Reproduction in flowering plants (sexual reproduction)

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  • 2.  Sexual reproductive structure in plants Produces egg and sperm Fertilization takes place inside the flower FLOWER
  • 3. STRUCTURE OF TYPICAL FLOWER female reproductive organs male reproductive organs
  • 4. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN Pistil  Stigma –top of the pistil, Sticky surface for pollen to stick  Style – connects the stigma to the ovary  Ovary –contains ovules (eggs) MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN Stamen  Anther – produces sperm nuclei by meiosis. Sperm nuclei are enclosed by pollen grains  Filament – holds the anther up
  • 5. POLLINATION The transfer of pollen grains from anthers to the stigmas Pollination agents : •Wind : Anemophily •Insects : Entemophily •Birds : Ornithophily •Animals : Zoophily
  • 6. Wind : Anemophily Insects : Entemophily Birds : Ornithophily Animals : Zoophily
  • 7. TYPES OF POLLINATION 1. Self pollination The transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of the same flower, or of another flower of the same plant. Same Plant’s FlowerSame Flower
  • 8. 2. Cross pollination The transfer of pollen to a flower on a different plant of the same species. Different Plant’s Flower
  • 9. FERTILIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN FLOWERING PLANTS •Pollen grains send out pollen tubes which grows down the style & ovary, towards the micropyle. •Pollen grains are attracted by sugars in stigma and secrete enzymes to digest a pathway through the style
  • 10. double FERTILIZATION  Male gamete goes into the ovule and fertilizes with the egg cell.  The other male gamete fuses with the polar nuclei to form the triploid endosperm
  • 11. Development of Fruits and Seeds  Fate of floral parts after fertilization Floral Part Fate after fertilization (a) sepals, petals & stamens All wither and drop off (b) ovary i) ovary wall ii) ovule iii) integuments iv) fertilised egg Becomes the fruit fruit wall seed seed coat (testa) embryo
  • 12. A fruit is an ovary after fertilization and it contains seeds Functions: Fruits : protect & disperse the embryo Seeds : protect the embryo Provide food for the embryo Help in dispersal of the plant
  • 13. Fruits and Seeds Dispersal (1) by wind, (2) by animals, (3) by water, Significance of fruits & seeds dispersal It prevents overcrowding & competition for limited resources. It allows the plants to have their seeds to land on suitable places for germination, thus increases the chance for the plants to colonize new areas.
  • 14. seedling Micropyle –opening in ovule where pollen tube attached, sperm entered Hilum –scar where ovule attached to ovary Radicle –embryonic root
  • 15. SEED GERMINATION PARTS OF A SEED Seed coat Epicotyl Cotyledons Hypocotyl Seed coat Endosperm Epicotyl Hypocotyl RadicleCotyledo n • Dicot • Monocot
  • 16. Epicotyl – grows above the cotyledons and gives rise to the leaves. Hypocotyl –below the point of attachment of the cotyledon, develops into the stem.
  • 17. FLOWER
  • 18. Thank you Bye Bye