Solar Ready Houses in Cold Climates
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Solar Ready Houses in Cold Climates

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A presentation by Gordon Howell on Making Your New House Solar Ready

A presentation by Gordon Howell on Making Your New House Solar Ready

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  Solar Ready Houses in Cold Climates Solar Ready Houses in Cold Climates Presentation Transcript

  • Making Your New House Solar Ready Gordon Howell, P.Eng. Edmonton Phone: +1 780 484 0476 E-mail: ghowell@hme.ca Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society ©1995-2008 2008 November 15, 16 Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace River (download this presentation from www.hme.ca/presentations) Solar Energy Project Development Specialists
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Intro: Me! –– I am a solar system project developer I am not an equipment supplier I have no vested interest in any technology My interest is that you choose wisely – with your eyes wide open – based on the facts and whether it is right for you or not. The Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's need, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Solar Energy Project Development Specialists India …but not every man's greed. (Mahatma) 2
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Intro: What the Presentation Does… Helps you understand how to plan your new home to easily accept a solar heating or a solar power system Gives you space to ask questions and get answers right away Solar domestic water heating system Edmonton Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 3
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society What does “solar ready” mean? Preparing the house at its planning and construction stage to easily allow active solar heating systems or solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity systems to be added whenever you are ready for them Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 4
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Why make your house solar ready? Allows you to install a solar hot water heater when you are ready Maximizes the performance of your solar system due to correct solar orientation of the roof Will save hundreds of dollars when the solar system is installed Improves the looks of the solar system as all the plumbing or wiring is hidden inside the walls Increased resale value of your home in being “Solar Ready” Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 5
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society How do you plan for solar energy? Minimise the heating and electricity consumption of the house – The cheapest energy option Maximise solar energy contribution to the house’s heating and electricity supply Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 6
  • Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Alternative Energy Trade Fair The most expensive way to employ solar… Where is it? Purchased Energy 100% Conventional Energy #2 #1 #2 Inexpensive, reliable energy efficiency… 75% 50% Add expensive solar energy Net zero energy home 25% 0% Conventional Renewable Efficient Energy Cost: $250k Efficient & Renewable Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 7
  • Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Alternative Energy Trade Fair The least expensive way to employ solar… Purchased Energy 100% Conventional Energy #1 #2 #3 Inexpensive energy efficiency 75% More expensive solar energy 50% 25% Cost: $90k to $110k (and decreasing) 0% Conventional Efficient Efficient Efficient & Efficient & Renewable Renewable Net zero energy home Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 8
  • Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Alternative Energy Trade Fair The most exciting way to employ solar… Purchased Energy 100% Conventional Energy #1 #2 #3 Solar energy 75% More expensive… yeah, but really exciting Energy efficiency: most important, least expensive 50% 25% Net zero energy home 0% Conventional Renewable Efficient Energy Efficient & Efficient & Renewable Renewable Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 9
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Three easy steps to become Solar Ready Making a home Solar Ready can be done in three simple steps: 1. Leave space in the utility room – for the solar storage tank: on the floor beside the conventional water heater, or – for the inverter and switchgear: on the wall near the breaker panel. 2. Install a vertical chase or conduit – for the solar water pipes or electric cables from the utility room to the attic. Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 3 Ensure that the house has a south-facing roof that 10
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society What areas need to be looked at? 1. Minimise the energy consumption of your house 2. Maximise the solar energy production 3. Plan your roof or wall 4. Plan against shading 5. Plan for the looks of the solar array 6. Plan the routing from outdoors to utility room 7. Plan the space in the utility room 8. Costs of becoming solar ready Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 11
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society 1. Minimising House Energy Consumption Drastically reduce your house heating and electricity consumption – The cheapest energy option is to reduce your heating and electricity consumption by 60% to 70% before adding solar. Hire a consultant to model the energy consumption of your home using the Natural Resources Canada’s HOT2000 home energy software Use HOT2000’s results to plan: – Electrical appliances and lighting – Size of house, orientation – Insulation levels, window types – Airtightness levels, ventilation system – Passive solar heating – window areas, orientation and house thermal mass – Optimised size and type of heating system (if it is still needed) Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 12
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society 2. Maximising Solar Energy Production The size of your solar energy system depends on: How much of your electricity and your heat you want to produce from the sun This number is a target. – You don't have to have all your electricity and heat provided by solar. – Solar systems can be modular so that you can start small and add. 2 collectors South of the UofA 6 PV modules In Calgary 16 PV modules 18 PV modules Eric Steeden’s house Peter Bull’s house Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 13
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society 2. Maximising Solar – Where do you live? Size of your solar energy system depends on: How much energy is in the sunlight where you are located? Use RETScreen™ to give you an idea of how much solar it will take to supply your house RETScreen spreadsheet analysis software available free from Natural Resources Canada www.retscreen.net Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 14
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society 3. Planning the roof or wall Look at: a) Roof tilt angle b) Roof orientation angle c) Amount of space available d) Intrusions into the roof or wall space e) Strength of roof or wall Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 15
  • Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Alternative Energy Trade Fair 3a) Optimum Annual Roof Tilt Angle Peace River Horizontal Vertical 0% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 -5% % of energy from optimum annual tilt angle 4.5 sun-hours/day -10% = kWh/m2/day -15% 3.8 -20% -25% 3.3 Snow cover? Reflection from snow fields? 90 If well planned then solar array mounting costs can be reduced. -30% The maximum annual solar energy production occurs at around a 51° tilt. If your goal is to maximise this, your tilt angle can be from 20° to 80° and still be within 10% of the maximum. Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 16
  • Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Alternative Energy Trade Fair 3a) Optimum Winter Roof Tilt Angle Peace River Horizontal Vertical 0% % of energy from optimum winter tilt angle -10% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 3.65 3.61 -20% 3.2 -30% Sun-hours/day -40% -50% -60% -70% 1.0 Snow cover? Reflection from snow fields? -80% The maximum winter solar energy production occurs at an 81° tilt. If your goal is to optimise this, your tilt angle can be from 52° to 90° and still be within 10% of the maximum. Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 17
  • Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Alternative Energy Trade Fair 3b) Optimum Winter Orientation Angle Peace River 0% % of energy from optimum winter orientation angle 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 -5% 3.2 -10% 3.6 3.2 Sun-hours/day -15% -20% -25% -30% -35% SW SSW South SSE SE If the goal is to optimise the wintertime solar energy production, you can orient the roof or wall 28° either side of south and still be within 10% of the maximum, which is at due south. Solar Energy Project Development Specialists Choose a south facing roof if at all possible, not an eastwest facing roof 18
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society 3c) Amount of area – solar heating Solar heating system: – 2 flat-plate collectors or 30 evacuated tubes require a 3 x 3 metre (10’ x 10’) clear roof space – This is the size for a typical solar domestic water heating system – Collector size: Flat plate collectors are typically 1200 mm x 2400 mm (4’ x 8’) each Evacuated tubes are typically 1800 mm to 2400 mm long (6’ to 8’) and come in banks of 30 that are 900 mm to 1200 mm wide (3’ to 4’) Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 19
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Glazed Flat Plate Collectors Many flat plate solar collectors are around a 4’ x 8’ size, with some differences 20 Photo Credit: Trimline Solar Energy Project Development Specialists Design Centre
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society 3c) Amount of area – solar PV system Solar electricity (photovoltaic or PV) system: – Takes up 6 to 10 m2 (65 to 110 ft2) for each kW of generating capacity, depending on PV module efficiency – Typically, a house could have anywhere from a 1 kW to a 10 kW system on it – 60 to 100 m2 (650 to 1000 ft2) – PV module size: Widely varying sizes and dimensions 600 mm to 1200 mm wide (2’ to 4’) x 1200 to 1800 mm long (4’ to 6’) depending on manufacturer and technology Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 21
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society 3d) Roof or wall intrusions? Is your roof free from obstructions? – – – – – – Roof vents Plumbing stacks Chimneys Dormers Skylights Satellite dishes Too many obstructions fill up the roof space Is your wall free from obstructions? – – – – – Windows Doors Exhaust or intake vents Water taps Gas or electricity meter These take up valuable clear roof space and can complicate a solar installation significantly or even prevent it from happening. Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 22
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Mounted on a metal roof House 23 Solar Energy Project Development Specialists in Edmonton
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Mounted on a rack above the roof line House Peace Citizens’ in Edmonton Recycling Society Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 24
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Mounted on a wall Airdrie Solar Energy Recycling Centre Environmental Project Development Specialists 25
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society What to do if your roof or wall just won’t work? Consider something other than the roof or wall! Saskatoon Advanced House – Mounting on the ground, pad or pole – Window shading – Garage roof – Yard feature – garden trellis Eric Steeden’s house and PV system Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 26
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Garage mount… House in Edmonton Photo Credit: Trimline Design Centre Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 27
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Ground or pole mount… Talk to a solar supplier about the additional costs involved Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 28
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Tim Belec’s house, Pigeon Lake Collectors – mounted horizontally on roof rack Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 29
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society 3e) Strength of the roof or wall If solar array is tilted up off the roof then you must consider: – Wind loading – Changing patterns and buildup of snow – See a structural engineer to check this Increase in weight on roof – Needs to be checked – usually much smaller than the trusses’ live load design – Speak with your truss manufacturer Solar heating collectors and mounting rack – Can add 24 kg/m2 (5 lb/ft2) Solar PV modules – Can add 15 kg/m2 (3 lb/ft2) Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 30
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society 4. Plan against shading Solar heating system – Shading reduces the heat production by the amount of shaded area – 10% shading means 10% less heating Solar PV system – Direct shading can be catastrophic! Small amounts can turn off the whole PV array (depending on how it is electrically configured) If not designed well, it can cause PV cells to become electricity users and turn very hot How clear are your solar sightlines from shading? Relocate the solar arrays away from all close-by direct shading: – – – – Chimneys Dormers Trees Buildings Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 31
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society 4. Plan for landscaping Where are your coniferous and deciduous trees? – Deciduous trees can let in 80% of the light in the winter. South of the UofA To what height will your trees grow? House in Edmonton Kerry Wood Nature Centre Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 32
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society 5. Plan for how the solar arrays look… Make it stand out to attract interest? Integrate it into the roof to become unseen? How much curb appeal do you want? How will it affect marketability? House in Edmonton Riverdale NetZero energy house in Edmonton Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 33
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society 6. Plan the routing of piping and wiring Plan the route for piping and/or wiring from roof to utility room. Solar heating: – Minimise the length of the pipe run – max 15 m (50’) – Install a single straight 100 mm (4”) chase or two 50 mm (2”) chases For the solar water piping and sensor wiring Can be lightweight PVC Seal it at both ends Solar PV: – Minimise the length of the wire run – Install a 38 mm (1.5”) conduit for the DC PV cable, sealed at both ends Be careful to seal any roof and wall penetrations. Consider an attic catwalk from the attic hatch to the location of the solar system Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 34
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society 7. Plan the space in the utility room Solar heating – 1.5 m x 2 m (5’ x 6’) on floor for solar water tank – 1 m x 1 m (3’ x 3’) on wall for controls and pumping package Solar PV – 1200 x 1200 (4’ x 4’) of wall area with plywood cover – for the inverter and disconnect switches – Add twice this amount or more if there is a battery bank – If a battery bank is used, it needs 2 to 10 m2 (20 to 100 ft2) of floor area depending on size Lockable vented compartment Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 35
  • Peace Citizens’ Pump Recycling Society controller Alternative Energy Trade Fair Heat Storage Tanks Storage tank (200 to 300 litres) with heat exchanger inside Solar circulation pump Storage tank ThermoDynamics Solar Boiler Heat exchanger and pump Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 36
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society PV inverter and disconnect switches Eric Steeden and his inverter and disconnect switches Kyle Kasawski turning on the Riverdale NetZero PV system Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 37
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society 8. Costs of becoming solar ready Typical prices. Final costs can vary with house size and complexity Solar domestic water heating – $600 to $900 Solar PV – $400 Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 38
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society Want to learn more? There is a lot of information already available for you. Solar Energy – Solar Energy Society – Northern Alberta Chapter (www.solaralberta.ca) – Canadian Solar Industries Association (www.cansia.ca) “Making your home ready for Solar Water Heating” Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 39
  • Alternative Energy Trade Fair Peace Citizens’ Recycling Society … helping solar meet the tides of change Download this presentation and others from www.hme.ca/presentations Gordon Howell, P.Eng. Howell-Mayhew Engineering, Inc. 15006 - 103 Avenue Edmonton, Alberta T5P 0N8 Phone: +1 780 484 0476 E-mail: ghowell@hme.ca ©1995-2008 Photo credits: Gordon Howell and several others Solar Energy Project Development Specialists 40