What We Will Learn….• Why the Technological Revolution called “the Second Industrial Revolution• How daily lives changed in the decades following the Civil War.• How advances in electric power and communication affected people and businesses in the era.• The effects the development of railroads had on industrial growth.• The impact of the Bessemer process on American culture.• The contributions of African Americans during the growth of American Industry• Innovations developed by African American and how they helped to fuel industrial development in the United States
Vocabulary• Patent- licenses that give an inventor the exclusive right to make, use, or sell and invention for a set period time.• Productivity -the amount of goods and services created in a given period of time.• Transcontinental railroad- railway extending from coast to coast.• Bessemer process- The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass- production of steel from molten pig iron.• Mass production- production in great amounts of steel.
Main IdeaIn the years after Civil War, new technology revolution American life. Technology Examples Impact of Daily Life and Business Electric power Refrigerator Reduced food spoilage Communication Telegram To communicate with people and trains Transportation Trains To ship goods and to get people to were the need to go.
Key FactsThe Technological Revolution is also known asthe Second Industrial Revolution. (an assembly line) The Technological Revolution saw rapid industrial development in Western Europe (Britain, Germany, France, the Low Countries) as well as the United States and Japan.
Why was the Technological Revolution called “The Second Industrial Revolution” The Technological was a phase of the larger IndustrialRevolution corresponding to the later half of the 19thcentury until World War 1. The difference between the First Industrial Revolution andthe Second Industrial Revolution is that the SecondIndustrial Revolution had inventions and innovations thatwere science based.
Daily Life ChangesIn the decades after the Civil War, Americans experiencedremarkable changes in their everyday life, from the clothesthey wore and food they ate to their opportunities forrecreation. Mail order catalogs allowed rural residents to buynew equipment and follow the latest trends in fashion orhousehold appliances without ever going to a store. Thepublic school and university systems grew and developed asthe demand for education increased. Meanwhile, Americansfilled their leisure time with a diverse range of activities,from sports to vaudeville to amusement parks. The impact ofthese changes in lifestyle was reflected in both the seriousand popular literature of the time, which emphasized realismand targeted the growing middle class.
Advances in electric power and communication With the ability to have electric power lots of homes andindustries were improved. With electric power industriescould produce products faster than usual people could stayup longer and work longer hours because they were able tosee at night. Telegraph lines were installed along rail lines forcommunicating with trains, evolved into a communicationnetwork
The Effects the Development of Railroads Had on Industrial Growth Railroads became the dominant mode of land transportation in the lasthalf of the 19th century. Railroads flourished in England, from 1,000 milesin 1836 to more than 7,000 miles built by 1852. Railroads provided a fast,inexpensive, convenient, and efficient mode of transportation for manypassengers. By the 1850s, railways connected the Atlantic seaboard andthe Midwest in the United States. In 1869 the first transcontinental routewas completed to the Pacific coast. This provided the first transportationfor passengers across North America. Not only did people need better transportation, but manufacturedgoods, raw materials and food also needed a quick, inexpensive mode oftransportation . The availability of manufactured goods and foodsincreased because of railroads provided quick transportation. Costs ofproducts also decreased because of railroads.
The Impact of the Bessemer process on American culture The Bessemer process improved the steel industry by a mile.Americans had a lot more steel because of this, and it was quick andeasy. Before the introduction of the process, bridges, railroads, andbuildings had to be made out of wrought iron due to the expensivecost of steel. With Henry Bessemer’s invention, 30,000 miles ofrailroad track could be built in the western part of the U.S. The U.SMilitary power was also increased since weapons and warships weremade of steel. The Bessemer Converter
African Americancontribution duringthe growth ofAmerican Industry
Garrett Morgan(1877-1963)Garrett Morgan as born in Paris,Kentucky in 1877. As a self-educated man, he went on tomake an explosive entry into thefield of technology. He inventeda gas inhalator when he, hisbrother, and some volunteerswere rescuing a group of mencaught by and explosion in asmoke-filled tunnel under LakeErie. Although this rescue earnedMorgan a gold medal , he wasunable to market his gasinhalator because of racialprejudice.
Granville T. Woods(1856-1910)Granville Woods was born inColumbus, Ohio !856. He dedicatedhis life to developing a variety ofinventions relating to the railroadindustry. Woods invented morethan a dozen devices to improveelectric railways, cars, and manymore for controlling the flow ofelectricity. His most notedinventions was a system for lettingthe engineer of a train know howclose his train to others. This devicehelped cut down accidents andcollisions between trains.
Lewis Latimer(1848-19280Lewis Latimer was born in Chelsea,Massachusetts in 1848. He enlisted inthe Union Navy at the age of 15 andupon completion of his militaryservice, returned Massachusetts andwas employed by a patent solicitorwhere he began the study of drafting.His talent for drafting and his creativegenius led him to invent a method ofmaking carbon filaments for theMaxim electric incandescent lamp. In1881, he supervised installation ofelectric light in New York,Philadelphia, Montreal, and London.Latimer was the original draftsman forThomas Edison and as such was thestar witness in Edison’s infringement.
Elijah McCoy(1843-1929)Elijah McCoy was born inOntario, Canada, in 1843. Hewas educated in Scotland. Hereturned to United States topursue a position in his field tomechanical engineering mostfamous for a metal or glasscup that fed oil to bearingsthrough a smallbore tube.Machinists and engineers whowanted genuine McCoylubricators may haveoriginated the term, “the realMcCoy.”
Other Inventerscontributionsduring thegrowth ofAmericanIndustry
Thomas A. Edison(1847-1931)Thomas Edison was born in 1847. Hewas an American inventor andbusinessman. He developed manydevices that greatly influenced lifearound the world, including thephonograph, the motion picturecamera, and a long-lasting, practicalelectric light bulb. He was one of thefirst inventors to apply the principlesof mass production and large-scaleteamwork to the process of invention,and because of that, he is oftencredited with the creation of the firstindustrial research laboratory. He asover 1,000 patents granted in hisname.
Henry Ford(1863-1947)Henry Ford was born 1863. Hewas an American industrialist,the founder of the Ford MotorCompany, and sponsor of thedevelopment of the assemblyline technique of massproduction. Although Ford didnot invent the automobile, hedeveloped and manufacturedthe first automobile that manymiddle class Americans couldafford to buy. He is creditedwith "Fordism": massproduction of inexpensivegoods coupled with highwages for workers.
Henry Bessemer(1813-1898)Henry Bessemer was in born 1813.He invented the first process formass-producing steel inexpensively,essential to the development ofskyscrapers. An American, WilliamKelly, had held a patent for "a systemof air blowing the carbon out of pigiron“(the Bessemer Process) amethod of steel production known asthe pneumatic process ofsteelmaking. Air is blown throughmolten pig iron to oxidize andremove unwanted impurities.Bankruptcy forced Kelly to sell hispatent to Bessemer, who had beenworking on a similar process formaking steel. And that’s why it’snamed the Bessemer Process.
Frederick W. Taylor(1856-1915)Frederick Taylor was born in 1856.He is known for being the father of“scientific management”. His ideasinvolved managing human laborefficiently and effectively. Thescience of production, or whatbecame known as “Taylorism,”reached its peak during the 1920s,but attempts to bring scientificstandards to the performance ofworkers were central to the growthof American industries in thenineteenth century also.