Managerial Accounting ed 15 Chapter 9

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Managerial Accounting ed 15 Chapter 9

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  • Here we see a flexible budget performance report that shows both activity variances and revenue and spending variances. Note that the activity variances appear between the planning budget and the flexible budget and that the revenue and spending variances appear between the flexible budget and the actual results.
  • Managerial Accounting ed 15 Chapter 9

    1. 1. PowerPoint Authors: Susan Coomer Galbreath, Ph.D., CPA Charles W. Caldwell, D.B.A., CMA Jon A. Booker, Ph.D., CPA, CIA Cynthia J. Rooney, Ph.D., CPA Copyright © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Flexible Budgets and Performance Analysis Chapter 9
    2. 2. 9-2 Variance Analysis Cycle
    3. 3. 9-3 Learning Objective 1 Prepare a flexible budget.
    4. 4. 9-4 Characteristics of Flexible Budgets Planning budgets are prepared for a single, planned level of activity. Performance evaluation is difficult when actual activity differs from the planned level of activity. Hmm! Comparing static planning budgets with actual costs is like comparing apples and oranges.
    5. 5. 9-5 Improve performance evaluation. May be prepared for any activity level in the relevant range. Show costs that should have been incurred at the actual level of activity, enabling “apples to apples” cost comparisons. Help managers control costs. Let’s look at Larry’s Lawn Service. Characteristics of Flexible Budgets
    6. 6. 9-6 Larry’s Lawn Service provides lawn care in a planned community where all lawns are approximately the same size. At the end of May, Larry prepared his June budget based on mowing 500 lawns. Since all of the lawns are similar in size, Larry felt that the number of lawns mowed in a month would be the best way to measure overall activity for his business. Larry’s Budget Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget
    7. 7. 9-7 Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget Larry’s Planning Budget
    8. 8. 9-8 Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget Larry’s Actual Results
    9. 9. 9-9 Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget Larry’s Actual Results Compared with the Planning Budget
    10. 10. 9-10 Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget Larry’s Actual Results Compared with the Planning Budget F = Favorable variance that occurs when actual costs are less than budgeted costs. U = Unfavorable variance that occurs when actual costs are greater than budgeted costs. F = Favorable variance that occurs when actual revenue is greater than budgeted revenue.
    11. 11. 9-11 Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget Larry’s Actual Results Compared with the Planning Budget Since these variances are unfavorable, has Larry done a poor job controlling costs? Since these variances are favorable, has Larry done a good job controlling costs?
    12. 12. 9-12 I don’t think I can answer the questions using a static budget. Actual activity is above planned activity. So, shouldn’t the variable costs be higher if actual activity is higher? Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget
    13. 13. 9-13  The relevant question is . . . “How much of the cost variances are due to higher activity and how much are due to cost control?”  To answer the question, we must the budget to the actual level of activity. Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget
    14. 14. 9-14 How a Flexible Budget Works To a budget, we need to know that: ▫ Total variable costs change in direct proportion to changes in activity. ▫ Total fixed costs remain unchanged within the relevant range. Fixed
    15. 15. 9-15 Let’s prepare a budget for Larry’s Lawn Service. How a Flexible Budget Works
    16. 16. 9-16 Preparing a Flexible Budget Larry’s Flexible Budget
    17. 17. 9-17 Quick Check  What should the total wages and salaries cost be in a flexible budget for 600 lawns? a. $18,000. b. $20,000. c. $23,000. d. $25,000.
    18. 18. 9-18 Quick Check  What should be the total wages and salaries cost in a flexible budget for 600 lawns? a. $18,000 b. $20,000. c. $23,000. d. $25,000. Total wages and salaries cost = $5,000 + ($30 per lawn  600 lawns) $5,000 + $18,000 = $23,000 What should the total wages and salaries cost be in a flexible budget for 600 lawns? a. $18,000. b. $20,000. c. $23,000. d. $25,000.
    19. 19. 9-19 Learning Objective 2 Prepare a report showing activity variances.
    20. 20. 9-20 Activity Variances Flexible budget revenues and expenses Planning budget revenues and expenses The differences between the budget amounts are called activity variances.
    21. 21. 9-21 Let’s use budgeting concepts to compute activity variances for Larry’s Lawn Service. Activity Variances
    22. 22. 9-22 Activity Variances Larry’s Flexible Budget Compared with the Planning Budget
    23. 23. 9-23 Activity Variances Larry’s Flexible Budget Compared with the Planning Budget Activity and revenue increase by 10 percent, but net operating income increases by more than 10 percent due to the presence of fixed costs.
    24. 24. 9-24 Learning Objective 3 Prepare a report showing revenue and spending variances.
    25. 25. 9-25 Revenue and Spending Variances Actual revenue Flexible budget revenue The difference is a revenue variance. Actual cost Flexible budget cost The difference is a spending variance.
    26. 26. 9-26 Now, let’s use budgeting concepts to compute revenue and spending variances for Larry’s Lawn Service. Revenue and Spending Variances
    27. 27. 9-27 Revenue and Spending Variances Larry’s Flexible Budget Compared with the Actual Results $1,750 favorable revenue variance
    28. 28. 9-28 Larry’s Flexible Budget Compared with the Actual Results Revenue and Spending Variances Spending variances
    29. 29. 9-29 Learning Objective 4 Prepare a performance report that combines activity variances and revenue and spending variances.
    30. 30. 9-30 Now, let’s use budgeting concepts to combine the revenue and spending variances reports for Larry’s Lawn Service. A Performance Report Combining Activity and Revenue and Spending Variances
    31. 31. 9-31 A Performance Report Combining Activity and Revenue and Spending Variances
    32. 32. 9-32 A Performance Report Combining Activity and Revenue and Spending Variances 50 lawns × $75 per lawn50 lawns × $30 per lawn
    33. 33. 9-33 $43,000 actual - $41,250 budget A Performance Report Combining Activity and Revenue and Spending Variances
    34. 34. 9-34 Performance Reports in Non-Profit Organizations Non-profit organizations may receive funding from sources other than the sale of goods and services, so revenues may consist of both fixed and variable elements. Universities Tuition and fees DonationsState funding Endowments
    35. 35. 9-35 Performance Reports in Cost Centers Performance reports are often prepared for cost centers. These reports should be prepared using the same principles discussed so far, except for the fact that these reports will not contain revenue or net operating income variances.
    36. 36. 9-36 Learning Objective 5 Prepare a flexible budget with more than one cost driver.
    37. 37. 9-37 More than one cost driver may be needed to adequately explain all of the costs in an organization. The cost formulas used to prepare a flexible budget can be adjusted to recognize multiple cost drivers. Flexible Budgets with Multiple Cost Drivers
    38. 38. 9-38 Because the time required for edging and trimming is different for different lawns, Larry decided to add an additional cost driver (hours) for the time required for edging and trimming. So Larry estimated the additional hours and developed a new flexible budget that includes the second cost driver in both his revenue and expense budget formulas. Larry’s New Budget Flexible Budgets with Multiple Cost Drivers
    39. 39. 9-39 Flexible Budgets with Multiple Cost Drivers Larry’s Budget Based on More than One Cost Driver
    40. 40. 9-40 Learning Objective 6 Understand common errors made in preparing performance reports based on budgets and actual results.
    41. 41. 9-41 Some Common Errors The most common errors when preparing performance reports are to implicitly assume that: 1. All costs are fixed, or that; 2. All costs are variable. Assume all costs are fixed.
    42. 42. 9-42 Common Error 1: Assuming All Costs Are Fixed Faulty Analysis Comparing Budgeted Amounts to Actual Amounts
    43. 43. 9-43 Common Error 2: Assuming All Costs Are Variable Faulty Analysis that Assumes All Budget Items Are Variable
    44. 44. 9-44 End of Chapter 9

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