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Participation of Women
Career and Technical
This chapter addresses the historical work roles
of woman in career and technical education,
legislative break through affecting woman, and
selected problems associated with sex equity.
In the Early
apart of the labor
force in textile
factories or by
selling or trading
women was still
seen as stay at
home, tending to
families and home.
Roles of Woman
Trained in domestic and
It was seen as the duty of a
Instructions were geared
towards becoming good mothers
or good mistresses of their
Roles of Woman in
Boys learned to saw, dig and cultivate
Girls learned spinning, weaving, cooking,
and sewing. More likely targets for moral
instruction because they were responsibly
for maintaining a moral home
Roles of Woman
During World War I and World War II
Shortage of male workers and the industrial
expansion necessitated by war created many
jobs for women.
Kansas State Agricultural College in 1874
allowed woman to take courses in drawing,
carving and engraving.
Roles of Woman
During the Civil War
Women were employed as government clerks.
Congress appropriated funds for salaries for
female government clerks
Women were paid less than half of men who
are working the same jobs.
Women were limited in labor-force and wage
due to their gender
The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 provided
the first federal funding for public school
programs in agriculture, trade, industrial,
and home economics education
The first three programs were specially
designed for males, and home economics
was included to provide women with an
education for homemaking.
Equal Pay Act of 1983
This act, considered the first significant
legislation relating to vocational equity, called for
the end of discrimination on the basis of sex in
payment of wages for equal work.
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Prohibits discrimination in employment on the
basis of sex, race, color, religion, and national
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972
Banning discrimination on the basis of sex in
Provided that “no person in the United States shall,
on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation
in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to
discrimination under any educational program or
activity receiving federal financial assistance.”
The Women’s Educational Equity Act of 1974
Provided for funding of projects to advance
education between women and men.
Fishel and Potter (1977)
Noted that this act provided for expansion and
improvement of programs for women in vocational
education and career education.
Educational Amendments of 1976
Appropriate the first funds for sex equity in
Require the development and
implementation of programs to eliminate sex
discrimination, sex bias, and sex role
Each State was required to employ a
full time sex equity coordination to
Provide specific leadership in eliminating
those barriers that inhibit equal access to
Offer technical assistance to local educators
Develop a public relations program
Carl D Perkins Vocational Education
Act in 1984
Increased emphasis was placed on gender
equity in vocational education programs
States were directed to set aside funds for
single parents, homemakers, and displaces
homemaker and to eliminate sex bias and
Equity Status in Career
and Technical Education
In the seven traditional CTE programs areas, six tend to be
heavily sex typed. Marketing attracts both gender.
In 1971-1972 school year, nearly three
million girls and women were enrolled in
occupationally specific high school and
Women’s enrollment were primarily in home
economics, health occupations and office occupations
Segregation continues despite gains made
Women were at disadvantage in selecting
and completing gender- nontraditional, CTE
programs that would lead to higher payer
It was noted that
women would need special supported
services to succeed in completing
preparation for male- intensive employment.
To make-up for women inequality in higherpaying jobs is to learn more about the techniques
for changing workplace inequalities and to develop
strategies to improve Affirmative Action programs.
Girls and Women
Provide career exploration
Provide information on
nontraditional careers to families
Select texts and materials free
from sex bias
Provide women students with role
Treat students equally
Develop mentorship programs
Bring nontraditional students and workers to the
attention of all students through panel
presentations and career-day conferences.
Recognize the achievements of nontraditional
Include assertiveness training as part of an overall
Work with employers to assist then in obtaining
highly skilled worker, regardless of gender.
Associated with Sex
Sex stereotyping- Learned thought processes often associate
women with specific, often submissive, feminine roles and men
with masculine , dominant roles.
Sex-role spillover- sometimes male workers will act out against
female co-workers because they don’t meet their expectation of
“affectionate” female behavior.
Pack mentality- the majority group often holds members of a
minority to a higher standard.
Somebody else’s problem- male co-workers (or students) often fail
to see any potential for harassment in their behavior because they
believe only the behavior of supervisors can contribute to sexually
Sex Bias and Sex
In the late 1960s and 1970s, it was concluded that interests in
occupations perhaps tended to be sex stereotyped more for
“real” choices than for “ideal” choices.
At the high school level students in programs nontraditional
for their sex, whether male or female, held higher selfconcepts than their counterparts in traditional programs.
On the whole, males were found to have more positive selfconcepts than females.
Employers of nontraditional vocational graduates indicated
that sex stereotypes are a major barrier to such employment.
In 1978, the largest problem identified by women students in
nontraditional high school vocational education programs
was harassment by male classmates.
Between 1991 and 1996, the percentage of companies that
reported at least one sexual harassment claim grew from 52
percent to 72 percent.
The School-to-Work Opportunities Act requires state and
local administrators to show how their plans will increase
opportunities for women in careers that are not traditional for
Lack of Support
For nontraditional completers of vocational programs,
friends, relatives, and school personnel were perceived as
less helpful than for completers of more traditional choices.
Houser and Garvey, in studying California women in
vocational education programs, found that nontraditional
students differed form traditional students primarily in the
support received from female friends and family members.
Recognizing these problems and others related to male sexrole stereotyping can help vocational educators identify
equity as an area that benefits both sexes.
Institute for Women in Trades,
Technology , and Science
IWITTS is a national nonprofit
501(c)3 organization founded in
IWITTS helps educators
nationwide close the gender gap
for women and girls in male
dominated careers, such as
technology, the trades and law
IWITTS offers training to
educators and other materials to
help teach, promote and recruit
women in the STEM areas.
Revisitation of Title IX
Gender Segregation in CTE at
the High School Level
Many of us have heard of Title IX
and athletics. Title IX is much
Title IX is a federal civil rights law
that prohibits sex discrimination
There is success with Title IX but
there is still gender segregation in
It is noticable in our Agriculture
classes, Business Classes, Family
Revisitation of Title IX
Gender Segregation in CTE at
the High School Level
Many of us have heard of Title IX and
athletics. Title IX is much more.
Title IX is a federal civil rights law that
prohibits sex discrimination in
education. There is success with Title
IX but there is still gender segregation
Family & Consumer Science
The Home Economics stigma is still
present, males are less likely to sign
up for classes or participate in FCCLA.
Because some of the classes the students
are constructing and using power tools
many females are less likely to sign up for
During TSA events the number female
students are fewer than other CTSO’s.
The number of females in welding
classes or the number of males in
The type of projects or events majority of
the females enter as a FFA member.
There are few males who take business
classes compared to other CTE classes.
Because of the stigma with secretary
With FBLA you see majority males or
females in an event as well.
With DECA there are more male
students but there is still difference you
see with the event entries.
Many of the gender segregation is by choice
and because of stigma’s related with the
Workforce Participation of
Women in Developing
In many developing countries
women still experience unequal
access to training due to
cultural, religious, and society
Access to training programs for
Women are not registered as
Programs lack support
provisions as child care
Male focused occupations
Women’s work is not
properly accounted for in
many countries such as
Muslim countries due to
Access to training is there but
discrimination in employerprovided training especially affect
Employers are less likely to
invest in initial or further training
for women because of their
higher rates of job-learning due to
family responsibilities, and
because of this they may be parttime or temporary workers.
Implication for the
Studies show that development projects and
programs often fail because women are left
out of the development process.
Programs focusing on education and training for
women should do the following:
1. Support and actively contribute to the future
development of basic education and literacy
2. Examine practices that may contribute to genderrelated socialization patterns leading to segregated
3. Develop strategies that effectively engage and
sustain individuals in nontraditional occupations
4. Emphasize programs that meet the needs of the
5. Establish partnerships to build
commitment, extend resources,
and improve effectiveness.
6. Develop a multifaceted approach
to address gender issues
a) Awareness raising and
b) Career information sand
c) Professional development
e) Work base learning
f) Parental involvement