  
110,000/year	
  
13.2	
  million	
  exis7ng	
  homes	
  in	
  Canada	...
CMHC About Your House Series:
Renovating for Energy Savings
http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/co/renoho/reensa/index.cfm
Free ...
Approaching	
  Net	
  Zero	
  Energy	
  in	
  Exis7ng	
  Houses	
  
12	
  house	
  types,	
  6	
  ci7es	
  
Range	
  of	
 ...
•  The	
  Twike:	
  2	
  person	
  human-­‐electric	
  hybrid	
  
•  5kw	
  electric	
  motor,	
  Top	
  speed	
  55	
  mp...
House	
  as	
  a	
  System
	
  
Lost	
  Opportuni7es	
  –	
  Low	
  Hanging	
  Fruit
	
  
House	
  Yoga	
  –	
  Flexibilit...
Op7mizing	
  a	
  System…	
  
Image	
  from:	
  thehamptons.files.wordpress.com	
  
If this, then…
Where you’re going
If this, then…

Where you are

If this, then…
Approaching	
  Net	
  Zero	
  Energy	
  in	
  Exis7ng	
  Houses	
  
12	
  house	
  types,	
  6	
  ci7es	
  
Range	
  of	
 ...
Approaching	
  Net	
  Zero	
  Energy	
  in	
  Exis7ng	
  Houses	
  
Vancouver	
  
Calgary	
  
Toronto	
  
Montréal	
  
Hal...
Approaching	
  Net	
  Zero	
  Energy	
  in	
  Exis7ng	
  Houses	
  
	
  
Upgraded	
  Envelope	
  Targets	
  (RSI/R)	
  
Av...
Approaching	
  Net	
  Zero	
  Energy	
  in	
  Exis7ng	
  Houses	
  
	
  
Best	
  Case	
  Scenario:	
  Vancouver	
  Bungalo...
Approaching	
  Net	
  Zero	
  Energy	
  in	
  Exis7ng	
  Houses	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
Assump7ons	
  
Full-­‐size,	
  central	
  hea7ng	
  system	
  
Diminishing	
  returns	
  on	
  increased	
  insula7on	
  
...
Residen7al	
  uses	
  
account	
  for	
  nearly	
  20%	
  
of	
  overall	
  energy	
  
consump7on	
  in	
  Canada	
  
	
  ...
Meeting DHW load becomes becomes
bigger challenge than space heating
as envelope improves
Energy	
  Use	
  Comparison	
  
...
Ligh7ng	
  
5%	
  

Shift the relationships between
purposes and energy use

As	
  Is	
  

Appliances	
  
13%	
  

Water	
...
2	
  Halifax	
  ‘Gut	
  Rehabs’
	
  
ecoENERGY:	
  5,	
  15
	
  
ecoENERGY	
  upgrade:	
  ±60
	
  
Deep	
  Energy	
  Retro...
FLAT ROOF OPTION OPTIMIZES SPACE @ 3RD FLOOR

35'-0"

10'-0"

9"

10'-0"

9"

8'-0"

NOTE: bay area squared
off at 3rd sto...
Insula7on:	
  
R21/3.5”	
  soy-­‐based	
  polyurethane	
  
in	
  original	
  wall	
  cavity	
  
R15/4”	
  blown	
  cellulo...
#1:	
  get	
  rid	
  of	
  water	
  problems	
  
A:	
  No	
  direct	
  contact	
  w/concrete	
  or	
  
masonry	
  walls	
  or	
  floors	
  for	
  moisture	
  
sensi7ve	
  m...
Insula7on	
  
	
  
Spray-­‐on	
  
	
  
Foam
	
  

Blown-­‐in	
  
Fibrous	
  
	
  
Drainage	
  Plane
	
  
Think	
  pool	
  liner	
  

Illustra7on	
  from	
  
www.buildingscience.com	
  
5-­‐	
  year	
  payback	
  based	
  on	
  $	
  spent	
  vs.	
  energy	
  savings	
  not	
  the	
  whole	
  story	
  –	
  	...
Inside	
  glass	
  temp	
  also	
  
impacts	
  
condensa7on	
  and	
  
moisture	
  issues	
  in	
  a	
  
house	
  as	
  en...
Two	
  of	
  each:	
  
	
  
60%	
  efficient,	
  120k	
  
Btu	
  oil	
  boiler	
  	
  
	
  
80	
  gal.	
  electric	
  
water...
Solar	
  Thermal	
  Combi	
  System	
  
From	
  cast	
  iron	
  rads	
  to	
  
infloor	
  radiant	
  on	
  12	
  and	
  
16	
  inch	
  centres	
  
From	
  high-­‐temp	
  hydronic	
  
baseboards	
  to	
  low-­‐temp	
  rads	
  
Energy	
  Reduc7ons
	
  
70%	
  reduc7on	
  in	
  space	
  hea7ng	
  
+	
  90%	
  of	
  domes7c	
  hot	
  water	
  supplie...
House	
  as	
  an	
  Investment
	
  
Define	
  investment	
  period
	
  
What’s	
  in	
  your	
  pocket	
  at	
  the	
  end...
What’s	
  the	
  payback?	
  
72”	
  screen?	
  	
  
Maybe	
  we	
  need	
  glasses?!	
  
Two	
  wall	
  ovens	
  +	
  mic...
Phases
	
  
Dramproofing	
  &	
  Insula7on	
  1
	
  
Residing/Reroofing	
  &	
  Insula7on	
  2
	
  
Replace	
  Hea7ng	
  Sys...
Investment/Energy	
  Costs
	
  
Conven7onal:	
  $22k	
  

Oil 	
  
	
  $8,100	
  
Electricity	
   	
  $7,300	
  
Nat	
  Ga...
DER	
  =	
  	
  
1.85x	
  up	
  front	
  costs	
  
of	
  Conven7onal	
  

Conven7onal	
  =	
  	
  
1.7x	
  projected	
  co...
How	
   to	
   Frame	
   the	
   Analysis	
   of	
   Return	
   on
	
  
Investment	
  for	
  Energy	
  Savings	
  Measures...
  Shawna henderson_cmhc_retrofitconf_oct009
  Shawna henderson_cmhc_retrofitconf_oct009
  Shawna henderson_cmhc_retrofitconf_oct009
  Shawna henderson_cmhc_retrofitconf_oct009
  Shawna henderson_cmhc_retrofitconf_oct009
  Shawna henderson_cmhc_retrofitconf_oct009
  Shawna henderson_cmhc_retrofitconf_oct009
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Shawna henderson_cmhc_retrofitconf_oct009

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A presentation of the results of a study for CMHC (Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation), The Path to Net Zero: Deep Energy Retrofits. Presentation was made at the CMHC Affordable Retrofits Conference in October 2009.

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Shawna henderson_cmhc_retrofitconf_oct009

  1. 1. (Deep)  Energy  Retrofits   by  House  Type     Inves7ng  in  Exis7ng  Housing   Shawna  Henderson,  CEO   Bfreehomes  Design  Ltd.  
  2. 2. Energy  Efficiency  programs  aim  for  a  20  to  30%   reduc7on  in  space  and  water  hea7ng  needs.   A  deep  energy  reduc7on  aims  for  70  to  90%.  
  3. 3. St.  Margarets   Bay,  1992   St.  Margarets   Bay,  1998   St.  Margarets   Bay,  1996   Lunenburg,   2002   Wallace  River,   2007  
  4. 4. New  SINGLE  FAMILY  housing  =  about   110,000/year   13.2  million  exis7ng  homes  in  Canada   Nova  Sco7a:  nearly  50%  pre-­‐1970  
  5. 5. CMHC About Your House Series: Renovating for Energy Savings http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/co/renoho/reensa/index.cfm Free download
  6. 6. Approaching  Net  Zero  Energy  in  Exis7ng  Houses   12  house  types,  6  ci7es   Range  of  ages:   1922  to  2000   1.  How  does  house  type/age   affect  NZEEH?   2.  How  does  climate  affect   NZEEH?  
  7. 7. •  The  Twike:  2  person  human-­‐electric  hybrid   •  5kw  electric  motor,  Top  speed  55  mph   •  4  -­‐  8  kWh/100km,  equiv.  to  300  -­‐  600  miles  per  gallon  
  8. 8. House  as  a  System   Lost  Opportuni7es  –  Low  Hanging  Fruit   House  Yoga  –  Flexibility  &  Endurance  
  9. 9. Op7mizing  a  System…  
  10. 10. Image  from:  thehamptons.files.wordpress.com  
  11. 11. If this, then… Where you’re going If this, then… Where you are If this, then…
  12. 12. Approaching  Net  Zero  Energy  in  Exis7ng  Houses   12  house  types,  6  ci7es   Range  of  ages:   1922  to  2000   1.  How  does  house  type/age   affect  NZEEH?   2.  How  does  climate  affect   NZEEH?  
  13. 13. Approaching  Net  Zero  Energy  in  Exis7ng  Houses   Vancouver   Calgary   Toronto   Montréal   Halifax   Whitehorse  
  14. 14. Approaching  Net  Zero  Energy  in  Exis7ng  Houses     Upgraded  Envelope  Targets  (RSI/R)   Averages from superinsulated houses built/designed in the last 5 years 
   in Canada and northern US, incl. EQuilibrium House Initiative projects Ceiling Main Walls Exposed Floors Below Grade Walls Slab Vancouver 10.6 (60) 7.0 (40) 7.0 (40) 7.0 (40) 1.8 (10) Calgary Toronto 14.4 (80) 10.6 (60) 10.6 (60) 7.0 (40) 10.6 (60) 7.0 (40) 7.0 (40) 1.8(10) 7.0 (40) 1.8 (10) Montreal 14.4 (80) 10.6 (60) 10.6 (60) 7.0 (40) 1.8 (10) Halifax Whitehorse 10.6 (60) 14.4 (80) 7.0 (40) 10.6 (60) 7.0 (40) 10.6 (60) 7.0 (40) 1.8 (10) 7.0 (40) 1.8 (10)
  15. 15. Approaching  Net  Zero  Energy  in  Exis7ng  Houses     Best  Case  Scenario:  Vancouver  Bungalow     General  informa7on   –  –  –  –  –  footprint  =  17  x  6  m  (55  x  20  m)   4/12  roof,  no  significant  heel  @  eave     framed  w/2x4  walls   poured  concrete  basement   single  pane  windows  
  16. 16. Approaching  Net  Zero  Energy  in  Exis7ng  Houses        
  17. 17. Assump7ons   Full-­‐size,  central  hea7ng  system   Diminishing  returns  on  increased  insula7on     Crappy  windows   Business  as  usual  
  18. 18. Residen7al  uses   account  for  nearly  20%   of  overall  energy   consump7on  in  Canada     Data:  Office  of  Energy  Efficiency,  NRCan  
  19. 19. Meeting DHW load becomes becomes bigger challenge than space heating as envelope improves Energy  Use  Comparison   400   350   300   250   50%  reduc7on   Ligh7ng   200   Appliances   Water   150   80%  reduc7on   Space   100   50   0   As  Is   Conven7onal   DER  with  solar    
  20. 20. Ligh7ng   5%   Shift the relationships between purposes and energy use As  Is   Appliances   13%   Water   17%   DER  with  Solar  Thermal   Space     65%   Ligh7ng   13%   Space     33%   Conven3onal   Ligh7ng   6%   Appliances   46%   Appliances   16%   Water   21%   Space     57%   Water   8%  
  21. 21. 2  Halifax  ‘Gut  Rehabs’   ecoENERGY:  5,  15   ecoENERGY  upgrade:  ±60   Deep  Energy  Retrofit:  ±80   Drop  space  hea7ng   load  by  ±  50%   Drop  space  hea7ng   load  by  ±  70%   Envelope  first,   then  mechanicals  
  22. 22. FLAT ROOF OPTION OPTIMIZES SPACE @ 3RD FLOOR 35'-0" 10'-0" 9" 10'-0" 9" 8'-0" NOTE: bay area squared off at 3rd storey roofline studies for 1375/79 and next door 1375/79 and next door AS IS FLAT ROOF W/FRONT GABLES RAISED developed upper floor
  23. 23. Insula7on:   R21/3.5”  soy-­‐based  polyurethane   in  original  wall  cavity   R15/4”  blown  cellulose  in  new   cross-­‐strapped  cavity      
  24. 24. #1:  get  rid  of  water  problems  
  25. 25. A:  No  direct  contact  w/concrete  or   masonry  walls  or  floors  for  moisture   sensi7ve  materials   B:  Moisture  tolerant  materials  are   not  in  contact  with  materials  that   will  absorb  water  if  there  is  problem   C:  Air7ght  construc7on  on   founda7on  walls  and  floors  warms   first  condensing  surface,  mi7ga7ng   moisture  issues  in  living  space   Plumbing  and  electrical  services  run  in  front  of  2  lb  foam  insula7on  and  behind   standoff  wall  –  full  depth  insula7on  throughout  basement  and  header  area  
  26. 26. Insula7on     Spray-­‐on     Foam   Blown-­‐in   Fibrous    
  27. 27. Drainage  Plane  
  28. 28. Think  pool  liner   Illustra7on  from   www.buildingscience.com  
  29. 29. 5-­‐  year  payback  based  on  $  spent  vs.  energy  savings  not  the  whole  story  –      but  how  to  quan7fy  comfort?   Windows,  siding  =  ‘permanent’  components  w/20  yr  planning  horizon  
  30. 30. Inside  glass  temp  also   impacts   condensa7on  and   moisture  issues  in  a   house  as  envelope  is   improved.     Mechanical   ven7la7on  required  –   low  space  hea7ng   loads:  can  we  use   ven7la7on  system  to   distribute  heat?  
  31. 31. Two  of  each:     60%  efficient,  120k   Btu  oil  boiler       80  gal.  electric   water  heaters  +   indirect  tank,   uninsulated  in   uncondi7oned   space   …  to  this     (reasonable  facsimile  of  system)   From  this  …   97%  efficient,  50k  Btu  natural  gas   condensing  boiler  augmen7ng  solar   thermal  system     DHW  and  space  hea7ng  delivered  via  dual-­‐ coil,  120  gallon  storage  tank  
  32. 32. Solar  Thermal  Combi  System  
  33. 33. From  cast  iron  rads  to   infloor  radiant  on  12  and   16  inch  centres  
  34. 34. From  high-­‐temp  hydronic   baseboards  to  low-­‐temp  rads  
  35. 35. Energy  Reduc7ons   70%  reduc7on  in  space  hea7ng   +  90%  of  domes7c  hot  water  supplied   Hea7ng  Load:  160k  –  80k  –  50k  Btu   Energy  Use:  ??!!  –  152mil–  60  mil  Btu   51000kWh  –  18000  kWh  
  36. 36. House  as  an  Investment   Define  investment  period   What’s  in  your  pocket  at  the  end?   Resale-­‐ability?     Non-­‐energy  benefits?   Investment     horsepower?   Alterna7ves  …   Scenarios  for  house   Scenarios  for  money  
  37. 37. What’s  the  payback?   72”  screen?     Maybe  we  need  glasses?!   Two  wall  ovens  +  microwave?  How  many  cooks?!     22 c.f. and up fridges? Whose army are we feeding?!?!
  38. 38. Phases   Dramproofing  &  Insula7on  1   Residing/Reroofing  &  Insula7on  2   Replace  Hea7ng  System     Rough-­‐in  Solar  Thermal   System   Install  Drainwater   Recovery   Address  ven7la7on   requirements   Adjust  exis7ng  hea7ng   equipment  if  possible   High-­‐efficiency,  small   capacity  unit  backing  up   solar  thermal  system  w/ low-­‐temperature   hydronics  
  39. 39. Investment/Energy  Costs   Conven7onal:  $22k   Oil    $8,100   Electricity    $7,300   Nat  Gas    $4,000   Deep  Energy  Retrofit:  $37k   Oil    $5,100   Electricity    $4,600   Nat  Gas    $2,600   DER  w/solar  combi:  $52k   Oil    $2,100   Electricity    $1,900   Nat  Gas    $1,000  
  40. 40. DER  =     1.85x  up  front  costs   of  Conven7onal   Conven7onal  =     1.7x  projected  costs     of  DER  
  41. 41. How   to   Frame   the   Analysis   of   Return   on   Investment  for  Energy  Savings  Measures     Among  the  prac7cal  range  of  investment  decisions:        Which  provides  the  largest  “return”?    Which  are  in  your  budget  range?    Which  achieves  the  desired  returns  within  your  investment  7meframe?        What  non-­‐energy  benefits  are  driving  your  decision?    e.g.,  comfort  and  aesthe7c  benefits,  health  and  safety,  greater  control  over  energy  use,   ease  of  selling  home,  enhanced  pride  and  pres7ge,  environmental  responsibility    

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