Participation of Women in Career and Technical Education

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  • 1. Chapter 6 Participation of Women in Career and Technical Education
  • 2. Overview This chapter addresses the historical work roles of woman in career and technical education, legislative break through affecting woman, and selected problems associated with sex equity.
  • 3. Roles of Woman in CTC In the Early Nineteenth Century women became apart of the labor force in textile factories or by selling or trading fruits and vegetables. women was still seen as stay at home, tending to families and home.
  • 4. Roles of Woman in CTC Women were Trained in domestic and ornamental capacity. It was seen as the duty of a woman Instructions were geared towards becoming good mothers or good mistresses of their families
  • 5. Roles of Woman in CTC Experiential learning Boys learned to saw, dig and cultivate gardens Girls learned spinning, weaving, cooking, and sewing. More likely targets for moral instruction because they were responsibly for maintaining a moral home environment.
  • 6. Roles of Woman in CTC During World War I and World War II Shortage of male workers and the industrial expansion necessitated by war created many jobs for women. Kansas State Agricultural College in 1874 allowed woman to take courses in drawing, carving and engraving.
  • 7. Roles of Woman in CTC During the Civil War Women were employed as government clerks. Congress appropriated funds for salaries for female government clerks Women were paid less than half of men who are working the same jobs. Women were limited in labor-force and wage due to their gender
  • 8. Legislative Affecting Woman The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 provided the first federal funding for public school programs in agriculture, trade, industrial, and home economics education The first three programs were specially designed for males, and home economics was included to provide women with an education for homemaking.
  • 9. Legislative Affecting Woman Equal Pay Act of 1983 This act, considered the first significant legislation relating to vocational equity, called for the end of discrimination on the basis of sex in payment of wages for equal work. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of sex, race, color, religion, and national rights.
  • 10. Legislative Affecting Woman Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 Banning discrimination on the basis of sex in education. Provided that “no person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.”
  • 11. Legislative Affecting Woman The Women’s Educational Equity Act of 1974 Provided for funding of projects to advance education between women and men. Fishel and Potter (1977) Noted that this act provided for expansion and improvement of programs for women in vocational education and career education.
  • 12. Legislative Affecting Woman Educational Amendments of 1976 Appropriate the first funds for sex equity in conventional programs Require the development and implementation of programs to eliminate sex discrimination, sex bias, and sex role stereotyping.
  • 13. Legislative Affecting Woman Each State was required to employ a full time sex equity coordination to Provide specific leadership in eliminating those barriers that inhibit equal access to vocational education Offer technical assistance to local educators Develop a public relations program
  • 14. Legislative Affecting Woman Carl D Perkins Vocational Education Act in 1984 Increased emphasis was placed on gender equity in vocational education programs States were directed to set aside funds for single parents, homemakers, and displaces homemaker and to eliminate sex bias and stereotype
  • 15. Equity Status in Career and Technical Education In the seven traditional CTE programs areas, six tend to be heavily sex typed. Marketing attracts both gender.
  • 16. Nontraditional CTE Programs In 1971-1972 school year, nearly three million girls and women were enrolled in occupationally specific high school and postsecondary programs. Women’s enrollment were primarily in home economics, health occupations and office occupations Segregation continues despite gains made
  • 17. Nontraditional CTE Programs Women were at disadvantage in selecting and completing gender- nontraditional, CTE programs that would lead to higher payer jobs It was noted that women would need special supported services to succeed in completing preparation for male- intensive employment.
  • 18. Nontraditional CTE Programs Burge (1990) To make-up for women inequality in higherpaying jobs is to learn more about the techniques for changing workplace inequalities and to develop strategies to improve Affirmative Action programs.
  • 19. Opportunities for Girls and Women  Provide career exploration activities  Provide information on nontraditional careers to families  Select texts and materials free from sex bias  Provide women students with role models  Treat students equally  Develop mentorship programs  Bring nontraditional students and workers to the attention of all students through panel presentations and career-day conferences.  Recognize the achievements of nontraditional students  Include assertiveness training as part of an overall curriculum  Work with employers to assist then in obtaining highly skilled worker, regardless of gender.
  • 20. Selected Problems Associated with Sex Equity  Sex stereotyping- Learned thought processes often associate women with specific, often submissive, feminine roles and men with masculine , dominant roles.  Sex-role spillover- sometimes male workers will act out against female co-workers because they don’t meet their expectation of “affectionate” female behavior.  Pack mentality- the majority group often holds members of a minority to a higher standard.  Somebody else’s problem- male co-workers (or students) often fail to see any potential for harassment in their behavior because they believe only the behavior of supervisors can contribute to sexually hostile environment.
  • 21. Sex Bias and Sex Stereotyping  In the late 1960s and 1970s, it was concluded that interests in occupations perhaps tended to be sex stereotyped more for “real” choices than for “ideal” choices.  At the high school level students in programs nontraditional for their sex, whether male or female, held higher selfconcepts than their counterparts in traditional programs.  On the whole, males were found to have more positive selfconcepts than females.  Employers of nontraditional vocational graduates indicated that sex stereotypes are a major barrier to such employment.
  • 22. Harassment  In 1978, the largest problem identified by women students in nontraditional high school vocational education programs was harassment by male classmates.  Between 1991 and 1996, the percentage of companies that reported at least one sexual harassment claim grew from 52 percent to 72 percent.  The School-to-Work Opportunities Act requires state and local administrators to show how their plans will increase opportunities for women in careers that are not traditional for their gender.
  • 23. Lack of Support  For nontraditional completers of vocational programs, friends, relatives, and school personnel were perceived as less helpful than for completers of more traditional choices.  Houser and Garvey, in studying California women in vocational education programs, found that nontraditional students differed form traditional students primarily in the support received from female friends and family members.  Recognizing these problems and others related to male sexrole stereotyping can help vocational educators identify equity as an area that benefits both sexes.
  • 24. Institute for Women in Trades, Technology , and Science (IWITTIS)  IWITTS is a national nonprofit 501(c)3 organization founded in 1994.  IWITTS helps educators nationwide close the gender gap for women and girls in male dominated careers, such as technology, the trades and law enforcement.  IWITTS offers training to educators and other materials to help teach, promote and recruit women in the STEM areas. www.itwitts.com Revisitation of Title IX Gender Segregation in CTE at the High School Level Many of us have heard of Title IX and athletics. Title IX is much more. Title IX is a federal civil rights law that prohibits sex discrimination in education. There is success with Title IX but there is still gender segregation in CTE. It is noticable in our Agriculture classes, Business Classes, Family Consumer Sc
  • 25. Revisitation of Title IX Gender Segregation in CTE at the High School Level Examples  Many of us have heard of Title IX and athletics. Title IX is much more.  Title IX is a federal civil rights law that prohibits sex discrimination in education. There is success with Title IX but there is still gender segregation in CTE. Examples  Family & Consumer Science  The Home Economics stigma is still present, males are less likely to sign up for classes or participate in FCCLA.  Technology Classes  Because some of the classes the students are constructing and using power tools many females are less likely to sign up for classes.  During TSA events the number female students are fewer than other CTSO’s.  Agriculture classes  The number of females in welding classes or the number of males in horticulture  The type of projects or events majority of the females enter as a FFA member.  Business Classes  There are few males who take business classes compared to other CTE classes.  Because of the stigma with secretary duties  With FBLA you see majority males or females in an event as well.  With DECA there are more male students but there is still difference you see with the event entries. Many of the gender segregation is by choice and because of stigma’s related with the CTE programs.
  • 26. Workforce Participation of Women in Developing Countries  In many developing countries women still experience unequal access to training due to cultural, religious, and society differences.  Access to training programs for the unemployed underrepresented women because a. b. c. d. Women are not registered as unemployed Programs lack support provisions as child care Male focused occupations are targeted Women’s work is not properly accounted for in many countries such as Muslim countries due to cultural factors.  Access to training is there but discrimination in employerprovided training especially affect women.  Employers are less likely to invest in initial or further training for women because of their higher rates of job-learning due to family responsibilities, and because of this they may be parttime or temporary workers.
  • 27. Implication for the Workforce Education Studies show that development projects and programs often fail because women are left out of the development process. Programs focusing on education and training for women should do the following: 1. Support and actively contribute to the future development of basic education and literacy programs 2. Examine practices that may contribute to genderrelated socialization patterns leading to segregated occupation 3. Develop strategies that effectively engage and sustain individuals in nontraditional occupations 4. Emphasize programs that meet the needs of the information age 5. Establish partnerships to build commitment, extend resources, and improve effectiveness. 6. Develop a multifaceted approach to address gender issues a) Awareness raising and promotional/advocacy campaign b) Career information sand counselor services c) Professional development d) Mentors e) Work base learning f) Parental involvement