DRAFT Jan. 2013     AEROSPACE INDUSTRY - AMERICA’S FUTURE?     THE FLYING MACHINE THAT CHANGED THE WORLD© 2011 Shawn Paul ...
DRAFT Jan. 2013    If you want someone to be able to copy or distribute portions of the book, placeexceptions here (AIAA, ...
DRAFT Jan. 2013   Early 1990s and the Helicopter                                       32   Conclusion of Helicopter Evolu...
DRAFT Jan. 2013Chapter 4                                                               67The Economic Importance          ...
DRAFT Jan. 2013References & Contributors:                                             109Chapter 1: Beginnings & Buildups ...
DRAFT Jan. 2013List of IllustrationsFigure 1. Spirit of Exploration .........................................................
DRAFT Jan. 2013Figure 27. F35 JSF in Vertical Flight and Forward Flight ................................................ 6...
DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012   8
DRAFT Jan. 2013Epigraph Page“Global leadership is not a birthright. Despite what many Americans believe, our nation doesno...
DRAFT Jan. 2013     “The desire to fly is an idea handed down to us by our ancestors who looked enviously onthe birds soar...
DRAFT Jan. 2013Plane (NASP) Hypersonic aircraft (mach25) also known as the Orient Express LA toTokyo in 2 hours?     Why i...
DRAFT Jan. 2013     Chapter 1The Beginning & Buildups “It is my belief that flight is possible and, while I am taking up i...
DRAFT Jan. 2013                    Figure 2. George Cayley & described a modern airplaneHe later made two other gliders wi...
DRAFT Jan. 2013it-thus creating lift. This creates a higher pressure are beneath the wing than above it.The pressure diffe...
DRAFT Jan. 2013experiments because its consistent high winds off the ocean are perfect for kite flying.The brothers correc...
DRAFT Jan. 2013Other plane builders also went into business: Donald Douglas, William Boeing, and AlanLoughead, who pronoun...
DRAFT Jan. 2013passel of money-minded gals who entertained transitory male guests.After Glenn Martin built his airplane in...
DRAFT Jan. 2013factory, he was soon joined by Donald Douglas who went to work and came up with thedesign of the Martin Bom...
DRAFT Jan. 2013Shortly afterwards, Jack Northrop left the Douglas Company in 1926. Working at home,he designed a wonderful...
DRAFT Jan. 2013Squier left Martin to tie in with the Detroit Aircraft Company which had acquired theLockheed Aircraft Comp...
DRAFT Jan. 20131935 in tests for the Army. The first of the B-17s crashed, and the company might havecrashed with it. But ...
DRAFT Jan. 2013Missiles and jet bombers also drew attention. North American made a strong and earlycommitment to develop a...
DRAFT Jan. 2013helped as well with the Thor, based in England, which had less range but was availablesooner. These missile...
DRAFT Jan. 2013Officials of the Defense Department responded by facilitating a series of mergers, toconsolidate the indust...
DRAFT Jan. 2013on any military or economic battleground. The Soviets also sold military aircraft andcivil transports but, ...
DRAFT Jan. 2013Brazil, Israel, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore or Indonesia. They too entered theindustry, opportunisticall...
DRAFT Jan. 2013Throughout the Cold War, total sales by aerospace firms has divided one-half aircraft,with that amount spli...
DRAFT Jan. 2013     Chapter 1BHELICOPTERS"The Helicopter is the most versatile way of getting in and out anywhere in the w...
DRAFT Jan. 2013Vinci himself quoted on the device: "...I have discovered that a screw-shaped device suchas this, if it is ...
DRAFT Jan. 2013Figure 5. Built for US Army Air Force by Georgrij Bothezat (USSR). Courtesy of "History                    ...
DRAFT Jan. 2013                        Figure 7.           One of Sikorskys earlier models. Courtesy of "History of Helico...
DRAFT Jan. 2013protruded from the sides of the machine on metal bases above. Another example is theGyrodyne QH-50 (History...
DRAFT Jan. 2013still used in this way in the late 1990s. They are evolving to become more efficient andcapable of reaching...
DRAFT Jan. 2013     Chapter 1CROCKET SHIPS"The Rocket ship is the way to get into Space because it carries its complete pr...
DRAFT Jan. 2013                                        Figure 13. Hero EngineJust when the first true rockets appeared is ...
DRAFT Jan. 2013The first date we know true rockets were used was the year 1232. At this time, theChinese and the Mongols w...
DRAFT Jan. 2013before showering the sky with glowing cinders. Schmidlaps idea is basic to all rocketstoday that go into ou...
DRAFT Jan. 2013The Congreve rockets were highly successful in battle. Used by British ships to poundFort McHenry in the Wa...
DRAFT Jan. 2013higher altitudes than were possible for lighter-than-air balloons. He published apamphlet in 1919 entitled ...
DRAFT Jan. 2013first powered airplane flight by the Wright brothers in 1903, Goddards gasoline rocketwas the forerunner of...
DRAFT Jan. 2013                                    Figure 20. German V2 RocketThe V-2 rocket (in Germany called the A-4) w...
DRAFT Jan. 2013Since the earliest days of discovery and experimentation, rockets have evolved fromsimple gunpowder devices...
DRAFT Jan. 2013     Chapter 2Changing Times                   "The defense industry became detached from the rest of the e...
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  1. 1. DRAFT Jan. 2013 AEROSPACE INDUSTRY - AMERICA’S FUTURE? THE FLYING MACHINE THAT CHANGED THE WORLD© 2011 Shawn Paul Boike, Long Beach, California All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in anyform or by any means without written permission from the author.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 1
  2. 2. DRAFT Jan. 2013 If you want someone to be able to copy or distribute portions of the book, placeexceptions here (AIAA, AIA, Boeing) Table of ContentsAEROSPACE INDUSTRY - A MERICA’S F UTURE? 1THE FLYING MACHINE THAT CHANGED THE W ORLD 1Table of Contents 2List of Illustrations 6Epigraph Page 9Introduction 10The Flying Machine that Changed the World 10Chapter 1 12The Beginning & Buildups 12 THE US AEROSPACE INDUSTRY – The Early Days 15 THE ACORN DAYS 16From a speech given by Mr. Denham S. Scott to the AIA on March 19, 1968 16from: http://www.navworld.com/navhistory/acorndays.htm Reprinted from NAAR (NorthAmerican Aviation Retirees Bulletin) - Summer 2001 20 The Growing Days 1930-1990 20 An International Industry 24 A Post-Cold War World 26Chapter 1B 28HELICOPTERS 28"The Helicopter is the most versatile way of getting in and out anywhere in the world” 28 HISTORY OF HELICOPTERS 28 The Chinese 28 Leonardo Da Vinci 28 Fifteenth through the Twentieth Centuries 29 Early Twentieth Century 29 World War I Advancements 29 Autogyros are invented 30 Sikorskys Advancements 30 1950 Advancements 31 The Turbine Engines Impact 31 1960s & 1970s: The Vietnam War and how the helicopter changed 31 1980s and the Helicopter 32Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 2
  3. 3. DRAFT Jan. 2013 Early 1990s and the Helicopter 32 Conclusion of Helicopter Evolution 33Chapter 1C 34ROCKET SHIPS 34"The Rocket ship is the way to get into Space because it carries its complete propellant” 34 HISTORY OF ROCKET SHIPS 34 Rocketry Becomes a Science 37Modern Rocketry Begins 38Chapter 2 43Changing Times 43 Americas defense companies are turning dual-purpose 43Jul 18th 2002 | from the print edition 43 Downsizing: Merger & Acquisitions 44A survey of the defense industry: Getting it together? 44 Two-way traffic 47 The Total Quality Management Farce 49 When Government Gave US Away 51 Sidebar: A License to Steal Jobs 51 Pres. Clinton’s Transferring Technology to China 52Sanctions and Technology Transfer Policy 52 Change Maybe Coming-but not soon Enough 53Chapter 3 55Where We Are Today… 55Were falling behind. 55By Norm Augustine (Ret. Chairman & CEO Lockheed Martin)55 America’s Lost Leadership 58 Lockheed Martin 59 General Dynamics-old 62 McDonnell Douglas-now Boeing 64 Boeing Aircraft 65 Northrop Grumman 65Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 3
  4. 4. DRAFT Jan. 2013Chapter 4 67The Economic Importance 67 Economic Importance 67 World Economy vs. USA 67 Industry Economic Histories 69 America’s Aerospace Economic Case 69 TRADABLE EMPLOYMENT 69 Economic Value – A Comparative Model 75 Aerospace & Defense: Least Understood Industrial Sector 76By guest author Robert H. Trice 76 Lost: Americas Industrial Base 77 Fading Space Industrial Base 80Chapter 5 82The Future Forecasts 82 The World’s Growing Competition 82 U.S. faces foreign competition — in space 82By Peter N. Spotts, The Christian Science Monitor 11/7/2005 6:28 PM 82 Where All the Money Is: 85 Boeing’s Future Forecast 87The US Commercial Aerospace Industry and Defense 2012-203187http://www.boeing.com/boeing/commercial/cmo/ 87 Airbus Future Forecast 87 Asia’s Future Forecast 87 Forecast Considerations: 87Chapter 6 88Our Future Focus and Plans 88 Where’s our Flying Car? 89 The Super Sonic Cruiser 90 Hypersonic - The Orient Express 91 Space Tourism 92 Space Based Solar Power-Energy 92 Tomorrows new Bomber 95 Educating Tomorrow’s People 96 10 Incredible Airplane Designs of the Future 96In the middle of this century, telecommunications will be so 104Boeing’s 797 Concept 104Conclusion 106Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 4
  5. 5. DRAFT Jan. 2013References & Contributors: 109Chapter 1: Beginnings & Buildups 110Higham, Charles. Howard Hughes: the Secret Life. New York: Putnams, 1993 113On-Line References: 117“Early Martin Planes.” http://www.martinstateairport.com/ 118“F-22 Raptor.” http://www.boeing.com/history/boeing/f22.html118“McDonnell Douglas History.” http://www.boeing.com/history/boeing/f22.html 119“Northrop YB-49.” U.S. Air Force Museum. http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/ 120“The Nurflugel Page.” http://www.nurflugel.com/Nurflugel/nurflugel.html 120“Project Bumblebee.” http://www.xsouth.freeserve.co.uk/project_bumblebee.htm 120Industries Economic History: 122Bibliography 122 The History of the Aerospace Industry 123Posted Mon, 2010-02-01 18:21 by Anonymous 123 The First Half-Century 124 The Cold War 126Notes to Add: 128 The King is Rising Again…Part-1 of 3 129 It all starts with a view into outer space… 129Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 5
  6. 6. DRAFT Jan. 2013List of IllustrationsFigure 1. Spirit of Exploration .............................................................................................. 9Figure 2. George Cayley & described a modern airplane .................................................. 13Figure 3. Bernoulli’s Principle for Wing Airflow ............................................................... 14Figure 4. Courtesy of "History of Helicopters ". ................................................................ 28Figure 5. Built for US Army Air Force by Georgrij Bothezat (USSR). Courtesy of "Historyof Helicopters". ................................................................................................................... 30Figure 6. Modern Autogyro courtesy of "History of Helicopters". ................................... 30Figure 7. One of Sikorskys earlier models. Courtesy of "History of Helicopters". .......... 31Figure 8. Hillers flying platform courtesy of "History of Helicopters". ........................... 31Figure 9. Mc Donnells helicopter courtesy of History of Helicopters. ............................ 31Figure 10. Bell 209 Cobra "Snake" courtesy of "History of Helicopters". ........................ 32Figure 11. Bell/Beoing 609 courtesy of "History of Helicopters". .................................... 32Figure 12. Revolution Helicopter Corp. Mini 500 courtesy of "History of Helicopters". 33Figure 13. Hero Engine ....................................................................................................... 35Figure 14. Chinese Fire Arrow ............................................................................................ 35Figure 15. Chinese Fire Arrow Launch............................................................................... 36Figure 16. Surface Running Torpedo ................................................................................. 36Figure 17. Wan-Hu Flying Chair ........................................................................................ 37Figure 18. Tsiolkovsky Rockets .......................................................................................... 38Figure 19. Goddard’s 1926 Rocket ..................................................................................... 39Figure 20. German V2 Rocket ............................................................................................ 41Figure 21. Aerospace & Defense Sales................................................................................ 44Figure 22. Defense Industry Consolidation 1993-2007 .................................................... 46Figure 23. Aerospace & Defance Stock Trends .................................................................. 47Figure 24. A View of Earth from the Shuttle ..................................................................... 50Figure 25. Norm Augustine ................................................................................................ 55Figure 26. F22 (Fwd) & F15 (Aft) ....................................................................................... 60Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 6
  7. 7. DRAFT Jan. 2013Figure 27. F35 JSF in Vertical Flight and Forward Flight ................................................ 61Figure 28. A12 Avenger Concept ........................................................................................ 62Figure 29. A12 Avenger Concept ........................................................................................ 63Figure 30. Atlas2AS ............................................................................................................ 64Figure 31. F18 E/F Carrier Landing ................................................................................... 66Figure 32. World GDP (past 50 years) ............................................................................... 68Figure 33. USA GDP vs. the rest of the World (50 years) ................................................. 68Figure 34. Tradable Industry Jobs, 1990–2008 (Majors)9 ............................................... 71Figure 35. Cost Comparison ............................................................................................... 72Figure 36. Tradable Industry Jobs 1990-2008 ................................................................. 73Figure 37. Aerospace and other Transport Industries (Tradable) .................................... 74Figure 38. ............................................................................................................................ 86Figure 39. SVC’s Vertical Take-off & Landing Aerocraft .................................................. 89Figure 40. Boeing Sonic Cruise vs. Better ......................................................................... 90Figure 41. Boeing Sonic Cruiser ......................................................................................... 91Figure 42. Hypersonic Aircraft .......................................................................................... 92Figure 43. SBSP Concepts .................................................................................................. 93Figure 44. Next Generation Bomber .................................................................................. 95Figure 45. 10) Icon-II Supersonic flight ............................................................................ 96Figure 46. 9) Green Supersonic Machine .......................................................................... 97Figure 47. 8) Blended Wing ............................................................................................... 98Figure 48. 7) X-45A UCAV ................................................................................................. 99Figure 49. 6) Solar Eagle .................................................................................................... 99Figure 50. 5) SUGAR ........................................................................................................ 100Figure 51. 4) Lockheed Martin ......................................................................................... 100Figure 52. 3) Bigger is Better............................................................................................. 101Figure 53. Northrop Grumman ......................................................................................... 101Figure 54. The Puffin ........................................................................................................ 102Figure 55. Airbus Solar Aircraft ....................................................................................... 104Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 7
  8. 8. DRAFT Jan. 2013Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 8
  9. 9. DRAFT Jan. 2013Epigraph Page“Global leadership is not a birthright. Despite what many Americans believe, our nation doesnot possess an innate knack for greatness. Greatness must be worked for and won by each newgeneration. Right now that is not happening. But we still have time. If we place the emphasis weshould on education, research and innovation we can lead the world in the decades to come. Butthe only way to ensure we remain great tomorrow is to increase our investment in science andengineering today”. Norm Augustine (retired chairman and CEO of Lockheed Martin) Figure 1. Spirit of Exploration“The spirit of exploration is truly part of what it is to be human. Human history has been acontinual struggle from darkness toward light, a search for knowledge and deeperunderstanding, a search for truth. Ever since our distant ancestors ventured forth into the world,there has been an insatiable curiosity to see what lies beyond the next hill, what lies beyond thehorizon. That is the fire of the human spirit that we all carry”. Steve Robinson (STS-114 Mission Specialist)Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 9
  10. 10. DRAFT Jan. 2013 “The desire to fly is an idea handed down to us by our ancestors who looked enviously onthe birds soaring freely through space on the infinite highway of the air” Wilbur WrightIntroductionThe Flying Machine that Changed the World It’s been over a 110 years since powered controlled flight was proven by the WrightBrothers from Dayton Ohio, in Kitty Hawk in North Carolina. We had conquered spaceflight and put a man on the moon and delivered him home safely over half a century ago.We have commercial aircraft able to travel halfway around the world without refueling.The most significant industry change of the last two decade’s is in some materials andNorthrop’s flying wing as the Stealth B2 bomber design. America maybe close to losingits leadership and become second place in the World for producing Aircraft in the nearfuture.This loss in standing in the Aerospace Industry is, unfortunately too similar to theAutomotive Industry. It’s a shame to see the nations largest Gross Domestic Product(GDP) export base diminishing and losing its edge. This book “Aerospace Industry America’s Loss?” is an in depth look at theAerospace Industry, a compilation of facts, figures, events, and some personal accountsin the biggest economic base & technologically influential industry in the world. Theeconomic advantage this industry brings Nation’s and their work force a better Standardof Living and higher wages. Those who lead in this key industry will lead in GDP. Thistradable industry which can be exportable is currently valued at $7 ½ Trillion in 20years or $4 Trillion in commercial aircraft only. The nations that have grown the mosthave pursued this from engineering and building automobiles then aerospace andselling them outside of their nation, this creates a higher standard of living. You will seethe evolution and buildup of the Aerospace Industry to the fall/demise of America’sAerospace Industry the largest U.S. GDP creation and the economic impact on thisexportable product of trade. We conclude with valuable Future Focus with realisticprograms and plans that will generate huge growth and prosperity into the next decadesor century to lead the World both in aviation & space markets along with finding afuture energy solution.We have recently seen the retirement of the U.S. Space Shuttles after its final mission tothe International Space Station. Now, the U.S. is regressing in technology 50+ yearsand use rockets with a capsule. Russian expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV) at a higherprice than our Space Shuttle, just to get the U.S. back to the International Space Station.So we should ask: Where is the Space Shuttles replacement? Or, what about the C-17replacement? And the (super) Sonic Cruiser? What happened to the National AerospaceAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 10
  11. 11. DRAFT Jan. 2013Plane (NASP) Hypersonic aircraft (mach25) also known as the Orient Express LA toTokyo in 2 hours? Why is it we are still flying slowly commercially? Where is our flying car? Whatabout that jet pack which looks kind-of unsafe, especially to those grown-ups that ride abicycle with a helmet? We technically have overcome the sonic boom with a sonic burpby intelligent design. So, why does our own NASA have plans only go Mach 5 (like SR-71 5o years ago) as a prototype out to 2020 because, that’s all we’ve allowed ourselves toprogress in the last 20 plus years? Boeing had great plans to build the Sonic Cruiseruntil they changed course and put all their eggs in the basket to produce the 787 (evenslipping delivery date-seven times) almost twenty five years after they helped build thecomposite wings of the B2 Bomber. Much of this may have to do with Economics fromthe foreign suppliers investing to become a partner in manufacturing prior to its marketexistence. With an optimistic belief the next generation can learn from past mistakesand understand the future doesn’t have to be like the past and demanding to make theFuture better - similar to our Race to Space and the moon. In this pursuit one’s destinyis limitless. Shawn Paul BoikeAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 11
  12. 12. DRAFT Jan. 2013 Chapter 1The Beginning & Buildups “It is my belief that flight is possible and, while I am taking up investigation for pleasure rather than profit, I think there is a slight possibility of achieving fame and fortune from it.” Wilbur Wright Sept. 3, 1900What do you think about the beginning of the Aircraft & Aerospace Industry, mostpeople think about the Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina? This is whereOrville Wright made the first flight for 12 seconds and 120 feet at Kill Devil Hills nearKitty Hawk, NC at 10:35 a.m. on December 17, 1903. In fact over 1000 BC the Chinesehad sent men aloft tethered to kites to provide surveillance at war time.I was at an American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics (AIAA) meeting in early1992 Seattle Washington to Listen to Phil Condit VP of the 777 my new Bosses Boss andaccidently or fortunately sat at a table with him his wife & Alan Mulally. His speech wasterrific it was all about the evolution of flight and even before Wright Brothers. Hisspeech was very similar to what was written in a book on the Centennial celebration ofthe Wright Brothers which I heard the Author speak at the Dearborn Library inMichigan almost a decade after Phil’s speech. The history of Aircraft (excluding balloons & rockets) starts with of course LeonardoDivinci’s sketches and flight studies and plans for a glider, this inspired Heserfin AhmedSalevy to build a glider to glide down from a 183 foot tower in Istanbul in 1638. Englishbaronet named Sir George Cayley whose contribution was the 1799 definition of anairplane as a machine with fixed wings, a fuselage and a tail which has separate systemsto provide lift, propulsion and control. Cayley had successfully built and flew hissuccessful model glider in 1804.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 12
  13. 13. DRAFT Jan. 2013 Figure 2. George Cayley & described a modern airplaneHe later made two other gliders with a pilot which made brief glides for his efforts hewas often referred to as the “Father of Aerial Navigation”.A French electrical engineer named Clement Ader which attempted to fly a light weightsteam powered - bat like craft called the Eole’s. His added value in flight evolution wasthe need for propulsion. Ader made a piloted “uncontrolled hop of 165 feet and altitudeof only eight inches with the airplane”. “The Eole was devoid of all the other elementsnecessary for a practical flying machine and contributed little to the eventualachievement of human mechanical flight”.Another contributor to human controlled flight prior to the Wrights was an Americanliving in England Sir Hiram Maxim famous for the invention of the machine gun.Following in a similar path to Ader and noted in 1892 “Without doubt the motor is thechief thing to be considered”. “Scientists have long said, give us a motor and we willvery soon give you a successful flying machine”. Maxim built a four ton biplane fitted toa test track & guardrails where in July 31, 1894 his rough aircraft travelled 600 feet at 42miles per hour and rose over the guard rails and crashed. His contribution much likeAder was that a powerful light weight engine for propulsion could lift an aircraft.The most noted contributor prior to the Wright brothers was a German engineer namedOtto Lilienthal with his experimentation with gliders. He began aeronautical researchfrom the 1860’s to 1896 and produced the most complete, accurate body ofAerodynamics that showed beyond doubt that a curved wing profile produced optimumlift. Thus incorporating Bernoullis principle works on the idea that as a wing passesthrough the air, its shape make the air travel more over the top of the wing than beneathAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 13
  14. 14. DRAFT Jan. 2013it-thus creating lift. This creates a higher pressure are beneath the wing than above it.The pressure difference cause the wing to push upwards and lift is created.Bernoullis principle works on the idea that as a wing passes through the air the shapemake the air travel more over the top of the wing than beneath it. This creates a higherpressure are beneath the wing than above it. The pressure difference cause the wing topush upwards and lift is created. Figure 3. Bernoulli’s Principle for Wing AirflowOtto Lilienthal had produced 16 different glider designs from 1891-1896 with calculatedwing area and controlled them by shifting his body weight right to left (starboard toport) thus altering his center of gravity. Also moving his body and fore and aft tomaintain equilibrium. Lilienthal’s fame came after he had made the Boston news as“Here was a flying machine, not constructed by a crank…but by an engineer of ability…Amachine not made to look at, but to fly with. His experiments came to an end in August9th 1896 where while soaring, a gust of wind put the glider nose up and into wastelandcrashed down 50 feet breaking his spine where he died the next day in a Berlin hospital. The Wright Brothers first performed a literature search to find out the state ofaeronautical knowledge at their time. They wrote to the Smithsonian and obtainedtechnical papers regarding aerodynamics. They read about the works of Cayley, andLangley, and the hang-gliding flights of Otto Lilienthal.They corresponded with Octave Chanute (a French-born Americanrailway engineer and aviation pioneer) concerning some of theirideas. They studied the problems which had been encountered byprevious flyers and they talked about possible solutions to theproblems. They looked for answers to the problems of flight by observing large glidingbirds. They decided that control of the flying aircraft would be the most crucial andhardest problem to solve and they had some ideas for solving that problem.The Wright Brothers were kite enthusiasts and they used the kite flights in the same waythat modern engineers use wind tunnels and flight testing to try out their ideasconcerning flight control. Kitty Hawk, North Carolina was chosen for their early flightAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 14
  15. 15. DRAFT Jan. 2013experiments because its consistent high winds off the ocean are perfect for kite flying.The brothers correctly reasoned that a free flying object had to be controlled about allthree primary axes; roll, pitch, and yaw. Their aircraft were built with movable surfaceson the wing, elevator, and rudder. Control of the surface shape was in the hands of thepilot. They extensively tested these ideas by glider flights of the aircraft. (NASAhttp://wright.nasa.gov/overview.htm)The Wright Brothers took all they could learn from those before them and added theirinventiveness to create the fully controllable manned machine powered flight. Thisincluded inventing and designing the propeller system for propulsion, a wind tunnel andmany plans and techniques we take for granted today. That time in history was a battlefor first powered manned controlled flight was in competition with Samuel PierpontLangley and Glenn Curtiss. We all know the winners were those Dayton men in 1903where the US Air Force base and museum now stands.THE US AEROSPACE INDUSTRY – The Early Days “Curtiss Aeroplane Company turned out such good planes that the Wright designs could not compete”Before there was an aviation industry, there were inventors who built their own airplanes. Wilbur and Orville Wright, of Dayton, Ohio, made the first successful flights in 1903 and had a well- controlled aircraft two years later. They set up the Wright Company in 1909, which started bybuilding airplanes but soon lost out in a bitter rivalry with another plane builder, Glenn Curtiss of Hammondsport, New York.The Wrights claimed that Curtiss was stealing their inventions and sued in federal court.But Curtiss had shrewd lawyers who kept the suits from causing damage, and went onbuilding airplanes. His own firm of Curtiss Aeroplane Company turned out such goodplanes that the Wright designs could not compete. The company eventually changed itsname to Wright Aeronautical Company and turned to building aircraft engines.The Wright and Curtiss companies both were in business before the outbreak of WorldWar I, in 1914. A California plane builder, Glenn L. Martin, established a firm called,logically, the Glenn L. Martin Company. These outfits all did plenty of business duringthat war. But after it ended, in 1918, they faced the question of what to do next.Most of the numerous planes built in the United States during the war were of Britishdesign. Following that conflict, there was little demand for new aircraft, for there wasplenty of war surplus planes and engines. Still, there were opportunities. Curtiss hadbuilt the wartime JN-4 trainer, the famous Jenny. It still was beloved by pilots duringthe 1920s. A flight school might charge $500 for lessons, and then throw in a Jenny as agraduation present. Martin built some of the earliest bombers--one sank a capturedGerman battleship in a 1921 exercise. This made it clear that bombers had a future.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 15
  16. 16. DRAFT Jan. 2013Other plane builders also went into business: Donald Douglas, William Boeing, and AlanLoughead, who pronounced his name "Lockheed." To avoid mispronunciations such asLoghead or Loafhead, his company used that spelling as well. All three found goodprospects. Donald Douglas got started by working with a wealthy enthusiast who wanteda plane that could cross the country nonstop. By building it, Douglas gained experiencethat allowed him to develop a long-range Army plane, the World Cruiser. Two WorldCruisers flew around the world in 1924 in a succession of short hops.Airmail held promise for it earned federal subsidies for mail carriers that made it easy toturn a profit. A few brave travelers also began buying airplane tickets. Boeing gained animportant success in 1926 with a single-engine plane that was well suited for carryingmail and passengers over the Rocky Mountains. Lockheed won its own advantageduring that same year. The companys engineers included the talented Jack Northrop,who later founded his own plane-building firm. He crafted the Vega, which set speedand altitude records and became popular as an airliner.THE ACORN DAYSFrom a speech given by Mr. Denham S. Scott to the AIA on March 19, 1968“This technological explosion had some very humble and human beginnings. The Acorns tookroot in some strange places: a church, a cannery, a barbershop, but from them mighty Oakshave indeed come to fruition”.How many of you know that in 1910 the mighty Martin Marietta Company got its start inan abandoned church in Santa Ana, CA? Thats where the late Glenn L. Martin with hismother Minta Martin and a mechanic named Roy Beal, built a fragile contraption withwhich Glenn taught himself to fly.It has often been told how the Douglas Company started operations in 1920 by rentingthe rear of a barbershop on Pico Boulevard in Los Angeles. The barbershop is still there.The Lockheed Company built its first Vega in 1927 in what are now the Victory Cleanersand Dryers at 1040 Sycamore Avenue in Hollywood. Claude Ryan, who at 24 held areserve commission as a flyer, had his hair cut in San Diego one day in 1922. The barbertold him how the town aviator was in jail for smuggling Chinese across the border.Claude investigated and stayed on in San Diego to rent the old airfield from the city atfifty dollars a month and replace the guy in the pokey. He agreed to fly North instead ofSouth.In 1928, the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, Transcontinental Air Transport(now TWA) and the Douglas Company chipped in enough money to start NorthAmerican Aviation, a holding company. The present company bearing the Northropname came into being in a small hotel in Hawthorne. The hotel was conveniently vacantand available because the police had raided it and found that steady residents were aAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 16
  17. 17. DRAFT Jan. 2013passel of money-minded gals who entertained transitory male guests.After Glenn Martin built his airplane in the church, he moved to a vacant apricotcannery in Santa Ana and built two more. In 1912 he moved to 9th and Los AngelesStreets in downtown Los Angeles. Glenn Martin was then running a three-ring-circus.Foremost, he was a showman who traveled the circuit of county fairs and air meets as anexhibitionist aviator; secondly, he was an airplane manufacturer. He met his payroll andbought his lumber, linen and bailing wire from the proceeds of his precision exhibitionflying. His mother, Minta and two men ran the factory when Glenn was risking his neckand gadding about the country. One of these was 22-year old Donald Douglas who wasthe whole of his engineering department and the other was a Santa Monica boy namedLarry Bell who ran the shop.The third circus ring was a flying school. It had a land plane operation in Griffith Parkand later at Bennett’s Farm in Inglewood, and a hydroplane operation at a place thatsnow part of the Watts District. A stunt flyer named Floyd Smith ran it. One of his firstpupils was Eric Springer, who later became an instructor and then Martins test pilot,still later the test pilot for the early Douglas Company, and then a Division Manager.Between Eric and Floyd, they taught a rich young man named Bill Boeing to fly. Havingmastered the art; Boeing bought a Martin biplane, hired Ross Stem, Glenns personalmechanic, and shipped the airplane to Seattle. Later, when it crashed into the lake andBoeing set about to repair it, he ordered some spare parts from Martin in Los Angeles.Martin, remembering the proselytizing incident with Ross Stem, decided to take hissweet time and let Boeing stew. Bill Boeing said, To Hell with him, and told Ross Sternto get busy and build one of their own. Boeing had a friend named Westerfelt and theydecided to form a company and build two airplanes. These two BW airplanes bore aremarkable resemblance to the Martin airplane which, in turn, had been copied fromGlenn Curtiss. There seems to be a moral about customer relations and product supportmixed up in this episode.During WWI, a bunch of sharpies from Wall Street in New York got control of theWright Company in Dayton and the Martin Company in Los Angeles. They merged thetwo companies into the Wright-Martin Company. They sent a young man named ChanceVought to be their Chief Engineer. Donald Douglas lost no time in quitting and went towork for the U.S. Signal Corp.The Wright-Martin Company started building obsolete Standard biplanes and Hispano-Suiza engines, with the latter under a license agreement with the French Government.Martin told them what they could do with them, and took off for Cleveland, taking LarryBell and Eric Springer with him. Having the backing of a baseball mogul to build a newAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 17
  18. 18. DRAFT Jan. 2013factory, he was soon joined by Donald Douglas who went to work and came up with thedesign of the Martin Bomber. It came out too late to see service in WWI, but showed itssuperiority when General Billy Mitchell made everyone mad at him by sinking thecaptured German battle fleet. The deathblow to the allegedly Dreadnaught Osfrieslandwas delivered by the Douglas designed Martin Bomber.At Cleveland, a young fellow called Dutch Kindelberger joined the Martin Company asan engineer. Also a veteran Army pilot from WWI named Carl Squier became SalesManager. His name was to become one of the most venerable names in Lockheedhistory. Back in 1920, Donald Douglas had saved $60,000 and struck out on his own.He returned to Los Angeles, found a backer, David Davis, rented the rear of abarbershop and some space in the loft of a carpenters shop where they built a passengerairplane called The Cloudster.Claude Ryan bought this a couple year’s later, and made daily flights between San Diegoand Los Angeles with it. This gives Ryan the distinction of being the owner and operatorof the first Douglas Commercial Transport, and certainly a claim to be among theoriginal airline passenger operators.In 1922, Donald Douglas was awarded a contract to build three torpedo planes for theU.S. Navy; Douglas lived in Santa Monica, but worked in Los Angeles. Way out in thewilderness at what is now 25th Street and Wilshire Boulevard in Santa Monica, therewas an abandoned barn-like movie studio. One day Douglas stopped his roadster andprowled around to investigate. The studio became the first real home of the DouglasAircraft Company.With the $120,000 Navy contract, Donald Douglas needed and could afford one or twoengineers. He hired my brother Gordon Scott newly over from serving an apprenticeshipto the Martinside and the Fairey Aviation Companies in England. Gordon was wellschooled in the little known science of Aviation by 1923.My first association with some of the early pioneers occurred when I visited my brotherGordon at the barn at 25th Street. I found him outside on a ladder washing windows.They were dirty and he was the youngest engineer. There were no janitorial services atthe Douglas Company in those days.Gordon introduced me to Art Mankey, his boss and Chief Draftsman, and four of hisfellow engineers. There was a towhead guy called Jack Northrop, a chap named JerryVultee, and a fellow named Dick Von Hake who was a reserve Army flyer. Jack Northropcame from Santa Barbara where he had worked during WWI for the Lockheed AircraftManufacturing Company. The fourth member of the Engineering Group was EdHeinemann*. They were all working on the design of the Douglas World Cruisers.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 18
  19. 19. DRAFT Jan. 2013Shortly afterwards, Jack Northrop left the Douglas Company in 1926. Working at home,he designed a wonderfully advanced streamlined airplane. He tied back with AllanLoughead who found a rich man, F.E. Keeler, willing to finance a new Lockheed AircraftCompany. They rented a small shop in Hollywood and built the Northrop designedLockheed Vega. It was sensational with its clean lines and high performance.In May 1927, Lindberg flew to Paris and triggered a bedlam where everyone was tryingto fly everywhere. Before the first Vega was built, William Randolph Hearst, publisher ofthe Hearst newspaper chain, bought it and entered it in the Dole Race from theMainland to Honolulu, which was scheduled for 12 August 1927.In June 1927, my brother Gordon left the Douglas Company to become Jack Northropsassistant at Lockheed. He also managed to get himself hired as the navigator on theGolden Eagle, the name chosen by Mr. Hearst for the Vega which hopefully would be thefirst airplane to span the Pacific. The race was a disaster! Ten lives were lost. The GoldenEagle and its crew, including my brother, vanished off the face of the earth.With its only airplane lost under mysterious circumstances, a black cloud hung heavilyover the little shop in Hollywood. However, Captain George H. Wilkins, later to becomeSir Hubert Wilkins, took the Number Two airplane and made a successful polar flightfrom Nome, Alaska to Spitsbergen, Norway. After that a string of successful flights wereto put the name of Lockheed very much in the forefront of aviation.At Lockheed, Jack Northrop replaced the lost Gordon Scott with Jerry Vultee.In 1928, Jack quit the Lockheed Company to start a new company in Glendale calledAvion. Jerry Vultee then moved up to become Chief Engineer at Lock heed. He hiredDick van Hake from the Douglas Company to be his assistant. A young man named CliffGarrett joined the Lockheed Company as the driver of their pick-up truck.I went to work at Lockheed shortly after the Golden Eagle was lost. I became the 26thLockheed employee. The Vegas were made almost entirely of wood and I became a half-assed carpenter, generally known as a wood butcher.In 1929, Jerry Vultee quit the Lockheed Company to start the Airplane DevelopmentCompany, which became the Vultee Aircraft Company, a division of E.L. Cord, theautomobile manufacturer. He later merged with Reuben Fleets Consolidated AircraftCompany to become Convair. When Vultee left Lockheed, Dick van Hake became theChief Engineer.In the meantime, Glenn Martin closed his Cleveland plant and moved to Baltimore. Hisproduction man, Larry Bell, moved to Buffalo to found the Bell Aircraft Company. CarlAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 19
  20. 20. DRAFT Jan. 2013Squier left Martin to tie in with the Detroit Aircraft Company which had acquired theLockheed Aircraft Company and seven others. They hoped to become the GeneralMotors of the aircraft business! They appointed Carl Squier as General Manager of theLockheed plant, which moved to Burbank in 1928. (A lot of P-38s were made at thatBurbank plant - added by L. Cruse Nov. 2007)At this time, General Motors had acquired North American Aviation, which consisted ofseveral aircraft companies in the East. Ernie Breech, formerly with Bendix but now withGeneral Motors, hired Dutch Kindelberger away from Douglas to head up the aircraftmanufacturing units. Dutch took Lee Atwood and Stan Smithson with him. Thecompanies involved were Fokker Aircraft, Pitcairn Aviation (later Eastern Airlines),Sperry Gyroscope and Berliner-Joyce. Kindelberger merged Fokker and Berliner-Joyceinto a single company and moved the entire operation to Inglewood, California.(Kindelberger and others at the North American Los Angeles plant designed the P-51Mustang that helped win WWII - added by L. Cruse Nov. 2007)Thus, a handful of young men played roles which profoundly affected all of our lives andthe lives of millions of other Americans. They changed Southern California from awasteland with a few orange groves, apricot and avocado orchards and the celluloidindustry of Hollywood to a highly sophisticated industrial complex with millions ofprosperous inhabitants. This technological explosion had some very humble and humanbeginnings. The Acorns took root in some strange places: a church, a cannery, abarbershop, but from them mighty Oaks have indeed come to fruition.(Essentially all of those Aircraft Plants are now GONE from Southern California - addedby L. Cruse Nov. 2007)from: http://www.navworld.com/navhistory/acorndays.htmReprinted from NAAR (North American Aviation Retirees Bulletin) - Summer 2001The Growing Days 1930-1990Airliners, indeed, became mainstays of the industry during the 1930s. The Army andNavy bought few airplanes during that decade, but people were beginning to fly. Boeingbrought out the 247, a fine twin-engine job that carried ten passengers where the Vegahad room for only six. But it wasnt fine enough; it lost out in competition with theDouglas DC-2, which carried fourteen. An enlarged version, the DC-3, had twenty-oneseats. Entering service in 1936, it had the range to fly nonstop from New York toChicago. Within a few years, it swept most of its rivals from the skies.There were some military orders, even if they were not large. Martin built a good twin-engine bomber, the B-10. Boeing, licking its wounds after losing with its 247, found newbusiness by crafting a much better bomber: the B-17. It had four engines, which gave itgreater speed and allowed it to carry more gasoline for longer range. It first flew duringAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 20
  21. 21. DRAFT Jan. 20131935 in tests for the Army. The first of the B-17s crashed, and the company might havecrashed with it. But Army officials liked it, and ordered a few. This gave Boeing a leg upon building bombers for use in World War II.That war brought an enormous surge of business to the aircraft industry. Severalcompanies built the important warplanes of the era:Boeing: B-17, B-29 bombersConvair: B-24 bomberLockheed: P-38 fighterCurtiss: P-40 fighter, C-46 transportDouglas: C-47, C-54 transportsNorth American: P-51 fighterRepublic: P-47 fighterFleets of B-17s and B-24s, escorted by P-47, and P-51 fighters, destroyed many of NaziGermanys factories and railroads. B-29s carried firebombs that burned Japans cities tothe ground. The C-46 carried supplies to China, helping that nation fight Japan andtying down a million Japanese soldiers who were fighting the Chinese. The C-47, amilitary version of the DC-3, carried troops as well as cargo. Over ten thousand of thementered service. General Dwight Eisenhower, the top U.S. commander, counted it as oneof the items that did the most to win the war.The end of the war brought a swift collapse of the aviation industry. According to Boeinghistorian Harold Mansfield, company officials learned of a sudden cancellation of armyorders and rushed to shut down the plant before the next shift of workers came in atfour p.m. At North American, employment dropped from 100,000 to 6,500 in only twomonths. As had been true after World War I, following World War II the nation againwas awash in used aircraft that were available cheaply. A C-47 could be had for $25,000,payable at $4,000 per year, and could easily convert into a DC-3.For airlines, the DC-3 remained popular. Most air routes were short and carriedrelatively few passengers on each flight, and the DC-3 served such connections quiteeffectively. However, after the war there also were coast-to-coast routes along withconnections that crossed the Atlantic. For these, only new four-engine aircraft would do.Two became popular: the Lockheed Constellation and the Douglas DC-6 (along with alater and faster version, the DC-7). Their builders competed for advantage by offeringimprovements. The rivalry between Lockheed and Douglas defined progress incommercial aviation until the coming of the jets.The first jets were military. Lockheed, Republic, and North American built the first jetfighters: the P-80, F-84, and F-86. The F-86 was the best of them, shooting downRussian-built fighters and ruling the skies during the Korean War of 1950-1953.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 21
  22. 22. DRAFT Jan. 2013Missiles and jet bombers also drew attention. North American made a strong and earlycommitment to develop a missile of intercontinental range, the Navaho. This projectneeded rocket engines, guidance systems, and advanced designs that called for closeunderstanding of supersonic flight. At the outset, in 1945, the pertinent fields ofengineering simply did not exist. No matter, North American brought in good scientistsand developed the necessary know-how on its own.Boeing showed similar leadership with jet bombers. The company used scientific datafrom the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, supplementing it with data fromits own wind tunnel, a research facility that helped to determine the best shapes foraircraft flying close to the speed of sound. This allowed the company to develop theearliest important jet bomber, the B-47. It first flew in 1947, with the Air Forcepurchasing over two thousand of them as it remained in production from 1948 to 1956.The B-47 introduced the shape of things to come, for it had swept wings, jet enginesmounted in pods below the wings, a swept tail, and a slender fuselage. During the 1950s,these design features also appeared in the first successful jet airliners: the Boeing 707and Douglas DC-8.Boeing and Douglas competed vigorously to sell these planes. The way to win an orderwas by offering a custom version of a basic design, a modification that would serve anairlines specific needs. These could include a shorter fuselage, a larger wing for longrange, or more powerful engines. Such modifications were costly, and Boeing proved tohave the deeper pockets, for it was selling planes to the Air Force in large numbers.Boeing paid for and built new airliner versions that Douglas could not afford, thuswinning an important advantage.The 707 entered service in 1958, the DC-8 in 1959. Both aircraft had four engines andcould fly nonstop across the Atlantic as well as from coast to coast. In addition, therealso was great interest in a jetliner of shorter range, which could serve more routes.Boeing brought out its 727and went on to sell more than 1,800 of them. But Douglasstayed in the game as well, with its twinjet DC-9 that served routes that were shorterstill. Many of these connections were only a few hundred miles in length, but they werehighly popular because they spared the need to drive a car over that distance.The Navy and Air Force had their own requirements. Convair built the B-36, which hadsix and later ten engines. Boeing countered with the B-52, which mounted eight jetengines. It became the main bomber of the Air Forces Strategic Air Command. Inaddition, the decade of the 1950s brought a host of fighter aircraft. Almost everycompany in the industry built some, including Douglas, Grumman, Lockheed,McDonnell, North American, Northrop, Republic, and Vought.Missiles and space flight brought new opportunities. In 1954, the Air Force launched amajor push toward rockets of intercontinental range, able to carry a hydrogen bomb toMoscow. These included the Atlas from Convair and the Titan, built by Martin. DouglasAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 22
  23. 23. DRAFT Jan. 2013helped as well with the Thor, based in England, which had less range but was availablesooner. These missiles evolved into launch vehicles for the space program.Within that program, the civilian National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA) came to the forefront. During the 1960s it sponsored the Apollo program, whichlanded astronauts on the moon. Again there were a number of participants, includingDouglas, Grumman, McDonnell, and Boeing. North American did the most, drawing onits experience with the Navaho. This company built rocket engines, a major rocket stage,as well as the spacecraft that carried Apollos astronauts. It went on to build the SpaceShuttle, including its main engines.During the drawdown at the conclusion of the Vietnam war, in the early 1970s, Boeing,Lockheed, and Douglas (which had merged with McDonnell) all fell into seriouseconomic trouble.For Boeing, the source of difficulty was the enormous new 747 airliner. The companywent deeply into debt to fund its development and initial production. But it couldntdeliver the early models, because their engines were not ready. Then the nation wentinto a recession, and orders dried up. Boeing came close to going bankrupt, but survivedby selling improved versions of earlier jets, including the 707 and 727.The 747 was too large for most routes, which opened up an opportunity for an airliner ofslightly smaller size. Lockheed came in with its L-1011, while McDonnell Douglas offeredits DC-10. This was a mistake; there was room for one such airliner, but not both.However, neither company would back down, and both lost a great deal of moneybecause they could not sell enough planes. Lockheed stopped building airlinersaltogether and became purely a military plane builder. McDonnell Douglas stayed in thecommercial world. But it now was financially weak, and lacked the funds to developanything more than variations of its DC-9 and DC-10.This raised the prospect that Boeing would reign over the airlines, holding a nearmonopoly. Airline executives chaffed at this possibility, for they enjoyed the competitionand the lower prices by multiple plane-building companies bid against each other. Butduring the late 1970s, European plane builders came to their rescue. France and GreatBritain had a strong aviation industry; they had built the Concorde, the worlds onlysupersonic airliner. Now these countries combined with West Germany to create AirbusIndustrie. During the 1980s, it competed vigorously with Boeing, winning a largenumber of orders.While airliner sales remained very strong, military demand fell off sharply with the endof the Cold War, in 1991. During earlier periods of demobilization, the Pentagon hadhelped keep its planebuilders in business with a number of small orders spread out overthe range of major manufacturers. However, fighters and bombers now were quitecostly, and the Pentagon could afford only a limited number of such programs.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 23
  24. 24. DRAFT Jan. 2013Officials of the Defense Department responded by facilitating a series of mergers, toconsolidate the industry within a small number of companies that would have enoughbusiness to remain strong. Boeing, holding great power due to its success in sellingairliners, bought out McDonnell Douglas and Rockwell International. Lockheed mergedwith Convair and with Martin Marietta, forming the firm of Lockheed Martin. A similarmerger created the firm of Northrop Grumman. Today, these three U.S. companiesdominate the American market for commercial airliners, military aircraft, and launchvehicles for space flight.During the 1980s, it competed vigorously with Boeing, winning a large number oforders.While airliner sales remained very strong, military demand fell off sharply with the endof the Cold War, in 1991. During earlier periods of demobilization, the Pentagon hadhelped keep its planebuilders in business with a number of small orders spread out overthe range of major manufacturers. However, fighters and bombers now were quitecostly, and the Pentagon could afford only a limited number of such programs.Officials of the Defense Department responded by facilitating a series of mergers, toconsolidate the industry within a small number of companies that would have enoughbusiness to remain strong. Boeing, holding great power due to its success in sellingairliners, bought out McDonnell Douglas and Rockwell International. Lockheed mergedwith Convair and with Martin Marietta, forming the firm of Lockheed Martin. A similarmerger created the firm of Northrop Grumman. Today, these three U.S. companiesdominate the American market for commercial airliners, military aircraft, and launchvehicles for space flight.An International IndustryInternational politics has always played a role in aviation. Aircraft in flight easilytranscended national borders, so governments jointly developed navigation systems andairspace protocols. Spacecraft overflew national borders within seconds so nations setup international bodies to allocate portions of near-earth space. INTELSAT, aninternational consortium modeled on COMSAT (the American consortium thatgoverned operations of commercial satellites) standardized the operation ofgeosynchronous satellites to start the commercialization of space. Those who dreamedof space colonization also dreamed it might be free of earthly politics.Internationalization more clearly reshaped aerospace by helping firms from othercountries find the economies of scale they needed to forge a place in an industry soclearly dominated by American firms.Only the Soviet Union challenged the American aerospace industry. In some areas, likeheavy lifting rockets and space medicine, the Soviets outpaced the Americans. But theSoviets and Americans fought solely in the realm of perceptions of military might, notAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 24
  25. 25. DRAFT Jan. 2013on any military or economic battleground. The Soviets also sold military aircraft andcivil transports but, with few exceptions, an airline bought either Soviet or Americanaircraft because of alliance politics rather than efficiencies in the marketplace. Even incivil aircraft, the Soviet Union invested far more than their returns. In 1991, when theSoviet Union fractured into smaller states and the subsidies disappeared, the oncemighty Soviet aerospace firms were reduced to paupers. European firms then stood asmore serious competitors, largely because they had developed a global understanding ofthe industry.Following World War II, the European aircraft industry was in shards. Germany, Italy,and Japan were prohibited from making any aircraft of significance. French and Britishfirms remained strong and innovative, though these firms sold mostly to their nationsmilitaries and airlines. Neither could buy as many aircraft as their Americancounterparts, and European firms could not sufficiently amortize their engineeringcosts. During the 1960s, European governments allowed aircraft and missile firms to failor consolidate into clear "national champions:" British Aircraft Corporation, HawkerSiddely Aviation, and Rolls-Royce in Britain; Aerospatiale, Dassault, SNECMA andMatra in France; Messerschmit-Bölkow-Blohm and VFW in Germany; and CASA inSpain. Then governments asked their national champions to join transnationalconsortia intent on building specific types of aircraft -- like the PANAVIA Tornadofighter, the launch vehicles and satellites of the European Space Agency or, mostsuccessfully, the Airbus airliners. The matrix of many national firms participatingvariously in many transnational projects meant that the European industry operatedneither as monopoly nor monopsony.Meanwhile international travel grew rapidly, and airlines became some of the worldslargest employers. By the late 1950s, the major airlines had transitioned to Boeing orDouglas-built jet airliners -- which carried twice as many passengers at twice the speedin greater comfort. Between 1960 and 1974 passenger volume on international flightsgrew six fold. The Boeing 747, a jumbo jet with 360 seats, took international air travel toa new level of excitement when introduced in January 1970. Each nation had at leastone airline, and each airline had slightly different requirements for the aircraft theyused. Boeing and McDonnell Douglas pioneered new methods of mass customization tobuild aircraft to these specifications. The Airbus A300 first flew in September 1972, andEuropean governments continued to subsidize the Airbus Industrie consortium as itstruggled for customers. In the 1980s, air travel again enjoyed a growth spurt thatBoeing and Douglas could not immediately satisfy, and Airbus found its market. By the1990s, the Airbus consortium had built a contractor network with tentacles around theworld, had developed a family of successful airliners, and split the market withAmerican producers.Aerospace extends beyond the most industrialized nations. Walt Rostow in his widelyread book on economic development used aviation imagery to suggest a trajectory ofindustrial growth. The imagery was not lost on newly industrializing countries likeAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 25
  26. 26. DRAFT Jan. 2013Brazil, Israel, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore or Indonesia. They too entered theindustry, opportunistically, by setting up depots to maintain the aircraft they boughtabroad. Then, they took subcontracts from American and European firms to learn howto manage their own projects to high standards. Nations at war -- in the Middle East,Africa, and Asia -- proved ready customers for these simple and inexpensive aircraft.Missiles, likewise, if derived from proven designs, were generally easy and cheap toproduce. By 1971, fourteen nations could build short-range and air-defense missiles. Bythe 1990s more than thirty nations had some capacity to manufacture complete aircraft.Some made only small, general-purpose aircraft -- which represent a tiny fraction of thetotal dollar value of the industry but proved immensely important to a military andcommunication needs of developing states. The leaders of almost every nation have seenaircraft as a leading sector -- one that creates spin offs and sets the pace of technologicaladvance in an entire economy.A Post-Cold War WorldWhen the Cold War ended, the aerospace industry changed dramatically. After therecord run up in the federal deficit during the 1980s, by 1992 the United States Congressdemanded a peace dividend and slashed funding for defense procurement. By 1994, thedemand for civil airliners also underwent a cyclical downturn. Aerospace-dependentregions -- notably Los Angeles and Seattle -- suffered recession then rebuilt theireconomies around different industries. Aerospace employed 1.3 million Americans in1989 or 8.8 percent of everyone working in manufacturing; by 1995 aerospace employedonly 796,000 people or 4.3 percent of everyone working in a manufacturing industry. Asit had for decades, in 1985 aerospace employed about one-fifth of all American scientistsand engineers engaged in research and development; by 1999 it employed only sevenpercent.Rather than diversify or shed capacity haphazardly, aerospace firms focused. Theydivested or merged feverishly in 1995 and 1996, hoping to find the best consolidationpartners before the federal government feared that competition would suffer. GE sold itsaerospace division to Martin Marietta, which then sold itself to Lockheed. Boeingbought the aerospace units of Rockwell International, and then acquired McDonnellDouglas. Northrop bought Grumman. Lockheed Martin and Boeing both ended up withabout ten percent of all government aerospace contracts, though joint ventures andteaming remained significant. The concentration in the American industry made it looklike European industry, except that in the margins new venture-backed firms sprang upto develop new hybrid aircraft. Funding for space vehicles held fairly steady as newfirms found new uses for satellites in communications, defense, and remote sensing ofthe earth. NASA reconfigured its relations with industry around the mantra of "faster,better, and cheaper," especially in the creation of reusable launch vehicles.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 26
  27. 27. DRAFT Jan. 2013Throughout the Cold War, total sales by aerospace firms has divided one-half aircraft,with that amount split fairly evenly between military and civil, one quarter spacevehicles, one-tenth missiles, and the rest ground support equipment. When spending foraerospace recovered in the late 1990s, there was the first significant shift toward sales ofcivil aircraft. After a century of development, there are strong signs that the aircraft andspace industries are finally breaking free of their military vassalage. There are alsostrong signs that the industry is becoming global -- trans-Atlantic mergers, increasingstandardization of parts and operations, aerospace imports and exports rising inlockstep. More likely, as it has been for a century, aerospace will remain intimately tiedto the nation state.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 27
  28. 28. DRAFT Jan. 2013 Chapter 1BHELICOPTERS"The Helicopter is the most versatile way of getting in and out anywhere in the world”HISTORY OF HELICOPTERSBy: Katie Kimmet and Amanda Nash“The vertical flight of the helicopter is an advantage to the world” “because, it allowsflight and landings without runways almost anywhere in the world”Introduction to HelicoptersThe development of the helicopter, perhaps one of mans most complex flying machines,is an example of the effects of technological evolution (Sadler 1). The helicopter began asa basic principle of rotary-wing aviation and evolved into something much greater ashuman ingenuity and technology in America and elsewhere contributed to itsdevelopment. The precision of parts due to the Industrial Revolution enabled thehelicopter to evolve into the modern machines we see flying today. The need of accuratemachinery and fixtures was evident when the earliest helicopter models lacked theefficiency and flying capability of modern helicopters.Early Concepts of the HelicopterThe ChineseThe first concept of rotary-wing aviation came from the Chinese in the Fourth CenturyA.D. (Fay 125-126). A book called "Pao Phu Tau" tells of the "Master" describing flyingcars (fei chhe) with wood from the inner part of the jujube tree with ox-leather strapsfastened to returning blades as to set the machine in motion (huan chien i yih chhi chi)(Fay 125-126). "Joseph Needham, the author of Science and Cilivization, also suggeststhat although this was no more than a design for a toy, it is indeed the first recordedpattern of what we might understand as a helicopter" (Sadler 1). The concept of rotary-wing aviation had unquestionably been found, but the technology needed to create ahelicopter had not been produced. Figure 4. Courtesy of "History of Helicopters ".Leonardo Da VinciDa Vincis vaunted spiral design created in 1490, called the Helical Air Screw, has oftenbeen cited as the first serious attempt to produce a working helicopter (Sadler 1). DaAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 28
  29. 29. DRAFT Jan. 2013Vinci himself quoted on the device: "...I have discovered that a screw-shaped device suchas this, if it is well made from starched linen, will rise in the air if turned quickly..."(History of Helicopters 1). However, this was only an experimental design and was neverput into practical use. "Da Vinci was in this instance no more than an experimentalengineer, putting onto paper age-old principles" (Sadler 1). Without adequatetechnology the ability to create such machines was virtually impossible during this time.Fifteenth through the Twentieth CenturiesA wide amount of minor inventions contributed to the advancement of the helicopter.Between the Fifteenth and Twentieth Centuries, adequate machinery needed to producehelicopters, like turbine engines and rotors, was not yet made possible by assemblylines, but as the Industrial Revolution prompted factories and technology accelerated,the helicopter evolved. One of the first breakthroughs in helicopter advancement was byGeorge Cayley who produced a converti-plane in 1843 (Sadler 1). A man named Bourneflew the helicopter-like aircraft a year later. This model was apparently powered byspring-like contraptions inside (Fay 127). All helicopter models at this time lackedsuitable power to achieve flight and were both bulky and heavy.Early Twentieth CenturyThe early Twentieth Century produced many historic moments in rotary-wing aviation.Brothers Louis and Jacques Breget rose some two inches off the ground in theirhelicopter model on August 24, 1907 (Sadler 2). A Frenchman named Paul Cornu alsoachieved free flight in his model in 1907 (Fay 132). The flight lasted only twenty secondsand acquired an altitude of thirty centimeters but was still a landmark development inhelicopter evolution. The start of the Industrial Revolution had created a way fortechnology to advance.World War I AdvancementsMilitary Interest in the helicopter during World War I contributed to its advancementalso. The first recorded example of this involved the Germans Von Karman andPetrosczy and the Hungarian Asboth. These men produced a lifting device intended toreplace kite balloons for observation. "It consisted of two superimposed liftingpropellers" (Fay 133). This autogyro model, called the PKZ-2, failed because of variousdifficulties. It was not until the late period of World War I that major helicopteradvances were made. The quality and quantity of production materials increased, andgreat improvements were made in the field of engine technology in many parts of theworld including Europe and the United States. An aircraft model for militaryadvancement was needed for more versatile and precise war tactics. With bettertechnology and more need, the next step in helicopter advancement would soon come.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 29
  30. 30. DRAFT Jan. 2013Figure 5. Built for US Army Air Force by Georgrij Bothezat (USSR). Courtesy of "History of Helicopters".Autogyros are inventedThe autogyro evolved from earlier models during this time. A Spaniard named Juana dela Cierva experimented with autogyros for the allies in Great Britain until his death in1936 (Sadler 2). Two Cierva C.40 autogyros were used for Air Observation Post duringWorld War I. They did have some setbacks, however. Autogyros could neither hover nordescend vertically like the modern helicopter. Relying on forward motion, theautogyross primitive engine lacked the power to run as efficiently as the helicopters.The helicopters superiority was made readily apparent by the planned replacement ofthe RAFs No. 529 Squadrons autogyros with the Sikorsky aircraft in 1944 (Sadler 2). Figure 6. Modern Autogyro courtesy of "History of Helicopters".Sikorskys AdvancementsThe success in the field of rotary-wing aviation was due almost entirely to a man livingin America named Igor Sikorsky. Sikorsky was a Russian who had fled from theBolshevik Revolution in 1917 to France (Sadler 2). After years of private development,he encouraged the United States Government to agree to a considerable budget of twomillion dollars for rotary-wing research in 1938 (Sadler 2). The government ended upchoosing a joint Sikorsky-Vought effort to be funded, and the project evolved into theVS-300 model helicopter. It formed the most tangible link between the early designconcept of rotary-wing aviation and the practical aircraft that is capable of militaryoperation (Sadler 2). The machine was indeed quite different from earlier models. It wasan incredible advancement in helicopters, but others soon followed.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 30
  31. 31. DRAFT Jan. 2013 Figure 7. One of Sikorskys earlier models. Courtesy of "History of Helicopters".1950 AdvancementsDuring the 1950s many new advancements in helicopters were made. Sikorsky craftedthe worlds first certified commercial transport helicopter, the S-55 Chickasaw (H-19).Another man named Hiller created the flying platform called the Hiller XROE-1Rotorcycle. Figure 8. Hillers flying platform courtesy of "History of Helicopters".The Turbine Engines ImpactThe creation of the turbine engine advanced the helicopters capabilities even further.With assembly lines brought about by the Industrial Revolution, these engines could beproduced with high efficiency and increased precision. The worlds first turbine gas-powered engine was the Kaman K-225 (History of Helicopters 3). Mc Donnell made thefirst successful helicopter with horizontal winged flight from a vertical rotor powered bythe turbine engine (History of Helicopers 3). He continued to create newer models inthe proceeding decades. Figure 9. Mc Donnells helicopter courtesy of History of Helicopters.1960s & 1970s: The Vietnam War and how the helicopter changedThe 1960s and the 1970s marked a widespread advancement in helicopters because ofthe Vietnam War. Beginning in 1964 this war lasted for almost a decade (Garraty 1078).The militarys need for advanced helicopters can be seen in historical pictures of themachines flying through the jungles of Vietnam to retrieve wounded troops. Helicopterswere also used as weapons during this time. Many new helicopters appeared withmissile capabilities. The Bell 209 Cobra "Snake" is one such helicopter. Large missilesAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 31
  32. 32. DRAFT Jan. 2013protruded from the sides of the machine on metal bases above. Another example is theGyrodyne QH-50 (History of Helicopters 4). This helicopter used infrared cameras toobserve at night for better protection (History of Helicopters 4). This helicopter is stillbeing utilized today. Figure 10. Bell 209 Cobra "Snake" courtesy of "History of Helicopters".1980s and the HelicopterDuring the 1980s helicopter advancement was evidently seen as the machinery wasrefined. Mc Donnell continued to produce helicopters like the Tiltrotor Unmanned AirVehicle and the Bell/Boeing 609, the worlds first commercial tiltrotor (History ofHelicopters 1). Smaller helicopters were produced to fulfill the publics needs. TheUltrasport Helicopters and the Air Command International Commander 14/A areappreciable examples. Many helicopters used jet thrust rather than blades to give thedirectional stability, which made them extremely quiet (History of Helicopters 5). Figure 11. Bell/Beoing 609 courtesy of "History of Helicopters".Early 1990s and the HelicopterDuring the early 1990s helicopters were produced by large corporations like theEurocopter Industry (Sparaco 57) and the Civil Helicopter Industry (Proctor 88). TheRevolution Helicopter Corporation created a single-seat helicopter that can be built by aperson at home in forty to sixty hours (History of Helicopters 4). The machines wereused in all areas of the public including the police force and hospitals. Helicopters areAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 32
  33. 33. DRAFT Jan. 2013still used in this way in the late 1990s. They are evolving to become more efficient andcapable of reaching their goals. Figure 12. Revolution Helicopter Corp. Mini 500 courtesy of "History of Helicopters".Conclusion of Helicopter EvolutionThe vertical flight of the helicopter is an advantage to the world. Because of advancedmachinery such as turbine engines and pistons contributed by technology, thehelicopter can be seen flying today. Since history the idea of rotary-wing flight has beenaccounted by curious individuals recognizing its potential. These ideas have evolvedfrom a dream to a reality because of technology and will continue to evolve through timewith the advancement of it. Add the Helicopter existence: o Igor Sikorsky vs. years to develop controlled Vertical Lift. o Vertical Lift blade, Counter Rotating as start o Then Counter separated Main Rotor split to the side which worked and evolved into the Chinook Heavy Lifting Aircraft. o Factor of three:  Vertical Lift blade  Engine(s)  Tail Rotor (McDonnell Douglas Notar o V-22 our Nation bet the 50 year future on this technology, it didn’t succeed as well as expected because: Noise and transitioning wasn’t always simple.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 33
  34. 34. DRAFT Jan. 2013 Chapter 1CROCKET SHIPS"The Rocket ship is the way to get into Space because it carries its complete propellant”HISTORY OF ROCKET SHIPS “This technological explosion had some very humble and human beginnings. TheAcorns took root in some strange places: a church, a cannery, a barbershop, but fromthem mighty Oaks have indeed come to fruition”. Whoever wrote itTodays rockets are remarkable collections of human ingenuity. NASAs Space Shuttle,for example, is one of the most complex flying machines ever invented. It stands uprighton a launch pad, lifts off as a rocket, orbits Earth as a spacecraft, and returns to Earth asa gliding airplane. The Space Shuttle is a true spaceship. In a few years it will be joinedby other spaceships. The European Space Agency is building the Hermes and Japan isbuilding the HOPE. Still later may come aerospace planes that will take off fromrunways as airplanes, fly into space, and return as airplanes.The rockets and spaceships of today and the spaceships of the future have their roots inthe science and technology of the past. They are natural outgrowths of literallythousands of years of experimentation and research on rockets and rocket propulsion.One of the first devices to successfully employ the principles essential to rocket flightwas a wooden bird. In the writings of Aulus Gellius, a Roman, there is a story of a Greeknamed Archytas who lived in the city of Tarentum, now a part of southern Italy.Somewhere around the year 400 B.C., Archytas mystified and amused the citizens ofTarentum by flying a pigeon made of wood. It appears that the bird was suspended onwires and propelled along by escaping steam. The pigeon used the action-reactionprinciple that was not to be stated as a scientific law until the 17th century.About three hundred years after the pigeon, another Greek, Hero of Alexandria,invented a similar rocket-like device called an aeolipile. It, too, used steam as apropulsive gas. Hero mounted a sphere on top of a water kettle. A fire below the kettleturned the water into steam, and the gas traveled through pipes to the sphere. Two L-shaped tubes on opposite sides of the sphere allowed the gas to escape, and in doing sogave a thrust to the sphere that caused it to rotate.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 34
  35. 35. DRAFT Jan. 2013 Figure 13. Hero EngineJust when the first true rockets appeared is unclear. Stories of early rocket like devicesappear sporadically through the historical records of various cultures. Perhaps the firsttrue rockets were accidents. In the first century A.D., the Chinese were reported to havehad a simple form of gunpowder made from saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal dust. It wasused mostly for fireworks in religious and other festive celebrations. Bamboo tubes werefilled with the mixture and tossed into fires to create explosions during religiousfestivals. lt is entirely possible that some of those tubes failed to explode and insteadskittered out of the fires, propelled by the gases and sparks produced by the burninggunpowder. Figure 14. Chinese Fire ArrowIt is certain that the Chinese began to experiment with the gunpowder-filled tubes. Atsome point, bamboo tubes were attached to arrows and launched with bows. Soon it wasdiscovered that these gunpowder tubes could launch themselves just by the powerproduced from the escaping gas. The true rocket was born.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 35
  36. 36. DRAFT Jan. 2013The first date we know true rockets were used was the year 1232. At this time, theChinese and the Mongols were at war with each other. During the battle of Kai-Keng,the Chinese repelled the Mongol invaders by a barrage of "arrows of flying fire." Thesefire-arrows were a simple form of a solid-propellant rocket. A tube, capped at one end,was filled with gunpowder. The other end was left open and the tube was attached to along stick. When the powder was ignited, the rapid burning of the powder produced fire,smoke, and gas that escaped out the open end and produced a thrust. The stick acted asa simple guidance system that kept the rocket headed in one general direction as it flewthrough the air. It is not clear how effective these arrows of flying fire were as weaponsof destruction, but their psychological effects on the Mongols must have beenformidable. Figure 15. Chinese Fire Arrow LaunchFollowing the battle of Kai-Keng, the Mongols produced rockets of their own and mayhave been responsible for the spread of rockets to Europe. All through the 13th to the15th centuries there were reports of many rocket experiments. In England, a monknamed Roger Bacon worked on improved forms of gunpowder that greatly increased therange of rockets. In France, Jean Froissart found that more accurate flights could beachieved by launching rockets through tubes. Froissarts idea was the forerunner of themodern bazooka. Joanes de Fontana of Italy designed a surface-running rocket-poweredtorpedo for setting enemy ships on fire. Figure 16. Surface Running TorpedoBy the 16th century rockets fell into a time of disuse as weapons of war, though theywere still used for fireworks displays, and a German fireworks maker, JohannSchmidlap, invented the "step rocket," a multi-staged vehicle for lifting fireworks tohigher altitudes. A large sky rocket (first stage) carried a smaller sky rocket (secondstage). When the large rocket burned out, the smaller one continued to a higher altitudeAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 36
  37. 37. DRAFT Jan. 2013before showering the sky with glowing cinders. Schmidlaps idea is basic to all rocketstoday that go into outer space.Nearly all uses of rockets up to this time were for warfare or fireworks, but there is aninteresting old Chinese legend that reported the use of rockets as a means oftransportation. With the help of many assistants, a lesser-known Chinese official namedWan-Hu assembled a rocket- powered flying chair. Attached to the chair were two largekites, and fixed to the kites were forty- seven fire-arrow rockets.On the day of the flight, Wan-Hu sat himself on the chair and gave the command to lightthe rockets. Forty-seven rocket assistants, each armed with torches, rushed forward tolight the fuses. In a moment, there was a tremendous roar accompanied by billowingclouds of smoke. When the smoke cleared, Wan-Hu and his flying chair were gone. Noone knows for sure what happened to Wan-Hu, but it is probable that if the event reallydid take place, Wan-Hu and his chair were blown to pieces. Fire-arrows were as apt toexplode as to fly. Figure 17. Wan-Hu Flying ChairRocketry Becomes a ScienceDuring the latter part of the 17th century, the scientific foundations for modern rocketrywere laid by the great English scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727). Newton organizedhis understanding of physical motion into three scientific laws. The laws explain howrockets work and why they are able to work in the vacuum of outer space.Newtons laws soon began to have a practical impact on the design of rockets. About1720, a Dutch professor, Willem Gravesande, built model cars propelled by jets ofsteam. Rocket experimenters in Germany and Russia began working with rockets with amass of more than 45 kilograms. Some of these rockets were so powerful that theirescaping exhaust flames bored deep holes in the ground even before lift-off.During the end of the 18th century and early into the 19th, rockets experienced a briefrevival as a weapon of war. The success of Indian rocket barrages against the British in1792 and again in 1799 caught the interest of an artillery expert, Colonel WilliamCongreve. Congreve set out to design rockets for use by the British military.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 37
  38. 38. DRAFT Jan. 2013The Congreve rockets were highly successful in battle. Used by British ships to poundFort McHenry in the War of 1812, they inspired Francis Scott Key to write "the rocketsred glare," words in his poem that later became The Star- Spangled Banner.Even with Congreves work, the accuracy of rockets still had not improved much fromthe early days. The devastating nature of war rockets was not their accuracy or power,but their numbers. During a typical siege, thousands of them might be fired at theenemy. All over the world, rocket researchers experimented with ways to improveaccuracy. An Englishman, William Hale, developed a technique called spin stabilization.In this method, the escaping exhaust gases struck small vanes at the bottom of therocket, causing it to spin much as a bullet does in flight. Variations of the principle arestill used today.Rockets continued to be used with success in battles all over the European continent.However, in a war with Prussia, the Austrian rocket brigades met their match againstnewly designed artillery pieces. Breech-loading cannon with rifled barrels and explodingwarheads were far more effective weapons of war than the best rockets. Once again,rockets were relegated to peacetime uses.Modern Rocketry BeginsIn 1898, a Russian schoolteacher, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), proposed theidea of space exploration by rocket. In a report he published in 1903, Tsiolkovskysuggested the use of liquid propellants for rockets in order to achieve greater range.Tsiolkovsky stated that the speed and range of a rocket were limited only by the exhaustvelocity of escaping gases. For his ideas, careful research, and great vision, Tsiolkovskyhas been called the father of modern astronautics. Figure 18. Tsiolkovsky RocketsEarly in the 20th century, an American, Robert H. Goddard (1882-1945), conductedpractical experiments in rocketry. He had become interested in a way of achievingAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 38
  39. 39. DRAFT Jan. 2013higher altitudes than were possible for lighter-than-air balloons. He published apamphlet in 1919 entitled A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes. It was amathematical analysis of what is today called the meteorological sounding rocket.In his pamphlet, Goddard reached several conclusions important to rocketry. From histests, he stated that a rocket operates with greater efficiency in a vacuum than in air. Atthe time, most people mistakenly believed that air was needed for a rocket to pushagainst and a New York Times newspaper editorial of the day mocked Goddards lack ofthe "basic physics ladled out daily in our high schools." Goddard also stated thatmultistage or step rockets were the answer to achieving high altitudes and that thevelocity needed to escape Earths gravity could be achieved in this way.Goddards earliest experiments were with solid-propellant rockets. In 1915, he began totry various types of solid fuels and to measure the exhaust velocities of the burninggases. Figure 19. Goddard’s 1926 RocketWhile working on solid-propellant rockets, Goddard became convinced that a rocketcould be propelled better by liquid fuel. No one had ever built a successful liquid-propellant rocket before. It was a much more difficult task than building solid-propellant rockets. Fuel and oxygen tanks, turbines, and combustion chambers wouldbe needed. In spite of the difficulties, Goddard achieved the first successful flight with aliquid- propellant rocket on March 16, 1926. Fueled by liquid oxygen and gasoline, therocket flew for only two and a half seconds, climbed 12.5 meters, and landed 56 metersaway in a cabbage patch. By todays standards, the flight was unimpressive, but like theAerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 39
  40. 40. DRAFT Jan. 2013first powered airplane flight by the Wright brothers in 1903, Goddards gasoline rocketwas the forerunner of a whole new era in rocket flight.Goddards experiments in liquid-propellant rockets continued for many years. Hisrockets became bigger and flew higher. He developed a gyroscope system for flightcontrol and a payload compartment for scientific instruments. Parachute recoverysystems were employed to return rockets and instruments safely. Goddard, for hisachievements, has been called the father of modern rocketry.A third great space pioneer, Hermann Oberth (1894-1989) of Germany, published abook in 1923 about rocket travel into outer space. His writings were important. Becauseof them, many small rocket societies sprang up around the world. In Germany, theformation of one such society, the Verein fur Raumschiffahrt (Society for Space Travel),led to the development of the V-2 rocket, which was used against London during WorldWar II. In 1937, German engineers and scientists, including Oberth, assembled inPeenemunde on the shores of the Baltic Sea. There the most advanced rocket of its timewould be built and flown under the directorship of Wernher von Braun.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 40
  41. 41. DRAFT Jan. 2013 Figure 20. German V2 RocketThe V-2 rocket (in Germany called the A-4) was small by comparison to todays rockets.It achieved its great thrust by burning a mixture of liquid oxygen and alcohol at a rate ofabout one ton every seven seconds. Once launched, the V-2 was a formidable weaponthat could devastate whole city blocks.Fortunately for London and the Allied forces, the V-2 came too late in the war to changeits outcome. Nevertheless, by wars end, German rocket scientists and engineers hadalready laid plans for advanced missiles capable of spanning the Atlantic Ocean andlanding in the United States. These missiles would have had winged upper stages butvery small payload capacities.With the fall of Germany, many unused V-2 rockets and components were captured bythe Allies. Many German rocket scientists came to the United States. Others went to theSoviet Union. The German scientists, including Wernher von Braun, were amazed at theprogress Goddard had made.Both the United States and the Soviet Union realized the potential of rocketry as amilitary weapon and began a variety of experimental programs. At first, the UnitedStates began a program with high-altitude atmospheric sounding rockets, one ofGoddards early ideas. Later, a variety of medium- and long-range intercontinentalballistic missiles were developed. These became the starting point of the U.S. spaceprogram. Missiles such as the Redstone, Atlas, and Titan would eventually launchastronauts into space.On October 4, 1957, the world was stunned by the news of an Earth-orbiting artificialsatellite launched by the Soviet Union. Called Sputnik I, the satellite was the firstsuccessful entry in a race for space between the two superpower nations. Less than amonth later, the Soviets followed with the launch of a satellite carrying a dog namedLaika on board. Laika survived in space for seven days before being put to sleep beforethe oxygen supply ran out.A few months after the first Sputnik, the United States followed the Soviet Union with asatellite of its own. Explorer I was launched by the U.S. Army on January 31, 1958. InOctober of that year, the United States formally organized its space program by creatingthe National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA became a civilianagency with the goal of peaceful exploration of space for the benefit of all humankind.Soon, many people and machines were being launched into space. Astronauts orbitedEarth and landed on the Moon. Robot spacecraft traveled to the planets. Space wassuddenly opened up to exploration and commercial exploitation. Satellites enabledscientists to investigate our world, forecast the weather, and to communicateinstantaneously around the globe. As the demand for more and larger payloadsincreased, a wide array of powerful and versatile rockets had to be built.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 41
  42. 42. DRAFT Jan. 2013Since the earliest days of discovery and experimentation, rockets have evolved fromsimple gunpowder devices into giant vehicles capable of traveling into outer space.Rockets have opened the universe to direct exploration by humankind.Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 42
  43. 43. DRAFT Jan. 2013 Chapter 2Changing Times "The defense industry became detached from the rest of the economy"Americas defense companies are turning dual-purposeJul 18th 2002 | from the print editionTHE 1990s were an eventful time for Americas defense industry. With the cold war atan end, the number of big American contractors came down from 15 to five (LockheedMartin, Boeing, Raytheon, Northrop Grumman and General Dynamics) within a decade.That was a dramatic consolidation, but as budgets shrank, it was not unexpected.The other, more surprising development was that the defense industry turned into akind of ghetto, despite considerable efforts to make doing business with the Pentagoneasier and less bureaucratic. Barriers to entry were removed in the hope of turningdefense into something more like a normal business, but instead of an influx of newblood, a mass exodus followed. IBM, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, General Electric(except engines) and Texas Instruments all sold or closed their defense companies. AsMerrill Lynchs Byron Callan put it, “The defense industry became detached from therest of the economy.”Aerospace Industry – America’s Future? Shawn Paul Boike Copyright 2011-2012 43

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