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Aero industry draft2013

  1. 1. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 1AEROSPACE INDUSTRY - AMERICA’S FUTURE?THE FLYING MACHINE THAT CHANGED THE WORLD© 2011 Shawn Paul Boike, Long Beach, CaliforniaAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in anyform or by any means without written permission from the author.
  2. 2. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 2If you want someone to be able to copy or distribute portions of the book, place exceptionshere (AIAA, AIA, Boeing)Table of ContentsAEROSPACE INDUSTRY - AMERICA’S FUTURE? 1THE FLYING MACHINE THAT CHANGED THE WORLD 1Table of Contents 2List of Illustrations 7Introduction 10The Flying Machine that Changed the World 10Chapter 1 13The Beginning & Buildups 13THE US AEROSPACE INDUSTRY – The Early Days 17THE ACORN DAYS 19From a speech given by Mr. Denham S. Scott to the AIA on March 19, 1968 19from: http://www.navworld.com/navhistory/acorndays.htm Reprinted from NAAR (North AmericanAviation Retirees Bulletin) - Summer 2001 26The Growing Days 1930-1990 26An International Industry 33A Post-Cold War World 35Chapter 1B 38HELICOPTERS 38"The Helicopter is the most versatile way of getting in and out anywhere in the world” 38HISTORY OF HELICOPTERS 38The Chinese 38Leonardo Da Vinci 39Fifteenth through the Twentieth Centuries 39Early Twentieth Century 40World War I Advancements 40Autogyros are invented 41Sikorskys Advancements 421950 Advancements 42The Turbine Engines Impact 431960s & 1970s: The Vietnam War and how the helicopter changed 43
  3. 3. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 31980s and the Helicopter 44Early 1990s and the Helicopter 45Conclusion of Helicopter Evolution 45Chapter 1C 47ROCKET SHIPS 47"The Rocket ship is the way to get into Space because it carries its complete propellant” 47HISTORY OF ROCKET SHIPS 47Rocketry Becomes a Science 52Modern Rocketry Begins 53Chapter 2 59Changing Times 59Americas defense companies are turning dual-purpose 59Jul 18th 2002 | from the print edition 59Downsizing: Merger & Acquisitions 60A survey of the defense industry: Getting it together? 60Two-way traffic 65The Total Quality Management Farce 68When Government Gave US Away 70Sidebar: A License to Steal Jobs 71Pres. Clinton’s Transferring Technology to China 72Sanctions and Technology Transfer Policy 72Change Maybe Coming-but not soon Enough 75Chapter 3 77Where We Are Today… 77Were falling behind. 77By Norm Augustine (Ret. Chairman & CEO Lockheed Martin) 77America’s Lost Leadership 82Lockheed Martin 83General Dynamics-old 87McDonnell Douglas-now Boeing 90Boeing Aircraft 91
  4. 4. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 4Northrop Grumman 92Chapter 4 94The Economic Importance 94Economic Importance 94World Economy vs. USA 94Industry Economic Histories 96America’s Aerospace Economic Case 97TRADABLE EMPLOYMENT 98Economic Value – A Comparative Model 104Aerospace & Defense: Least Understood Industrial Sector 106By guest author Robert H. Trice 106Lost: Americas Industrial Base 108Fading Space Industrial Base 112America’s Lead World Space Program 114Chapter 5 124The Future Forecasts 124The World’s Growing Competition 124U.S. faces foreign competition — in space 125By Peter N. Spotts, The Christian Science Monitor 11/7/2005 6:28 PM125Where All the Money Is: 129Boeing’s Future Forecast 131Boeing expects an increasing trend to continue over the next 20 years, with world passengertraffic growing 5 percent annually. Air cargo traffic has been moderating after a high period in2010. Air cargo contracted by 2.4 percent in 2011. Expansion of emerging-market economieswill, however, foster a growing need for fast, efficient transport of goods. We estimate that aircargo will grow 5.2 percent annually through 2031. 131The shape of the market 131We forecast a long-term demand for 34,000 new airplanes, valued at $4.5 trillion. These new airplaneswill replace older, less efficient airplanes, benefiting airlines and passengers and stimulating growth inemerging markets and innovation in airline business models. Approximately 23,240 airplanes (68 percentof new deliveries) will be single-aisle airplanes, reflecting growth in emerging markets, such as China,and the continued expansion of low-cost carriers throughout the world. The twin-aisle segment will alsoincrease, from a 19 percent share of todays fleet to a 23 percent share in 2031. The 7,950 new twin-aisleairplanes will allow airlines to continue expansion into more international markets. 131The US Commercial Aerospace Industry and Defense 2012-2031 131http://www.boeing.com/boeing/commercial/cmo/ 131Airbus Future Forecast 132Asia’s Future Forecast 132
  5. 5. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 5Forecast Considerations: 132Chapter 6 133Our Future Focus and Plans 133Where’s our Flying Car? 135The Super Sonic Cruiser 136Hypersonic - The Orient Express 138Space Tourism 140Space Based Solar Power-Energy 140Tomorrows new Bomber 145Educating Tomorrow’s People 14710 Incredible Airplane Designs of the Future 147In the middle of this century, telecommunications will be so 159Boeing’s 797 Concept 160Conclusion 161References & Contributors: 166Chapter 1: Beginnings & Buildups 166Higham, Charles. Howard Hughes: the Secret Life. New York: Putnams, 1993 170On-Line References: 175“Early Martin Planes.” http://www.martinstateairport.com/ 176“F-22 Raptor.” http://www.boeing.com/history/boeing/f22.html 176“McDonnell Douglas History.” http://www.boeing.com/history/boeing/f22.html 177“Northrop YB-49.” U.S. Air Force Museum. http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/ 178“The Nurflugel Page.” http://www.nurflugel.com/Nurflugel/nurflugel.html 178“Project Bumblebee.” http://www.xsouth.freeserve.co.uk/project_bumblebee.htm 178Industries Economic History: 180Bibliography 180The History of the Aerospace Industry 182Posted Mon, 2010-02-01 18:21 by Anonymous 182The First Half-Century 182The Cold War 186
  6. 6. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 6Notes to Add: 190 The King is Rising Again…Part-1 of 3 191 It all starts with a view into outer space… 191
  7. 7. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 7List of IllustrationsFigure 1. Spirit of Exploration.................................................................................................9Figure 2. George Cayley & described a modern airplane........................................................ 14Figure 3. Bernoulli’s Principle for Wing Airflow................................................................... 16Figure 4. Courtesy of "History of Helicopters ". ....................................................................39Figure 5. Built for US Army Air Force by Georgrij Bothezat (USSR). Courtesy of "History ofHelicopters". ......................................................................................................................... 41Figure 6. Modern Autogyro courtesy of "History of Helicopters". .......................................... 41Figure 7. One of Sikorskys earlier models. Courtesy of "History of Helicopters"....................42Figure 8. Hillers flying platform courtesy of "History of Helicopters". ..................................42Figure 9. Mc Donnells helicopter courtesy of History of Helicopters. ....................................43Figure 10. Bell 209 Cobra "Snake" courtesy of "History of Helicopters". ...............................44Figure 11. Bell/Boeing 609 courtesy of "History of Helicopters". ...........................................44Figure 12. Revolution Helicopter Corp. Mini 500 courtesy of "History of Helicopters". ..........45Figure 13. Hero Engine.........................................................................................................49Figure 14. Chinese Fire Arrow..............................................................................................49Figure 15. Chinese Fire Arrow Launch..................................................................................50Figure 16. Surface Running Torpedo.....................................................................................50Figure 17. Wan-Hu Flying Chair............................................................................................51Figure 18. Tsiolkovsky Rockets............................................................................................ 53Figure 19. Goddard’s 1926 Rocket........................................................................................ 55Figure 20. German V2 Rocket.............................................................................................. 57Figure 21. Aerospace & Defense Sales..................................................................................60Figure 22. Defense Industry Consolidation 1993-2007 ..........................................................63Figure 23. Aerospace & Defance Stock Trends .....................................................................64Figure 24. A View of Earth from the Shuttle.........................................................................70Figure 25. Norm Augustine .................................................................................................. 77Figure 26. F22 (Fwd) & F15 (Aft) ........................................................................................84Figure 27. F35 JSF in Vertical Flight and Forward Flight ......................................................86Figure 28. A12 Avenger Concept .........................................................................................88
  8. 8. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 8Figure 29. A12 Avenger Concept .........................................................................................88Figure 30. Atlas2AS ............................................................................................................90Figure 31. F18 E/F Carrier Landing.......................................................................................93Figure 32. World GDP (past 50 years) ..................................................................................95Figure 33. USA GDP vs. the rest of the World (50 years) ......................................................96Figure 34. Tradable Industry Jobs, 1990–2008 (Majors)9 ......................................................99Figure 35. Cost Comparison ................................................................................................101Figure 36. Tradable Industry Jobs 1990-2008...................................................................... 102Figure 37. Aerospace and other Transport Industries (Tradable)...........................................104Figure 38. ISS ....................................................................................................................115Figure 39. Hubble Space Telescope ................................................................................. 120Figure 40. Mars Rover.......................................................................................................121Figure 41. Over Cost F35 Comparison ............................................................................... 130Figure 42. SVC’s Vertical Take-off & Landing Aerocraft.................................................... 136Figure 43. Boeing Sonic Cruise vs. Better............................................................................137Figure 44. Boeing Sonic Cruiser......................................................................................... 138Figure 45. Hypersonic Aircraft ........................................................................................... 139Figure 46. SBSP Concepts...................................................................................................141Figure 47. Next Generation Bomber.................................................................................... 146Figure 48. 10) Icon-II Supersonic flight .............................................................................. 148Figure 49. 9) Green Supersonic Machine ............................................................................ 149Figure 50. 8) Blended Wing ............................................................................................... 150Figure 51. 7) X-45A UCAV.................................................................................................151Figure 52. 6) Solar Eagle.................................................................................................... 152Figure 53. 5) SUGAR......................................................................................................... 153Figure 54. 4) Lockheed Martin ........................................................................................... 154Figure 55. 3) Bigger is Better...............................................................................................155Figure 56. Northrop Grumman ........................................................................................... 156Figure 57. The Puffin ..........................................................................................................157Figure 58. Airbus Solar Aircraft ......................................................................................... 159
  9. 9. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 9Epigraph Page“Global leadership is not a birthright. Despite what many Americans believe, our nation doesnot possess an innate knack for greatness. Greatness must be worked for and won by each newgeneration. Right now that is not happening. But we still have time. If we place the emphasis weshould on education, research and innovation we can lead the world in the decades to come. Butthe only way to ensure we remain great tomorrow is to increase our investment in science andengineering today”.Norm Augustine (retired chairman and CEO of Lockheed Martin)Figure 1. Spirit of Exploration“The spirit of exploration is truly part of what it is to be human. Human history has been acontinual struggle from darkness toward light, a search for knowledge and deeperunderstanding, a search for truth. Ever since our distant ancestors ventured forth into the world,there has been an insatiable curiosity to see what lies beyond the next hill, what lies beyond thehorizon. That is the fire of the human spirit that we all carry”.Steve Robinson (STS-114 Mission Specialist)
  10. 10. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 10“The desire to fly is an idea handed down to us by our ancestors who looked enviously onthe birds soaring freely through space on the infinite highway of the air”Wilbur WrightIntroductionThe Flying Machine that Changed the WorldIt’s been over a 110 years since powered controlled flight was proven by the WrightBrothers from Dayton Ohio, in Kitty Hawk in North Carolina. We had conquered space flightand put a man on the moon and delivered him home safely over half a century ago. We havecommercial aircraft able to travel halfway around the world without refueling. The mostsignificant industry change of the last two decade’s is in some materials andNorthrop’s flying wing as the Stealth B2 bomber design. America maybe close to losing itsleadership and become second place in the World for producing Aircraft in the near future.This loss in standing in the Aerospace Industry is, unfortunately too similar to the AutomotiveIndustry. It’s a shame to see the nations largest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) export basediminishing and losing its edge.This book “Aerospace Industry America’s Loss?” is an in depth look at the AerospaceIndustry, a compilation of facts, figures, events, and some personal accounts in the biggesteconomic base & technologically influential industry in the world. The economic advantage thisindustry brings Nation’s and their work force a better Standard of Living and higher wages.
  11. 11. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 11Those who lead in this key industry will lead in GDP. This tradable industry which can beexportable is currently valued at $7 ½ Trillion in 20 years or $4 Trillion in commercial aircraftonly. The nations that have grown the most have pursued this from engineering and buildingautomobiles then aerospace and selling them outside of their nation, this creates a higherstandard of living. You will see the evolution and buildup of the Aerospace Industry to thefall/demise of America’s Aerospace Industry the largest U.S. GDP creation and the economicimpact on this exportable product of trade. We conclude with valuable Future Focus withrealistic programs and plans that will generate huge growth and prosperity into the next decadesor century to lead the World both in aviation & space markets along with finding a future energysolution.We have recently seen the retirement of the U.S. Space Shuttles after its final mission to theInternational Space Station. Now, the U.S. is regressing in technology 50+ years and use rocketswith a capsule. Russian expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV) at a higher price than our SpaceShuttle, just to get the U.S. back to the International Space Station. So we should ask: Where isthe Space Shuttles replacement? Or, what about the C-17 replacement? And the (super) SonicCruiser? What happened to the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) Hypersonic aircraft (mach25)also known as the Orient Express LA to Tokyo in 2 hours?Why is it we are still flying slowly commercially? Where is our flying car? What about thatjet pack which looks kind-of unsafe, especially to those grown-ups that ride a bicycle with ahelmet? We technically have overcome the sonic boom with a sonic burp by intelligent design.So, why does our own NASA have plans only go Mach 5 (like SR-71 5o years ago) as aprototype out to 2020 because, that’s all we’ve allowed ourselves to progress in the last 20 plusyears? Boeing had great plans to build the Sonic Cruiser until they changed course and put all
  12. 12. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 12their eggs in the basket to produce the 787 (even slipping delivery date-seven times) almosttwenty five years after they helped build the composite wings of the B2 Bomber. Much of thismay have to do with Economics from the foreign suppliers investing to become a partner inmanufacturing prior to its market existence. With an optimistic belief the next generation canlearn from past mistakes and understand the future doesn’t have to be like the past anddemanding to make the Future better - similar to our Race to Space and the moon. In thispursuit one’s destiny is limitless.Shawn Paul Boike
  13. 13. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 13Chapter 1The Beginning & Buildups“It is my belief that flight is possible and, while I am taking up investigation for pleasure ratherthan profit, I think there is a slight possibility of achieving fame and fortune from it.”Wilbur Wright Sept. 3, 1900What do you think about the beginning of the Aircraft & Aerospace Industry, most people thinkabout the Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina? This is where Orville Wright madethe first flight for 12 seconds and 120 feet at Kill Devil Hills near Kitty Hawk, NC at 10:35 a.m.on December 17, 1903. In fact over 1000 BC the Chinese had sent men aloft tethered to kites toprovide surveillance at war time.I was at an American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics (AIAA) meeting in early 1992Seattle Washington to Listen to Phil Condit VP of the 777 my new Bosses Boss and accidentlyor fortunately sat at a table with him his wife & Alan Mulally. His speech was terrific it was allabout the evolution of flight and even before Wright Brothers. His speech was very similar towhat was written in a book on the Centennial celebration of the Wright Brothers which I heardthe Author speak at the Dearborn Library in Michigan almost a decade after Phil’s speech.The history of Aircraft (excluding balloons & rockets) starts with of course Leonardo Divinci’ssketches and flight studies and plans for a glider, this inspired Heserfin Ahmed Salevy to build aglider to glide down from a 183 foot tower in Istanbul in 1638. English baronet named Sir
  14. 14. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 14George Cayley whose contribution was the 1799 definition of an airplane as a machine withfixed wings, a fuselage and a tail which has separate systems to provide lift, propulsion andcontrol. Cayley had successfully built and flew his successful model glider in 1804.Figure 2. George Cayley & described a modern airplaneHe later made two other gliders with a pilot which made brief glides for his efforts he was oftenreferred to as the “Father of Aerial Navigation”.A French electrical engineer named Clement Ader which attempted to fly a light weight steampowered - bat like craft called the Eole’s. His added value in flight evolution was the need forpropulsion. Ader made a piloted “uncontrolled hop of 165 feet and altitude of only eight incheswith the airplane”. “The Eole was devoid of all the other elements necessary for a practicalflying machine and contributed little to the eventual achievement of human mechanical flight”.
  15. 15. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 15Another contributor to human controlled flight prior to the Wrights was an American living inEngland Sir Hiram Maxim famous for the invention of the machine gun. Following in a similarpath to Ader and noted in 1892 “Without doubt the motor is the chief thing to be considered”.“Scientists have long said, give us a motor and we will very soon give you a successful flyingmachine”. Maxim built a four ton biplane fitted to a test track & guardrails where in July 31,1894 his rough aircraft travelled 600 feet at 42 miles per hour and rose over the guard rails andcrashed. His contribution much like Ader was that a powerful light weight engine for propulsioncould lift an aircraft.The most noted contributor prior to the Wright brothers was a German engineer named OttoLilienthal with his experimentation with gliders. He began aeronautical research from the 1860’sto 1896 and produced the most complete, accurate body of Aerodynamics that showed beyonddoubt that a curved wing profile produced optimum lift. Thus incorporating Bernoullis principleworks on the idea that as a wing passes through the air, its shape make the air travel more overthe top of the wing than beneath it-thus creating lift. This creates a higher pressure are beneaththe wing than above it. The pressure difference cause the wing to push upwards and lift iscreated.Bernoullis principle works on the idea that as a wing passes through the air the shape make theair travel more over the top of the wing than beneath it. This creates a higher pressure arebeneath the wing than above it. The pressure difference cause the wing to push upwards and liftis created.
  16. 16. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 16Figure 3. Bernoulli’s Principle for Wing AirflowOtto Lilienthal had produced 16 different glider designs from 1891-1896 with calculated wingarea and controlled them by shifting his body weight right to left (starboard to port) thus alteringhis center of gravity. Also moving his body and fore and aft to maintain equilibrium.Lilienthal’s fame came after he had made the Boston news as “Here was a flying machine, notconstructed by a crank…but by an engineer of ability…A machine not made to look at, but to flywith. His experiments came to an end in August 9th1896 where while soaring, a gust of windput the glider nose up and into wasteland crashed down 50 feet breaking his spine where he diedthe next day in a Berlin hospital.The Wright Brothers first performed a literature search to find out the state ofaeronautical knowledge at their time. They wrote to the Smithsonian and obtained technicalpapers regarding aerodynamics. They read about the works of Cayley, and Langley, and thehang-gliding flights of Otto Lilienthal.They corresponded with Octave Chanute (a French-born American railwayengineer and aviation pioneer) concerning some of their ideas. Theystudied the problems which had been encountered by previous flyers and they talked aboutpossible solutions to the problems. They looked for answers to the problems of flight by
  17. 17. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 17observing large gliding birds. They decided that control of the flying aircraft would be the mostcrucial and hardest problem to solve and they had some ideas for solving that problem.The Wright Brothers were kite enthusiasts and they used the kite flights in the same way thatmodern engineers use wind tunnels and flight testing to try out their ideas concerning flightcontrol. Kitty Hawk, North Carolina was chosen for their early flight experiments because itsconsistent high winds off the ocean are perfect for kite flying. The brothers correctly reasonedthat a free flying object had to be controlled about all three primary axes; roll, pitch, and yaw.Their aircraft were built with movable surfaces on the wing, elevator, and rudder. Control of thesurface shape was in the hands of the pilot. They extensively tested these ideas by glider flightsof the aircraft. (NASA http://wright.nasa.gov/overview.htm)The Wright Brothers took all they could learn from those before them and added theirinventiveness to create the fully controllable manned machine powered flight. This includedinventing and designing the propeller system for propulsion, a wind tunnel and many plans andtechniques we take for granted today. That time in history was a battle for first powered mannedcontrolled flight was in competition with Samuel Pierpont Langley and Glenn Curtiss. We allknow the winners were those Dayton men in 1903 where the US Air Force base and museumnow stands.THE US AEROSPACE INDUSTRY – The Early Days“Curtiss Aeroplane Company turned out such good planes that the Wright designs could notcompete”Before there was an aviation industry, there were inventors who built their own airplanes. Wilburand Orville Wright, of Dayton, Ohio, made the first successful flights in 1903 and had a well-
  18. 18. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 18controlled aircraft two years later. They set up the Wright Company in 1909, which started bybuilding airplanes but soon lost out in a bitter rivalry with another plane builder, Glenn Curtiss ofHammondsport, New York.The Wrights claimed that Curtiss was stealing their inventions and sued in federal court. ButCurtiss had shrewd lawyers who kept the suits from causing damage, and went on buildingairplanes. His own firm of Curtiss Aeroplane Company turned out such good planes that theWright designs could not compete. The company eventually changed its name to WrightAeronautical Company and turned to building aircraft engines.The Wright and Curtiss companies both were in business before the outbreak of World War I, in1914. A California plane builder, Glenn L. Martin, established a firm called, logically, the GlennL. Martin Company. These outfits all did plenty of business during that war. But after it ended,in 1918, they faced the question of what to do next.Most of the numerous planes built in the United States during the war were of British design.Following that conflict, there was little demand for new aircraft, for there was plenty of warsurplus planes and engines. Still, there were opportunities. Curtiss had built the wartime JN-4trainer, the famous Jenny. It still was beloved by pilots during the 1920s. A flight school mightcharge $500 for lessons, and then throw in a Jenny as a graduation present. Martin built some ofthe earliest bombers--one sank a captured German battleship in a 1921 exercise. This made itclear that bombers had a future.Other plane builders also went into business: Donald Douglas, William Boeing, and AlanLoughead, who pronounced his name "Lockheed." To avoid mispronunciations such as Logheador Loafhead, his company used that spelling as well. All three found good prospects. DonaldDouglas got started by working with a wealthy enthusiast who wanted a plane that could cross
  19. 19. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 19the country nonstop. By building it, Douglas gained experience that allowed him to develop along-range Army plane, the World Cruiser. Two World Cruisers flew around the world in 1924in a succession of short hops.Airmail held promise for it earned federal subsidies for mail carriers that made it easy to turn aprofit. A few brave travelers also began buying airplane tickets. Boeing gained an importantsuccess in 1926 with a single-engine plane that was well suited for carrying mail and passengersover the Rocky Mountains. Lockheed won its own advantage during that same year. Thecompanys engineers included the talented Jack Northrop, who later founded his own plane-building firm. He crafted the Vega, which set speed and altitude records and became popular asan airliner.THE ACORN DAYSFrom a speech given by Mr. Denham S. Scott to the AIA on March 19, 1968“This technological explosion had some very humble and human beginnings. The Acorns tookroot in some strange places: a church, a cannery, a barbershop, but from them mighty Oakshave indeed come to fruition”.How many of you know that in 1910 the mighty Martin Marietta Company got its start in anabandoned church in Santa Ana, CA? Thats where the late Glenn L. Martin with his motherMinta Martin and a mechanic named Roy Beal, built a fragile contraption with which Glenntaught himself to fly.It has often been told how the Douglas Company started operations in 1920 by renting the rear of
  20. 20. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 20a barbershop on Pico Boulevard in Los Angeles. The barbershop is still there. The LockheedCompany built its first Vega in 1927 in what are now the Victory Cleaners and Dryers at 1040Sycamore Avenue in Hollywood. Claude Ryan, who at 24 held a reserve commission as a flyer,had his hair cut in San Diego one day in 1922. The barber told him how the town aviator was injail for smuggling Chinese across the border. Claude investigated and stayed on in San Diego torent the old airfield from the city at fifty dollars a month and replace the guy in the pokey. Heagreed to fly North instead of South.In 1928, the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, Transcontinental Air Transport (now TWA)and the Douglas Company chipped in enough money to start North American Aviation, aholding company. The present company bearing the Northrop name came into being in a smallhotel in Hawthorne. The hotel was conveniently vacant and available because the police hadraided it and found that steady residents were a passel of money-minded gals who entertainedtransitory male guests.After Glenn Martin built his airplane in the church, he moved to a vacant apricot cannery inSanta Ana and built two more. In 1912 he moved to 9th and Los Angeles Streets in downtownLos Angeles. Glenn Martin was then running a three-ring-circus. Foremost, he was a showmanwho traveled the circuit of county fairs and air meets as an exhibitionist aviator; secondly, hewas an airplane manufacturer. He met his payroll and bought his lumber, linen and bailing wirefrom the proceeds of his precision exhibition flying. His mother, Minta and two men ran thefactory when Glenn was risking his neck and gadding about the country. One of these was 22-year old Donald Douglas who was the whole of his engineering department and the other was aSanta Monica boy named Larry Bell who ran the shop.
  21. 21. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 21The third circus ring was a flying school. It had a land plane operation in Griffith Park and laterat Bennett’s Farm in Inglewood, and a hydroplane operation at a place thats now part of theWatts District. A stunt flyer named Floyd Smith ran it. One of his first pupils was Eric Springer,who later became an instructor and then Martins test pilot, still later the test pilot for the earlyDouglas Company, and then a Division Manager.Between Eric and Floyd, they taught a rich young man named Bill Boeing to fly. Havingmastered the art; Boeing bought a Martin biplane, hired Ross Stem, Glenns personal mechanic,and shipped the airplane to Seattle. Later, when it crashed into the lake and Boeing set about torepair it, he ordered some spare parts from Martin in Los Angeles.Martin, remembering the proselytizing incident with Ross Stem, decided to take his sweet timeand let Boeing stew. Bill Boeing said, To Hell with him, and told Ross Stern to get busy andbuild one of their own. Boeing had a friend named Westerfelt and they decided to form acompany and build two airplanes. These two BW airplanes bore a remarkable resemblance to theMartin airplane which, in turn, had been copied from Glenn Curtiss. There seems to be a moralabout customer relations and product support mixed up in this episode.During WWI, a bunch of sharpies from Wall Street in New York got control of the WrightCompany in Dayton and the Martin Company in Los Angeles. They merged the two companiesinto the Wright-Martin Company. They sent a young man named Chance Vought to be theirChief Engineer. Donald Douglas lost no time in quitting and went to work for the U.S. SignalCorp.
  22. 22. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 22The Wright-Martin Company started building obsolete Standard biplanes and Hispano-Suizaengines, with the latter under a license agreement with the French Government. Martin told themwhat they could do with them, and took off for Cleveland, taking Larry Bell and Eric Springerwith him. Having the backing of a baseball mogul to build a new factory, he was soon joined byDonald Douglas who went to work and came up with the design of the Martin Bomber. It cameout too late to see service in WWI, but showed its superiority when General Billy Mitchell madeeveryone mad at him by sinking the captured German battle fleet. The deathblow to the allegedlyDreadnaught Osfriesland was delivered by the Douglas designed Martin Bomber.At Cleveland, a young fellow called Dutch Kindelberger joined the Martin Company as anengineer. Also a veteran Army pilot from WWI named Carl Squier became Sales Manager. Hisname was to become one of the most venerable names in Lockheed history. Back in 1920,Donald Douglas had saved $60,000 and struck out on his own. He returned to Los Angeles,found a backer, David Davis, rented the rear of a barbershop and some space in the loft of acarpenters shop where they built a passenger airplane called The Cloudster.Claude Ryan bought this a couple years later, and made daily flights between San Diego and LosAngeles with it. This gives Ryan the distinction of being the owner and operator of the firstDouglas Commercial Transport, and certainly a claim to be among the original airline passengeroperators.In 1922, Donald Douglas was awarded a contract to build three torpedo planes for the U.S.Navy; Douglas lived in Santa Monica, but worked in Los Angeles. Way out in the wilderness at
  23. 23. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 23what is now 25th Street and Wilshire Boulevard in Santa Monica, there was an abandoned barn-like movie studio. One day Douglas stopped his roadster and prowled around to investigate. Thestudio became the first real home of the Douglas Aircraft Company.With the $120,000 Navy contract, Donald Douglas needed and could afford one or twoengineers. He hired my brother Gordon Scott newly over from serving an apprenticeship to theMartinside and the Fairey Aviation Companies in England. Gordon was well schooled in thelittle known science of Aviation by 1923.My first association with some of the early pioneers occurred when I visited my brother Gordonat the barn at 25th Street. I found him outside on a ladder washing windows. They were dirty andhe was the youngest engineer. There were no janitorial services at the Douglas Company in thosedays.Gordon introduced me to Art Mankey, his boss and Chief Draftsman, and four of his fellowengineers. There was a towhead guy called Jack Northrop, a chap named Jerry Vultee, and afellow named Dick Von Hake who was a reserve Army flyer. Jack Northrop came from SantaBarbara where he had worked during WWI for the Lockheed Aircraft Manufacturing Company.The fourth member of the Engineering Group was Ed Heinemann*. They were all working onthe design of the Douglas World Cruisers. Shortly afterwards, Jack Northrop left the DouglasCompany in 1926. Working at home, he designed a wonderfully advanced streamlined airplane.He tied back with Allan Loughead who found a rich man, F.E. Keeler, willing to finance a newLockheed Aircraft Company. They rented a small shop in Hollywood and built the Northropdesigned Lockheed Vega. It was sensational with its clean lines and high performance.
  24. 24. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 24In May 1927, Lindberg flew to Paris and triggered a bedlam where everyone was trying to flyeverywhere. Before the first Vega was built, William Randolph Hearst, publisher of the Hearstnewspaper chain, bought it and entered it in the Dole Race from the Mainland to Honolulu,which was scheduled for 12 August 1927.In June 1927, my brother Gordon left the Douglas Company to become Jack Northrops assistantat Lockheed. He also managed to get himself hired as the navigator on the Golden Eagle, thename chosen by Mr. Hearst for the Vega which hopefully would be the first airplane to span thePacific. The race was a disaster! Ten lives were lost. The Golden Eagle and its crew, includingmy brother, vanished off the face of the earth.With its only airplane lost under mysterious circumstances, a black cloud hung heavily over thelittle shop in Hollywood. However, Captain George H. Wilkins, later to become Sir HubertWilkins, took the Number Two airplane and made a successful polar flight from Nome, Alaskato Spitsbergen, Norway. After that a string of successful flights were to put the name ofLockheed very much in the forefront of aviation.At Lockheed, Jack Northrop replaced the lost Gordon Scott with Jerry Vultee.In 1928, Jack quit the Lockheed Company to start a new company in Glendale called Avion.Jerry Vultee then moved up to become Chief Engineer at Lock heed. He hired Dick van Hakefrom the Douglas Company to be his assistant. A young man named Cliff Garrett joined theLockheed Company as the driver of their pick-up truck.
  25. 25. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 25I went to work at Lockheed shortly after the Golden Eagle was lost. I became the 26th Lockheedemployee. The Vegas were made almost entirely of wood and I became a half-assed carpenter,generally known as a wood butcher.In 1929, Jerry Vultee quit the Lockheed Company to start the Airplane Development Company,which became the Vultee Aircraft Company, a division of E.L. Cord, the automobilemanufacturer. He later merged with Reuben Fleets Consolidated Aircraft Company to becomeConvair. When Vultee left Lockheed, Dick van Hake became the Chief Engineer.In the meantime, Glenn Martin closed his Cleveland plant and moved to Baltimore. Hisproduction man, Larry Bell, moved to Buffalo to found the Bell Aircraft Company. Carl Squierleft Martin to tie in with the Detroit Aircraft Company which had acquired the Lockheed AircraftCompany and seven others. They hoped to become the General Motors of the aircraft business!They appointed Carl Squier as General Manager of the Lockheed plant, which moved toBurbank in 1928. (A lot of P-38s were made at that Burbank plant - added by L. Cruse Nov.2007)At this time, General Motors had acquired North American Aviation, which consisted of severalaircraft companies in the East. Ernie Breech, formerly with Bendix but now with GeneralMotors, hired Dutch Kindelberger away from Douglas to head up the aircraft manufacturingunits. Dutch took Lee Atwood and Stan Smithson with him. The companies involved wereFokker Aircraft, Pitcairn Aviation (later Eastern Airlines), Sperry Gyroscope and Berliner-Joyce.Kindelberger merged Fokker and Berliner-Joyce into a single company and moved the entire
  26. 26. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 26operation to Inglewood, California.(Kindelberger and others at the North American Los Angeles plant designed the P-51 Mustangthat helped win WWII - added by L. Cruse Nov. 2007)Thus, a handful of young men played roles which profoundly affected all of our lives and thelives of millions of other Americans. They changed Southern California from a wasteland with afew orange groves, apricot and avocado orchards and the celluloid industry of Hollywood to ahighly sophisticated industrial complex with millions of prosperous inhabitants. Thistechnological explosion had some very humble and human beginnings. The Acorns took root insome strange places: a church, a cannery, a barbershop, but from them mighty Oaks have indeedcome to fruition.(Essentially all of those Aircraft Plants are now GONE from Southern California - added by L.Cruse Nov. 2007)from: http://www.navworld.com/navhistory/acorndays.htmReprinted from NAAR (North American Aviation Retirees Bulletin) - Summer 2001The Growing Days 1930-1990Airliners, indeed, became mainstays of the industry during the 1930s. The Army and Navybought few airplanes during that decade, but people were beginning to fly. Boeing brought outthe 247, a fine twin-engine job that carried ten passengers where the Vega had room for only six.But it wasnt fine enough; it lost out in competition with the Douglas DC-2, which carriedfourteen. An enlarged version, the DC-3, had twenty-one seats. Entering service in 1936, it had
  27. 27. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 27the range to fly nonstop from New York to Chicago. Within a few years, it swept most of itsrivals from the skies.There were some military orders, even if they were not large. Martin built a good twin-enginebomber, the B-10. Boeing, licking its wounds after losing with its 247, found new business bycrafting a much better bomber: the B-17. It had four engines, which gave it greater speed andallowed it to carry more gasoline for longer range. It first flew during 1935 in tests for the Army.The first of the B-17s crashed, and the company might have crashed with it. But Army officialsliked it, and ordered a few. This gave Boeing a leg up on building bombers for use in World WarII.That war brought an enormous surge of business to the aircraft industry. Several companies builtthe important warplanes of the era:Boeing: B-17, B-29 bombersConvair: B-24 bomberLockheed: P-38 fighterCurtiss: P-40 fighter, C-46 transportDouglas: C-47, C-54 transportsNorth American: P-51 fighterRepublic: P-47 fighterFleets of B-17s and B-24s, escorted by P-47, and P-51 fighters, destroyed many of NaziGermanys factories and railroads. B-29s carried firebombs that burned Japans cities to theground. The C-46 carried supplies to China, helping that nation fight Japan and tying down a
  28. 28. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 28million Japanese soldiers who were fighting the Chinese. The C-47, a military version of the DC-3, carried troops as well as cargo. Over ten thousand of them entered service. General DwightEisenhower, the top U.S. commander, counted it as one of the items that did the most to win thewar.The end of the war brought a swift collapse of the aviation industry. According to Boeinghistorian Harold Mansfield, company officials learned of a sudden cancellation of army ordersand rushed to shut down the plant before the next shift of workers came in at four p.m. At NorthAmerican, employment dropped from 100,000 to 6,500 in only two months. As had been trueafter World War I, following World War II the nation again was awash in used aircraft that wereavailable cheaply. A C-47 could be had for $25,000, payable at $4,000 per year, and could easilyconvert into a DC-3.For airlines, the DC-3 remained popular. Most air routes were short and carried relatively fewpassengers on each flight, and the DC-3 served such connections quite effectively. However,after the war there also were coast-to-coast routes along with connections that crossed theAtlantic. For these, only new four-engine aircraft would do. Two became popular: the LockheedConstellation and the Douglas DC-6 (along with a later and faster version, the DC-7). Theirbuilders competed for advantage by offering improvements. The rivalry between Lockheed andDouglas defined progress in commercial aviation until the coming of the jets.The first jets were military. Lockheed, Republic, and North American built the first jet fighters:the P-80, F-84, and F-86. The F-86 was the best of them, shooting down Russian-built fightersand ruling the skies during the Korean War of 1950-1953.Missiles and jet bombers also drew attention. North American made a strong and earlycommitment to develop a missile of intercontinental range, the Navaho. This project needed
  29. 29. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 29rocket engines, guidance systems, and advanced designs that called for close understanding ofsupersonic flight. At the outset, in 1945, the pertinent fields of engineering simply did not exist.No matter, North American brought in good scientists and developed the necessary know-howon its own.Boeing showed similar leadership with jet bombers. The company used scientific data from theNational Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, supplementing it with data from its own windtunnel, a research facility that helped to determine the best shapes for aircraft flying close to thespeed of sound. This allowed the company to develop the earliest important jet bomber, the B-47. It first flew in 1947, with the Air Force purchasing over two thousand of them as it remainedin production from 1948 to 1956.The B-47 introduced the shape of things to come, for it had swept wings, jet engines mounted inpods below the wings, a swept tail, and a slender fuselage. During the 1950s, these designfeatures also appeared in the first successful jet airliners: the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8.Boeing and Douglas competed vigorously to sell these planes. The way to win an order was byoffering a custom version of a basic design, a modification that would serve an airlines specificneeds. These could include a shorter fuselage, a larger wing for long range, or more powerfulengines. Such modifications were costly, and Boeing proved to have the deeper pockets, for itwas selling planes to the Air Force in large numbers. Boeing paid for and built new airlinerversions that Douglas could not afford, thus winning an important advantage.The 707 entered service in 1958, the DC-8 in 1959. Both aircraft had four engines and could flynonstop across the Atlantic as well as from coast to coast. In addition, there also was greatinterest in a jetliner of shorter range, which could serve more routes. Boeing brought out its727and went on to sell more than 1,800 of them. But Douglas stayed in the game as well, with its
  30. 30. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 30twinjet DC-9 that served routes that were shorter still. Many of these connections were only afew hundred miles in length, but they were highly popular because they spared the need to drivea car over that distance.The Navy and Air Force had their own requirements. Convair built the B-36, which had six andlater ten engines. Boeing countered with the B-52, which mounted eight jet engines. It becamethe main bomber of the Air Forces Strategic Air Command. In addition, the decade of the 1950sbrought a host of fighter aircraft. Almost every company in the industry built some, includingDouglas, Grumman, Lockheed, McDonnell, North American, Northrop, Republic, and Vought.Missiles and space flight brought new opportunities. In 1954, the Air Force launched a majorpush toward rockets of intercontinental range, able to carry a hydrogen bomb to Moscow. Theseincluded the Atlas from Convair and the Titan, built by Martin. Douglas helped as well with theThor, based in England, which had less range but was available sooner. These missiles evolvedinto launch vehicles for the space program.Within that program, the civilian National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) cameto the forefront. During the 1960s it sponsored the Apollo program, which landed astronauts onthe moon. Again there were a number of participants, including Douglas, Grumman, McDonnell,and Boeing. North American did the most, drawing on its experience with the Navaho. Thiscompany built rocket engines, a major rocket stage, as well as the spacecraft that carried Apollosastronauts. It went on to build the Space Shuttle, including its main engines.During the drawdown at the conclusion of the Vietnam war, in the early 1970s, Boeing,Lockheed, and Douglas (which had merged with McDonnell) all fell into serious economictrouble.
  31. 31. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 31For Boeing, the source of difficulty was the enormous new 747 airliner. The company wentdeeply into debt to fund its development and initial production. But it couldnt deliver the earlymodels, because their engines were not ready. Then the nation went into a recession, and ordersdried up. Boeing came close to going bankrupt, but survived by selling improved versions ofearlier jets, including the 707 and 727.The 747 was too large for most routes, which opened up an opportunity for an airliner of slightlysmaller size. Lockheed came in with its L-1011, while McDonnell Douglas offered its DC-10.This was a mistake; there was room for one such airliner, but not both. However, neithercompany would back down, and both lost a great deal of money because they could not sellenough planes. Lockheed stopped building airliners altogether and became purely a militaryplane builder. McDonnell Douglas stayed in the commercial world. But it now was financiallyweak, and lacked the funds to develop anything more than variations of its DC-9 and DC-10.This raised the prospect that Boeing would reign over the airlines, holding a near monopoly.Airline executives chaffed at this possibility, for they enjoyed the competition and the lowerprices by multiple plane-building companies bid against each other. But during the late 1970s,European plane builders came to their rescue. France and Great Britain had a strong aviationindustry; they had built the Concorde, the worlds only supersonic airliner. Now these countriescombined with West Germany to create Airbus Industrie. During the 1980s, it competedvigorously with Boeing, winning a large number of orders.While airliner sales remained very strong, military demand fell off sharply with the end of theCold War, in 1991. During earlier periods of demobilization, the Pentagon had helped keep itsplanebuilders in business with a number of small orders spread out over the range of major
  32. 32. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 32manufacturers. However, fighters and bombers now were quite costly, and the Pentagon couldafford only a limited number of such programs.Officials of the Defense Department responded by facilitating a series of mergers, to consolidatethe industry within a small number of companies that would have enough business to remainstrong. Boeing, holding great power due to its success in selling airliners, bought out McDonnellDouglas and Rockwell International. Lockheed merged with Convair and with Martin Marietta,forming the firm of Lockheed Martin. A similar merger created the firm of Northrop Grumman.Today, these three U.S. companies dominate the American market for commercial airliners,military aircraft, and launch vehicles for space flight.During the 1980s, it competed vigorously with Boeing, winning a large number of orders.While airliner sales remained very strong, military demand fell off sharply with the end of theCold War, in 1991. During earlier periods of demobilization, the Pentagon had helped keep itsplanebuilders in business with a number of small orders spread out over the range of majormanufacturers. However, fighters and bombers now were quite costly, and the Pentagon couldafford only a limited number of such programs.Officials of the Defense Department responded by facilitating a series of mergers, to consolidatethe industry within a small number of companies that would have enough business to remainstrong. Boeing, holding great power due to its success in selling airliners, bought out McDonnellDouglas and Rockwell International. Lockheed merged with Convair and with Martin Marietta,forming the firm of Lockheed Martin. A similar merger created the firm of Northrop Grumman.Today, these three U.S. companies dominate the American market for commercial airliners,military aircraft, and launch vehicles for space flight.
  33. 33. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 33An International IndustryInternational politics has always played a role in aviation. Aircraft in flight easily transcendednational borders, so governments jointly developed navigation systems and airspace protocols.Spacecraft overflew national borders within seconds so nations set up international bodies toallocate portions of near-earth space. INTELSAT, an international consortium modeled onCOMSAT (the American consortium that governed operations of commercial satellites)standardized the operation of geosynchronous satellites to start the commercialization of space.Those who dreamed of space colonization also dreamed it might be free of earthly politics.Internationalization more clearly reshaped aerospace by helping firms from other countries findthe economies of scale they needed to forge a place in an industry so clearly dominated byAmerican firms.Only the Soviet Union challenged the American aerospace industry. In some areas, like heavylifting rockets and space medicine, the Soviets outpaced the Americans. But the Soviets andAmericans fought solely in the realm of perceptions of military might, not on any military oreconomic battleground. The Soviets also sold military aircraft and civil transports but, with fewexceptions, an airline bought either Soviet or American aircraft because of alliance politics ratherthan efficiencies in the marketplace. Even in civil aircraft, the Soviet Union invested far morethan their returns. In 1991, when the Soviet Union fractured into smaller states and the subsidiesdisappeared, the once mighty Soviet aerospace firms were reduced to paupers. European firmsthen stood as more serious competitors, largely because they had developed a globalunderstanding of the industry.Following World War II, the European aircraft industry was in shards. Germany, Italy, and Japanwere prohibited from making any aircraft of significance. French and British firms remained
  34. 34. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 34strong and innovative, though these firms sold mostly to their nations militaries and airlines.Neither could buy as many aircraft as their American counterparts, and European firms could notsufficiently amortize their engineering costs. During the 1960s, European governments allowedaircraft and missile firms to fail or consolidate into clear "national champions:" British AircraftCorporation, Hawker Siddely Aviation, and Rolls-Royce in Britain; Aerospatiale, Dassault,SNECMA and Matra in France; Messerschmit-Bölkow-Blohm and VFW in Germany; andCASA in Spain. Then governments asked their national champions to join transnationalconsortia intent on building specific types of aircraft -- like the PANAVIA Tornado fighter, thelaunch vehicles and satellites of the European Space Agency or, most successfully, the Airbusairliners. The matrix of many national firms participating variously in many transnationalprojects meant that the European industry operated neither as monopoly nor monopsony.Meanwhile international travel grew rapidly, and airlines became some of the worlds largestemployers. By the late 1950s, the major airlines had transitioned to Boeing or Douglas-built jetairliners -- which carried twice as many passengers at twice the speed in greater comfort.Between 1960 and 1974 passenger volume on international flights grew six fold. The Boeing747, a jumbo jet with 360 seats, took international air travel to a new level of excitement whenintroduced in January 1970. Each nation had at least one airline, and each airline had slightlydifferent requirements for the aircraft they used. Boeing and McDonnell Douglas pioneered newmethods of mass customization to build aircraft to these specifications. The Airbus A300 firstflew in September 1972, and European governments continued to subsidize the Airbus Industrieconsortium as it struggled for customers. In the 1980s, air travel again enjoyed a growth spurtthat Boeing and Douglas could not immediately satisfy, and Airbus found its market. By the1990s, the Airbus consortium had built a contractor network with tentacles around the world, haddeveloped a family of successful airliners, and split the market with American producers.
  35. 35. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 35Aerospace extends beyond the most industrialized nations. Walt Rostow in his widely read bookon economic development used aviation imagery to suggest a trajectory of industrial growth. Theimagery was not lost on newly industrializing countries like Brazil, Israel, Taiwan, South Korea,Singapore or Indonesia. They too entered the industry, opportunistically, by setting up depots tomaintain the aircraft they bought abroad. Then, they took subcontracts from American andEuropean firms to learn how to manage their own projects to high standards. Nations at war -- inthe Middle East, Africa, and Asia -- proved ready customers for these simple and inexpensiveaircraft. Missiles, likewise, if derived from proven designs, were generally easy and cheap toproduce. By 1971, fourteen nations could build short-range and air-defense missiles. By the1990s more than thirty nations had some capacity to manufacture complete aircraft. Some madeonly small, general-purpose aircraft -- which represent a tiny fraction of the total dollar value ofthe industry but proved immensely important to a military and communication needs ofdeveloping states. The leaders of almost every nation have seen aircraft as a leading sector -- onethat creates spin offs and sets the pace of technological advance in an entire economy.A Post-Cold War WorldWhen the Cold War ended, the aerospace industry changed dramatically. After the record run upin the federal deficit during the 1980s, by 1992 the United States Congress demanded a peacedividend and slashed funding for defense procurement. By 1994, the demand for civil airlinersalso underwent a cyclical downturn. Aerospace-dependent regions -- notably Los Angeles andSeattle -- suffered recession then rebuilt their economies around different industries. Aerospaceemployed 1.3 million Americans in 1989 or 8.8 percent of everyone working in manufacturing;by 1995 aerospace employed only 796,000 people or 4.3 percent of everyone working in a
  36. 36. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 36manufacturing industry. As it had for decades, in 1985 aerospace employed about one-fifth of allAmerican scientists and engineers engaged in research and development; by 1999 it employedonly seven percent.Rather than diversify or shed capacity haphazardly, aerospace firms focused. They divested ormerged feverishly in 1995 and 1996, hoping to find the best consolidation partners before thefederal government feared that competition would suffer. GE sold its aerospace division toMartin Marietta, which then sold itself to Lockheed. Boeing bought the aerospace units ofRockwell International, and then acquired McDonnell Douglas. Northrop bought Grumman.Lockheed Martin and Boeing both ended up with about ten percent of all government aerospacecontracts, though joint ventures and teaming remained significant. The concentration in theAmerican industry made it look like European industry, except that in the margins new venture-backed firms sprang up to develop new hybrid aircraft. Funding for space vehicles held fairlysteady as new firms found new uses for satellites in communications, defense, and remotesensing of the earth. NASA reconfigured its relations with industry around the mantra of "faster,better, and cheaper," especially in the creation of reusable launch vehicles.Throughout the Cold War, total sales by aerospace firms has divided one-half aircraft, with thatamount split fairly evenly between military and civil, one quarter space vehicles, one-tenthmissiles, and the rest ground support equipment. When spending for aerospace recovered in thelate 1990s, there was the first significant shift toward sales of civil aircraft. After a century ofdevelopment, there are strong signs that the aircraft and space industries are finally breaking freeof their military vassalage. There are also strong signs that the industry is becoming global --trans-Atlantic mergers, increasing standardization of parts and operations, aerospace imports andexports rising in lockstep. More likely, as it has been for a century, aerospace will remainintimately tied to the nation state.
  37. 37. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 37
  38. 38. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 38Chapter 1BHELICOPTERS"The Helicopter is the most versatile way of getting in and out anywhere in the world”HISTORY OF HELICOPTERSBy: Katie Kimmet and Amanda Nash“The vertical flight of the helicopter is an advantage to the world” “because, it allows flight andlandings without runways almost anywhere in the world”Introduction to HelicoptersThe development of the helicopter, perhaps one of mans most complex flying machines, is anexample of the effects of technological revolution (Sadler 1). The helicopter began as a basicprinciple of rotary-wing aviation and evolved into something much greater as human ingenuityand technology in America and elsewhere contributed to its development. The precision of partsdue to the Industrial Revolution enabled the helicopter to evolve into the modern machines wesee flying today. The need of accurate machinery and fixtures was evident when the earliesthelicopter models lacked the efficiency and flying capability of modern helicopters.Early Concepts of the HelicopterThe ChineseThe first concept of rotary-wing aviation came from the Chinese in the Fourth Century A.D. (Fay125-126). A book called "Pao Phu Tau" tells of the "Master" describing flying cars (fei chhe)with wood from the inner part of the jujube tree with ox-leather straps fastened to returningblades as to set the machine in motion (huan chien i yih chhi chi) (Fay 125-126). "Joseph
  39. 39. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 39Needham, the author of Science and Civilization, also suggests that although this was no morethan a design for a toy, it is indeed the first recorded pattern of what we might understand as ahelicopter" (Sadler 1). The concept of rotary-wing aviation had unquestionably been found, butthe technology needed to create a helicopter had not been produced.Figure 4.Courtesy of "History of Helicopters ".Leonardo Da VinciDa Vincis vaunted spiral design created in 1490, called the Helical Air Screw, has often beencited as the first serious attempt to produce a working helicopter (Sadler 1). Da Vinci himselfquoted on the device: "...I have discovered that a screw-shaped device such as this, if it is wellmade from starched linen, will rise in the air if turned quickly..." (History of Helicopters 1).However, this was only an experimental design and was never put into practical use. "Da Vinciwas in this instance no more than an experimental engineer, putting onto paper age-oldprinciples" (Sadler 1). Without adequate technology the ability to create such machines wasvirtually impossible during this time.Fifteenth through the Twentieth CenturiesA wide amount of minor inventions contributed to the advancement of the helicopter. Betweenthe Fifteenth and Twentieth Centuries, adequate machinery needed to produce helicopters, liketurbine engines and rotors, was not yet made possible by assembly lines, but as the IndustrialRevolution prompted factories and technology accelerated, the helicopter evolved. One of thefirst breakthroughs in helicopter advancement was by George Cayley who produced a convert-
  40. 40. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 40plane in 1843 (Sadler 1). A man named Bourne flew the helicopter-like aircraft a year later. Thismodel was apparently powered by spring-like contraptions inside (Fay 127). All helicoptermodels at this time lacked suitable power to achieve flight and were both bulky and heavy.Early Twentieth CenturyThe early Twentieth Century produced many historic moments in rotary-wing aviation. BrothersLouis and Jacques Breget rose some two inches off the ground in their helicopter model onAugust 24, 1907 (Sadler 2). A Frenchman named Paul Cornu also achieved free flight in hismodel in 1907 (Fay 132). The flight lasted only twenty seconds and acquired an altitude of thirtycentimeters but was still a landmark development in helicopter evolution. The start of theIndustrial Revolution had created a way for technology to advance.World War I AdvancementsMilitary Interest in the helicopter during World War I contributed to its advancement also. Thefirst recorded example of this involved the Germans Von Karman and Petrosczy and theHungarian Asboth. These men produced a lifting device intended to replace kite balloons forobservation. "It consisted of two superimposed lifting propellers" (Fay 133). This autogyromodel, called the PKZ-2, failed because of various difficulties. It was not until the late period ofWorld War I that major helicopter advances were made. The quality and quantity of productionmaterials increased, and great improvements were made in the field of engine technology inmany parts of the world including Europe and the United States. An aircraft model for militaryadvancement was needed for more versatile and precise war tactics. With better technology andmore need, the next step in helicopter advancement would soon come.
  41. 41. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 41Figure 5. Built for US Army Air Force by Georgrij Bothezat (USSR). Courtesy of "Historyof Helicopters".Autogyros are inventedThe autogyro evolved from earlier models during this time. A Spaniard named Juana de laCierva experimented with autogyros for the allies in Great Britain until his death in 1936 (Sadler2). Two Cierva C.40 autogyros were used for Air Observation Post during World War I. Theydid have some setbacks, however. Autogyros could neither hover nor descend vertically like themodern helicopter. Relying on forward motion, the autogyross primitive engine lacked thepower to run as efficiently as the helicopters. The helicopters superiority was made readilyapparent by the planned replacement of the RAFs No. 529 Squadrons autogyros with theSikorsky aircraft in 1944 (Sadler 2).Figure 6. Modern Autogyro courtesy of "History of Helicopters".
  42. 42. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 42Sikorskys AdvancementsThe success in the field of rotary-wing aviation was due almost entirely to a man living inAmerica named Igor Sikorsky. Sikorsky was a Russian who had fled from the BolshevikRevolution in 1917 to France (Sadler 2). After years of private development, he encouraged theUnited States Government to agree to a considerable budget of two million dollars for rotary-wing research in 1938 (Sadler 2). The government ended up choosing a joint Sikorsky-Voughteffort to be funded, and the project evolved into the VS-300 model helicopter. It formed the mosttangible link between the early design concept of rotary-wing aviation and the practical aircraftthat is capable of military operation (Sadler 2). The machine was indeed quite different fromearlier models. It was an incredible advancement in helicopters, but others soon followed.Figure 7.One of Sikorskys earlier models. Courtesy of "History of Helicopters".1950 AdvancementsDuring the 1950s many new advancements in helicopters were made. Sikorsky crafted theworlds first certified commercial transport helicopter, the S-55 Chickasaw (H-19). Another mannamed Hiller created the flying platform called the Hiller XROE-1 Rotorcycle.Figure 8.Hillers flying platform courtesy of "History of Helicopters".
  43. 43. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 43The Turbine Engines ImpactThe creation of the turbine engine advanced the helicopters capabilities even further. Withassembly lines brought about by the Industrial Revolution, these engines could be produced withhigh efficiency and increased precision. The worlds first turbine gas-powered engine was theKaman K-225 (History of Helicopters 3). Mc Donnell made the first successful helicopter withhorizontal winged flight from a vertical rotor powered by the turbine engine (History ofHelicopers 3). He continued to create newer models in the proceeding decades.Figure 9.Mc Donnells helicopter courtesy of History of Helicopters.1960s & 1970s: The Vietnam War and how the helicopter changedThe 1960s and the 1970s marked a widespread advancement in helicopters because of theVietnam War. Beginning in 1964 this war lasted for almost a decade (Garraty 1078). Themilitarys need for advanced helicopters can be seen in historical pictures of the machines flyingthrough the jungles of Vietnam to retrieve wounded troops. Helicopters were also used asweapons during this time. Many new helicopters appeared with missile capabilities. The Bell 209Cobra "Snake" is one such helicopter. Large missiles protruded from the sides of the machine onmetal bases above. Another example is the Gyrodyne QH-50 (History of Helicopters 4). Thishelicopter used infrared cameras to observe at night for better protection (History of Helicopters4). This helicopter is still being utilized today.
  44. 44. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 44Figure 10. Bell 209 Cobra "Snake" courtesy of "History of Helicopters".1980s and the HelicopterDuring the 1980s helicopter advancement was evidently seen as the machinery was refined. McDonnell continued to produce helicopters like the Tiltrotor Unmanned Air Vehicle and theBell/Boeing 609, the worlds first commercial tiltrotor (History of Helicopters 1). Smallerhelicopters were produced to fulfill the publics needs. The Ultrasport Helicopters and the AirCommand International Commander 14/A are appreciable examples. Many helicopters used jetthrust rather than blades to give the directional stability, which made them extremely quiet(History of Helicopters 5).Figure 11. Bell/Boeing 609 courtesy of "History of Helicopters".
  45. 45. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 45Early 1990s and the HelicopterDuring the early 1990s helicopters were produced by large corporations like the Euro copterIndustry (Spartacus 57) and the Civil Helicopter Industry (Proctor 88). The RevolutionHelicopter Corporation created a single-seat helicopter that can be built by a person at home inforty to sixty hours (History of Helicopters 4). The machines were used in all areas of the publicincluding the police force and hospitals. Helicopters are still used in this way in the late 1990s.They are evolving to become more efficient and capable of reaching their goals.Figure 12. Revolution Helicopter Corp. Mini 500 courtesy of "History of Helicopters".Conclusion of Helicopter EvolutionThe vertical flight of the helicopter is an advantage to the world. Because of advanced machinerysuch as turbine engines and pistons contributed by technology, the helicopter can be seen flyingtoday. Since history the idea of rotary-wing flight has been accounted by curious individualsrecognizing its potential. These ideas have evolved from a dream to a reality because oftechnology and will continue to evolve through time with the advancement of it. Add the Helicopter existence:o Igor Sikorsky vs. years to develop controlled Vertical Lift.
  46. 46. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 46o Vertical Lift blade, Counter Rotating as starto Then Counter separated Main Rotor split to the side which worked and evolved intothe Chinook Heavy Lifting Aircraft.o Factor of three: Vertical Lift blade Engine(s) Tail Rotor (McDonnell Douglas Notaro V-22 our Nation bet the 50 year future on this technology, it didn’t succeed as well asexpected because: Noise and transitioning wasn’t always simple.
  47. 47. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 47Chapter 1CROCKET SHIPS"The Rocket ship is the way to get into Space because it carries its complete propellant”HISTORY OF ROCKET SHIPS“This technological explosion had some very humble and human beginnings. The Acorns tookroot in some strange places: a church, a cannery, a barbershop, but from them mighty Oakshave indeed come to fruition”. Whoever wrote it?Todays rockets are remarkable collections of human ingenuity. NASAs Space Shuttle, forexample, is one of the most complex flying machines ever invented. It stands upright on a launchpad, lifts off as a rocket, orbits Earth as a spacecraft, and returns to Earth as a gliding airplane.The Space Shuttle is a true spaceship. In a few years it will be joined by other spaceships. TheEuropean Space Agency is building the Hermes and Japan is building the HOPE. Still later maybecome aerospace planes that will take off from runways as airplanes, fly into space, and returnas airplanes.The rockets and spaceships of today and the spaceships of the future have their roots in thescience and technology of the past. They are natural outgrowths of literally thousands of years ofexperimentation and research on rockets and rocket propulsion.One of the first devices to successfully employ the principles essential to rocket flight was awooden bird. In the writings of Aulus Gellius, a Roman, there is a story of a Greek named
  48. 48. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 48Archytas who lived in the city of Tarentum, now a part of southern Italy. Somewhere around theyear 400 B.C., Archytas mystified and amused the citizens of Tarentum by flying a pigeon madeof wood. It appears that the bird was suspended on wires and propelled along by escaping steam.The pigeon used the action-reaction principle that was not to be stated as a scientific law until the17th century.About three hundred years after the pigeon, another Greek, Hero of Alexandria, invented asimilar rocket-like device called an aeolipile. It, too, used steam as a propulsive gas. Heromounted a sphere on top of a water kettle. A fire below the kettle turned the water into steam,and the gas traveled through pipes to the sphere. Two L-shaped tubes on opposite sides of thesphere allowed the gas to escape, and in doing so gave a thrust to the sphere that caused it torotate.
  49. 49. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 49Figure 13. Hero EngineJust when the first true rockets appeared is unclear. Stories of early rocket like devices appearsporadically through the historical records of various cultures. Perhaps the first true rockets wereaccidents. In the first century A.D., the Chinese were reported to have had a simple form ofgunpowder made from saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal dust. It was used mostly for fireworks inreligious and other festive celebrations. Bamboo tubes were filled with the mixture and tossedinto fires to create explosions during religious festivals. lt is entirely possible that some of thosetubes failed to explode and instead skittered out of the fires, propelled by the gases and sparksproduced by the burning gunpowder.Figure 14. Chinese Fire ArrowIt is certain that the Chinese began to experiment with the gunpowder-filled tubes. At somepoint, bamboo tubes were attached to arrows and launched with bows. Soon it was discoveredthat these gunpowder tubes could launch themselves just by the power produced from theescaping gas. The true rocket was born.The first date we know true rockets were used was the year 1232. At this time, the Chinese andthe Mongols were at war with each other. During the battle of Kai-Keng, the Chinese repelledthe Mongol invaders by a barrage of "arrows of flying fire." These fire-arrows were a simpleform of a solid-propellant rocket. A tube, capped at one end, was filled with gunpowder. Theother end was left open and the tube was attached to a long stick. When the powder was ignited,
  50. 50. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 50the rapid burning of the powder produced fire, smoke, and gas that escaped out the open end andproduced a thrust. The stick acted as a simple guidance system that kept the rocket headed in onegeneral direction as it flew through the air. It is not clear how effective these arrows of flying firewere as weapons of destruction, but their psychological effects on the Mongols must have beenformidable.Figure 15. Chinese Fire Arrow LaunchFollowing the battle of Kai-Keng, the Mongols produced rockets of their own and may havebeen responsible for the spread of rockets to Europe. All through the 13th to the 15th centuriesthere were reports of many rocket experiments. In England, a monk named Roger Bacon workedon improved forms of gunpowder that greatly increased the range of rockets. In France, JeanFroissart found that more accurate flights could be achieved by launching rockets through tubes.Froissarts idea was the forerunner of the modern bazooka. Joanes de Fontana of Italy designed asurface-running rocket-powered torpedo for setting enemy ships on fire.Figure 16. Surface Running Torpedo
  51. 51. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 51By the 16th century rockets fell into a time of disuse as weapons of war, though they were stillused for fireworks displays, and a German fireworks maker, Johann Schmidlap, invented the"step rocket," a multi-staged vehicle for lifting fireworks to higher altitudes. A large sky rocket(first stage) carried a smaller sky rocket (second stage). When the large rocket burned out, thesmaller one continued to a higher altitude before showering the sky with glowing cinders.Schmidlaps idea is basic to all rockets today that go into outer space.Nearly all uses of rockets up to this time were for warfare or fireworks, but there is an interestingold Chinese legend that reported the use of rockets as a means of transportation. With the help ofmany assistants, a lesser-known Chinese official named Wan-Hu assembled a rocket- poweredflying chair. Attached to the chair were two large kites, and fixed to the kites were forty- sevenfire-arrow rockets.On the day of the flight, Wan-Hu sat himself on the chair and gave the command to light therockets. Forty-seven rocket assistants, each armed with torches, rushed forward to light the fuses.In a moment, there was a tremendous roar accompanied by billowing clouds of smoke. When thesmoke cleared, Wan-Hu and his flying chair were gone. No one knows for sure what happened toWan-Hu, but it is probable that if the event really did take place, Wan-Hu and his chair wereblown to pieces. Fire-arrows were as apt to explode as to fly.Figure 17. Wan-Hu Flying Chair
  52. 52. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 52Rocketry Becomes a ScienceDuring the latter part of the 17th century, the scientific foundations for modern rocketry werelaid by the great English scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727). Newton organized hisunderstanding of physical motion into three scientific laws. The laws explain how rockets workand why they are able to work in the vacuum of outer space.Newtons laws soon began to have a practical impact on the design of rockets. About 1720, aDutch professor, Willem Gravesande, built model cars propelled by jets of steam. Rocketexperimenters in Germany and Russia began working with rockets with a mass of more than 45kilograms. Some of these rockets were so powerful that their escaping exhaust flames bored deepholes in the ground even before lift-off.During the end of the 18th century and early into the 19th, rockets experienced a brief revival asa weapon of war. The success of Indian rocket barrages against the British in 1792 and again in1799 caught the interest of an artillery expert, Colonel William Congreve. Congreve set out todesign rockets for use by the British military.The Congreve rockets were highly successful in battle. Used by British ships to pound FortMcHenry in the War of 1812, they inspired Francis Scott Key to write "the rockets red glare,"words in his poem that later became The Star- Spangled Banner.Even with Congreves work, the accuracy of rockets still had not improved much from the earlydays. The devastating nature of war rockets was not their accuracy or power, but their numbers.During a typical siege, thousands of them might be fired at the enemy. All over the world, rocketresearchers experimented with ways to improve accuracy. An Englishman, William Hale,developed a technique called spin stabilization. In this method, the escaping exhaust gases struck
  53. 53. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 53small vanes at the bottom of the rocket, causing it to spin much as a bullet does in flight.Variations of the principle are still used today.Rockets continued to be used with success in battles all over the European continent. However,in a war with Prussia, the Austrian rocket brigades met their match against newly designedartillery pieces. Breech-loading cannon with rifled barrels and exploding warheads were far moreeffective weapons of war than the best rockets. Once again, rockets were relegated to peacetimeuses.Modern Rocketry BeginsIn 1898, a Russian schoolteacher, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), proposed the idea ofspace exploration by rocket. In a report he published in 1903, Tsiolkovsky suggested the use ofliquid propellants for rockets in order to achieve greater range. Tsiolkovsky stated that the speedand range of a rocket were limited only by the exhaust velocity of escaping gases. For his ideas,careful research, and great vision, Tsiolkovsky has been called the father of modern astronautics.Figure 18. Tsiolkovsky Rockets
  54. 54. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 54Early in the 20th century, an American, Robert H. Goddard (1882-1945), conducted practicalexperiments in rocketry. He had become interested in a way of achieving higher altitudes thanwere possible for lighter-than-air balloons. He published a pamphlet in 1919 entitled A Methodof Reaching Extreme Altitudes. It was a mathematical analysis of what is today called themeteorological sounding rocket.In his pamphlet, Goddard reached several conclusions important to rocketry. From his tests, hestated that a rocket operates with greater efficiency in a vacuum than in air. At the time, mostpeople mistakenly believed that air was needed for a rocket to push against and a New YorkTimes newspaper editorial of the day mocked Goddards lack of the "basic physics ladled outdaily in our high schools." Goddard also stated that multistage or step rockets were the answer toachieving high altitudes and that the velocity needed to escape Earths gravity could be achievedin this way.Goddards earliest experiments were with solid-propellant rockets. In 1915, he began to try
  55. 55. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 55various types of solid fuels and to measure the exhaust velocities of the burning gases.Figure 19. Goddard’s 1926 RocketWhile working on solid-propellant rockets, Goddard became convinced that a rocket could bepropelled better by liquid fuel. No one had ever built a successful liquid-propellant rocket before.It was a much more difficult task than building solid- propellant rockets. Fuel and oxygen tanks,turbines, and combustion chambers would be needed. In spite of the difficulties, Goddardachieved the first successful flight with a liquid- propellant rocket on March 16, 1926. Fueled byliquid oxygen and gasoline, the rocket flew for only two and a half seconds, climbed 12.5 meters,and landed 56 meters away in a cabbage patch. By todays standards, the flight wasunimpressive, but like the first powered airplane flight by the Wright brothers in 1903, Goddardsgasoline rocket was the forerunner of a whole new era in rocket flight.Goddards experiments in liquid-propellant rockets continued for many years. His rocketsbecame bigger and flew higher. He developed a gyroscope system for flight control and apayload compartment for scientific instruments. Parachute recovery systems were employed toreturn rockets and instruments safely. Goddard, for his achievements, has been called the fatherof modern rocketry.
  56. 56. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 56A third great space pioneer, Hermann Oberth (1894-1989) of Germany, published a book in 1923about rocket travel into outer space. His writings were important. Because of them, many smallrocket societies sprang up around the world. In Germany, the formation of one such society, theVerein fur Raumschiffahrt (Society for Space Travel), led to the development of the V-2 rocket,which was used against London during World War II. In 1937, German engineers and scientists,including Oberth, assembled in Peenemunde on the shores of the Baltic Sea. There the mostadvanced rocket of its time would be built and flown under the directorship of Wernher vonBraun.
  57. 57. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 57Figure 20. German V2 RocketThe V-2 rocket (in Germany called the A-4) was small by comparison to todays rockets. Itachieved its great thrust by burning a mixture of liquid oxygen and alcohol at a rate of about oneton every seven seconds. Once launched, the V-2 was a formidable weapon that could devastatewhole city blocks.Fortunately for London and the Allied forces, the V-2 came too late in the war to change itsoutcome. Nevertheless, by wars end, German rocket scientists and engineers had already laidplans for advanced missiles capable of spanning the Atlantic Ocean and landing in the UnitedStates. These missiles would have had winged upper stages but very small payload capacities.With the fall of Germany, many unused V-2 rockets and components were captured by theAllies. Many German rocket scientists came to the United States. Others went to the SovietUnion. The German scientists, including Wernher von Braun, were amazed at the progressGoddard had made.Both the United States and the Soviet Union realized the potential of rocketry as a militaryweapon and began a variety of experimental programs. At first, the United States began aprogram with high-altitude atmospheric sounding rockets, one of Goddards early ideas. Later, avariety of medium- and long-range intercontinental ballistic missiles were developed. Thesebecame the starting point of the U.S. space program. Missiles such as the Redstone, Atlas, andTitan would eventually launch astronauts into space.On October 4, 1957, the world was stunned by the news of an Earth-orbiting artificial satellitelaunched by the Soviet Union. Called Sputnik I, the satellite was the first successful entry in arace for space between the two superpower nations. Less than a month later, the Soviets followed
  58. 58. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 58with the launch of a satellite carrying a dog named Laika on board. Laika survived in space forseven days before being put to sleep before the oxygen supply ran out.A few months after the first Sputnik, the United States followed the Soviet Union with a satelliteof its own. Explorer I was launched by the U.S. Army on January 31, 1958. In October of thatyear, the United States formally organized its space program by creating the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA became a civilian agency with the goalof peaceful exploration of space for the benefit of all humankind.Soon, many people and machines were being launched into space. Astronauts orbited Earth andlanded on the Moon. Robot spacecraft traveled to the planets. Space was suddenly opened up toexploration and commercial exploitation. Satellites enabled scientists to investigate our world,forecast the weather, and to communicate instantaneously around the globe. As the demand formore and larger payloads increased, a wide array of powerful and versatile rockets had to bebuilt.Since the earliest days of discovery and experimentation, rockets have evolved from simplegunpowder devices into giant vehicles capable of traveling into outer space. Rockets haveopened the universe to direct exploration by humankind.
  59. 59. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 59Chapter 2Changing Times"The defense industry became detached from the rest of the economy"Americas defense companies are turning dual-purposeJul 18th 2002 | from the print editionTHE 1990s were an eventful time for Americas defense industry. With the cold war at an end,the number of big American contractors came down from 15 to five (Lockheed Martin, Boeing,Raytheon, Northrop Grumman and General Dynamics) within a decade. That was a dramaticconsolidation, but as budgets shrank, it was not unexpected.The other, more surprising development was that the defense industry turned into a kind of
  60. 60. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 60ghetto, despite considerable efforts to make doing business with the Pentagon easier and lessbureaucratic. Barriers to entry were removed in the hope of turning defense into something morelike a normal business, but instead of an influx of new blood, a mass exodus followed. IBM,General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, General Electric (except engines) and Texas Instruments all soldor closed their defense companies. As Merrill Lynchs Byron Callan put it, “The defense industrybecame detached from the rest of the economy.”Figure 21. Aerospace & Defense SalesThe reasons are not hard to find: the federal government is a demanding customer; defense profitmargins are often tighter than in the private sector; and strict rules on procurement have in thepast caused some defense companies to lose money on fixed-price development contracts. Manycompanies decided the defense game was not worth the candle.Downsizing: Merger & AcquisitionsA survey of the defense industry: Getting it together?With just a handful of big American companies and a trio of European ones, each of whichdominates its home market and competes in places such as the Middle East and Asia, properglobalization (in the sense of a number of transnational companies competing worldwide) seemsout of the question. But that does not mean that globalization will have no part in the defenseindustry at all. Because electronics and computing software play an increasing role in defensesystems, the core defense companies have to ensure they have access to a wider pool oftechnology.
  61. 61. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 61What remains to be seen over the next decade is whether the ghetto model will survive, orwhether defense will eventually move closer to commercial business. The more it does, the moreglobal it could get at the level of the second- or third-tier suppliers, who make components orequipment for the prime contractors. Lawrence Freedman of Kings College, London, who haswritten on the implications of RMA, sees the ghetto walls coming down as the civil sectordevelops more technical dynamism. The trend towards increased use of IT and systemsintegration in warfare should accelerate this trend:The old defense sector was based on dedicated programs with only a limited civilian spin-off.This now exists side by side with a more dynamic industry, which can pass through twogenerations of technology while the official defense-procurement machinery is still working itsway laboriously through its bureaucratic mechanisms. Although the electronics and computingsectors originally took off on the back of military investment, they have now developed theircivilian markets to such an extent that even the military is a minor player.Underlying this is a worry that the defense industry, having consolidated so much with a loss ofcompetition on both sides of the Atlantic, might begin to lag in innovation, and might not be upto supporting the transformation of the armed forces it serves. Even though Americas militarymight and technology is streets ahead of anyone elses, the country cannot afford to becomplacent. A recent study by RANDs National Defense Research Institute looked at militaryrevolutions throughout history and found that, by and large, new ways of waging war wereusually developed by a country or a group that was not dominant at the time.Indeed, it could be argued that the most revolutionary military development to happen in recenttimes was the hijacking last September of four kerosene-laden jetliners to use as guided missiles
  62. 62. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 62in New York and Washington, DC. Modern electronic technology in the form of e-mails and theInternet played a big part in the planning of this venture.By contrast, the traditional defense industry grinds away slowly, with mighty systems immutablydetermined by defense-department contracts. To take one example, the Joint Strike Fighter couldwell go into service with electronics systems that, although state-of-the-art in 2006, will begetting long in the tooth in 2012, unless something is done to update them.Jerry Daniels at Boeing, which lost the JSF contract, points to the dangers that engineering teamswill scatter and expertise will be lost when Lockheed Martin eventually becomes the onlycompany making fighters. “Twenty years ago we had 50-odd defense contractors; today we havea handful. Then there were many rapid opportunities to bid, there was always a new programcoming along.” By contrast, he explains, the trend now is towards fighters that combine manyfunctions and can be ordered in bulk. His (perhaps not entirely disinterested) suggestion is that itmight be better to go for upgrades every five years and put the work out to competitive bids. Tosome extent, this is already being done. Boeing has recently won a contract to rethink andupgrade the avionics on the C130 transport plane manufactured by its arch-rival, LockheedMartin. Then go onto Lockheed Martin to 2011, they turned out to be finances to be how muchper Aircraft? F-22 or F-35. My Brother In-Law finds humor in games of the things their newAircraft can Do. When asked at a certain range and sweep what is the most effective aircraft?Most USAF Officials’ SAY f-22, answers was F-16.

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