HISTORY 33 MexicanosASSIGNMENT 9 A History of Mexicans in the United By Shaw Kobayashi
CHAPTER 1Spaniards and Native Americans PreHistory-1521
SPANIARDS*The Spaniard history dated back from the Upper Paleolithicperiod of 35,000 B.C - 10,000 B.C.* The era that Columbus was conquering land from thenatives was often called the Age of Titans.
THE AMERINDIANS*The Amerindians was referred to Columbus as Indios and theterm Indians came to be applied to them*When Europeans ﬁrst encountered them, native Americanswere found throughout the whole Western Hemisphere.
THE CONQUEST OF MEXICO*The Conqueror of the Aztecs was Herman Cortes(1485-1547), the archetypal conquistador.*The Aztecs’ cultural accomplishments were extraordinary, andmany aspects of their lives were admirable and worthy ofemulation.
SPANISH Aztecs and the destruction of their*After the conquest of the EXPLORATIONcapital, the spaniards fanned out in all directions in search ofGod, Gold, and Glory.*The ﬁrst spanish thrust into the north took place along theCaribbean shores of North America.*The Spanish explored the American Southeast and the Southwest.
SETTLEMENT OF NEW MEXICO*The entrada that led to permanent settlement of New Mexicooccurred in the 1590s, not because the mines of the interiorwere exhausted, nor because of the declining labor force giventhe catastrophic impact of European diseases.*When the Spanish entered New Mexico at the end of thesixteenth century, there were two competing lifestyle amongthe Indian tribes.*Those are sedentary and Nomadic.*The great Pueblo Revolt of 1680 was led by the medicine manPope, from the town of San Juan, Pueblo villagers along theUpper Rio Grande Valley staged a massive uprising on 10August of that year.
MAJOR TRENDS*The settlement of the coastal region of Alta California at theend of the eighteenth century brought to an end the era ofSpanish expansion in the north.*The Spanish exploration continued in many directions,including the paciﬁc coast as far as Yakutat Bay, Alaska, but thelimit of effective settlement had been established.*Frontier society by about 1800 was signiﬁcantly different thanthat which evolved in the Mexican interior during the course ofthe eighteenth century.*Frontier life was hard for both men and women, as well astheir children.
MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE*Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808 and replaced King FerdinandVII with his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte, the people rose upin rebellion.*In 1812, with victory against Napoleon’s army of occupation insight, the Cortes, the spanish legislative assembly, drafted aliberal document establishing a constitutional monarchy.
CALIFORNIA*California took no direct partwhatsoever in the events thatresulted in Mexican independence.*By the 1840s, with the gradualdisappearance of the missions, theCalifornia economy came to bedominated by ranches.*Jose de la Guerra y Noriega andMariano Guadalupe Vallejo were therancho oligarchy during this period.
NEW MEXICO*New Mexico experienced major changes during the Mexicanperiod.*In August 1837, a rebellion broke out among the Pueblos andHispanic settlers living in the area north of Santa Fe.*The year of Mexican independence, 1821, witnessed theappearance in New Mexico of William Becknell.*Trade along the Santa Fe Trail brought huge dividends tonorteamericanos who followed Becknell, but it had even greaterconsequences for the inhabitants of New Mexico.*From 1821 to 1846, New Mexican society was experiencingunusual ferment, compared to the tradition-bound society ofcolonial days.
GRINGOS AND GREASERS*Anti-Mexican attitudes during the second half of thenineteenth century were ubiquitous throughout the Southwest.*Relations between Mexicans and Anglos, the most importanttheme in Chicano history during the second half of thenineteenth century, were complex.
CALIFORNIA*The most complete and insightfulstudy of Mexican-Anglo relationsin the Golden State during theaftermath of the war of conquestwas written in 1966 by thehistorian Leonard Pitt, whoestablished the main areas ofinquiry that Chicano scholarswould later pursue.*Northern part of the state, whichwas steadily overrun by anglonewcomers even before thecompletion of the transcontinentalrailroad in 1869.
ARIZONA*The signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 leftMexican population of Arizona, which resided exclusively southof the Gila River, under Mexican sovereignty.*The Gadsden Purchase created the present-day borderbetween Mexico and Arizona.*There were few Anglos in southern Arizona at mid-century, adesert area plagued by Indian problems, the region neverenticed foreigners during the Mexican period the way othernorthern frontier provinces had.*A small Anglo population also ensured that Mexicans wouldcontinue to play a vital role in the regional economy prior tothe arrival of the Southern Paciﬁc Railroad.
TEXAS*Texas was the area where Anglo-Mexican relations were attheir worst during the second half of the nineteenth century.*Texans made up a good part of the invading American forceinto Mexico.
MOTIVES FOR MEXICAN IMMIGRATION*After the ﬁrst world war a series of laws were passedculminating in the Reed-Johnson Immigration Act of 1924,regulating immigration into this country.*Mexico was forcing citizens to the United States.
MEXICAN REVOLUTION*The roots of the 1910 revolution can be traced far back intoMexican history.*The signiﬁcant numbers of Mexicans had been entering theUnited States even before the Revolution.*Their most popular destination was San Antonio, where theysettled in the Mexican barrio on the West side.
THE IMMIGRANT*Driven out of Mexico and attracted to the Southwest forpolitical, religious,economic, and a variety of other reasons,thousands of immigrants, most of them destitute peasants, madethe hazardous trek north during the halcyon years of the earlytwentieth century.*Jose Martinez was born at around the turn of the century in asmall village in western Mexico, a town like Arandas in Jalisco orJacona in Michoacan and he was a typical modal immigrant.*Jose was unable to make a good living but convinced that abetter life was possible and one of the most positive legacies ofthe Revolution was prepared to try his luck in the United States.
THE DEPRESSION*The Great Depression is generally dated from the collapse ofthe New York stock exchange in October 1929; but the roots ofthe economic slump, the most catastrophic in history, can betraced back to the Great War itself.*Most Americans hardly realized the difﬁculties that beset thefarming community at the time; they were too busy enjoying lifeduring the jazz age.*Less industrialized than other sections of the United States, theSouthwest, where the great majority of Mexicans resided,appeared better able to weather economic ﬂuctuations.*The collapse of the economy left Mexicans in dire straits,weather they were found in the Southwest or other sections ofthe country,
THE “MEXICAN PROBLEM”*The collapse of the economy in the 1930s increased racialtensions, which augured ill for Mexicans, both in the Southwestand outsides of that region.*Anti-Mexican sentiments, as the account above indicates wereevident well before the Depression.*In the 1920s during the aftermath of the Great War, nativismwas pervasive.*Nativist fears fed the growing perception of Mexicans as aproblem in the 1920s, a concern intensiﬁed by the appearanceof Mexicans in cities.
DUST BOWL MIGRATION*Between 1929 and 1933, farm income in the United Statesdropped by two-thirds.*Thousands of destitute families were forced to abandon theirhomes.*More than half a million people were involved.
CHAPTER 7The Second World War and Its Aftermath 1940-1965
MEXICANS IN THE MILITARY*Between 250,000 and 500,000 Mexicans both immigrants andnative-born out of a population of 2.7million, engaged in activemilitary service.*The service represented one of the few opportunities forMexicans to improve their low socioeconomic status.
URBANIZATION:TRAILS AND TRIBULATIONS*The best jobs were found in cities, during the war years, therewas a massive inﬂux of the Mexican population into urbancenters.*Urban living was bound to weaken traditional family ties.*As economic opportunities opened up to women a trendaccentuated by the war, they naturally demanded more rights,and as Vicki Ruiz has shown, generally received them.*The advent of panuco gangs in early 1940’s mirrors thebreakdown of the traditional family, as well as the discriminationexperienced by Mexican youths in an urban environment.
THE BRACERO PROGRAM*The Bracero Program was another major consequence ofWorld War II.*Braceros were MExican nationals recruited to work in thewestern United States on a temporary basis as part of a U.S.Government-sponsored project during an after the war.*So severe was the labor shortage, that in the end, and despitethe objections of the Texans, an accord was signed on 23 July1942, by FDR and Mexican President Manuel Avila Camachoand ratiﬁed in Mexico City Shortly thereafter.*The Binational agreement, some quarter of a million Mexicans,all of them male, were employed as braceros throughout thewest before its expiration in April 1947.
MEXICAN COMMUNITY IN THE MID SIXTIES*A portrait of the Mexican population on the eve of theChicano movement is helpful in explaining why Chicanismobecame so appealing to large segments of the population.*The best source of information on Mexicans in the earlysixties, indeed the most comprehensive work on the subject upto this time, was The Mexican-American People:The Nation’sSecond Largest Minority by Leo Grebbler, Joan W. Moore, andRalph C. Guzman.*The total Mexican population in 1960, according to Grebblerwas 3,842,000 of which 87 percent resided in the Southwest.
ORIGINS OF THE CHICANO MOVEMENT*Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka encouraged a newassertiveness by blacks whose civil rights movement began in1955, when Rosa Parks, a black woman, refused to give up herbus seat in Montgomery, Alabama.*By 1966, dissatisﬁed with the seemingly glacial pace of reform,more militant leaders emerged from the African-Americancommunity, particularly in northern urban ghettos, where Dr.King was less inﬂuential.*They labeled their movement as “Black Power” for therepermanent racial separation and the use of violence.
THE DELANO STRIKE*Filipinos struck to gain higher pay and recognition as a union.*Chavez soon became the acknowledged leader of the entireoperation.
IMMIGRATION*High birth rates was one of the main reason why Mexicanswas staying in the US, but also was do to the high levels ofimmigration from Mexico to the US this could not be over seenand some one had to take action into this.
DEMOGRAPHICS*There was a high level of Hispanics living in the US and thiswas backed by the numbers collected by the Census Bureau.*There was a 61 percent increase from 1970-1980*Then another 53 percent increase from 1980-1990*Mexicans kept a high level of public interest after the 70s tokeep up with the nations troubles
FEMINISTS: THE SECOND GENERATION*By the early nineties more Latina women were going tocollege and graduating than the Latino men.*This trend followed through, as in the mid nineties indicatingthat were were more intelligent Latina women then there isLatino Men in the United States.
STEMMING THE TIDE*Congress, in 1990, increased the penalty for violation ofimmigration policies, and also increased the funding given to theboarder patrol
AWAKENING THE GIANT:GRASSROOTS MOBILIZATION*The threats to the civil liberties of the Mexican Americans wasstarted by the political mobilization through the country, whichwas then ﬁrst seen in California.*The Grassroots movement also demanded more rights for theundocumented workers, which was directly correlated with theinﬂux of military presence at the boarder.
THE AWAKENING GIANT: ELECTORAL POLITICS*This awakened the mindset of the future political hopefulness,because they saw that the Latino/as’ vote was a very importantone to the US.*In the early twenty-ﬁrst century the mobilization fro the rightswas just not taken by the streets, it was also thought to be theample time to create the impact through the electoral political
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