4.
10A-4
Volume
variance
Fixed Overhead Volume Variance
Volume
variance
Fixed
overhead
applied to
work in process
Budgeted
fixed
overhead
= –
Actual
Fixed
Overhead
Fixed
Overhead
Applied
Budgeted
Fixed
Overhead
5.
10A-5
FPOHR = Fixed portion of the predetermined overhead rate
DH = Denominator hours
SH = Standard hours allowed for actual output
SH × FPOHRDH × FPOHR
Fixed Overhead Volume Variance
Volume variance FPOHR × (DH – SH)=
Actual
Fixed
Overhead
Fixed
Overhead
Applied
Budgeted
Fixed
Overhead
Volume
variance
6.
10A-6
Computing Fixed Overhead Variances
Budgeted production 30,000 units
Standard machine-hours per unit 3 hours
Budgeted machine-hours 90,000 hours
Actual production 28,000 units
Standard machine-hours allowed for the actual production 84,000 hours
Actual machine-hours 88,000 hours
Production and Machine-Hour Data
ColaCo
7.
10A-7
Computing Fixed Overhead Variances
Budgeted variable manufacturing overhead 90,000$
Budgeted fixed manufacturing overhead 270,000
Total budgeted manufacturing overhead 360,000$
Actual variable manufacturing overhead 100,000$
Actual fixed manufacturing overhead 280,000
Total actual manufacturing overhead 380,000$
ColaCo
Cost Data
8.
10A-8
Predetermined Overhead Rates
Predetermined
overhead rate
Estimated total manufacturing overhead cost
Estimated total amount of the allocation base
=
Predetermined
overhead rate
$360,000
90,000 Machine-hours
=
Predetermined
overhead rate
= $4.00 per machine-hour
9.
10A-9
Predetermined Overhead Rates
Fixed component of the
predetermined overhead rate
$270,000
90,000 Machine-hours
=
Fixed component of the
predetermined overhead rate
= $3.00 per machine-hour
10.
10A-10
Applying Manufacturing Overhead
Overhead
applied
Predetermined
overhead rate
Standard hours allowed
for the actual output
= ×
Overhead
applied
$4.00 per
machine-hour
84,000 machine-hours= ×
Overhead
applied
$336,000=
12.
10A-12
Computing the Volume Variance
Volume
variance
Fixed
overhead
applied to
work in process
Budgeted
fixed
overhead
= –
Volume
variance
= $18,000 Unfavorable
Volume
variance
= $270,000 –
$3.00 per
machine-hour( ×
$84,000
machine-hours)
13.
10A-13
Computing the Volume Variance
FPOHR = Fixed portion of the predetermined overhead rate
DH = Denominator hours
SH = Standard hours allowed for actual output
Volume variance FPOHR × (DH – SH)=
Volume
variance
=
$3.00 per
machine-hour (×
90,000
mach-hours
–
84,000
mach-hours)
Volume
variance
= 18,000 Unfavorable
14.
10A-14
A Pictorial View of the Variances
Fixed Overhead
Applied to
Work in Process
Actual
Fixed
Overhead
Budgeted
Fixed
Overhead
252,000270,000280,000
Total variance, $28,000 unfavorable
Budget variance,
$10,000 unfavorable
Volume variance,
$18,000 unfavorable
15.
10A-15
Fixed Overhead Variances –
A Graphic Approach
Let’s look at a
graph showing
fixed overhead
variances. We will
use ColaCo’s
numbers from the
previous example.
16.
10A-16
Graphic Analysis of Fixed
Overhead Variances
Machine-hours (000)
Budget
$270,000
90
Denominator
hours
0
0
Fixed overhead applied at
$3.00 per standard hour
17.
10A-17
Graphic Analysis of Fixed
Overhead Variances
Actual
$280,000
Machine-hours (000)
Budget
$270,000
90
Denominator
hours
0
0
Fixed overhead applied at
$3.00 per standard hour
Budget Variance 10,000 U{
18.
10A-18
Applied
$252,000
Machine-hours (000)
Budget
$270,000
Graphic Analysis of Fixed
Overhead Variances
90840
0
Standard
hours
Fixed overhead applied at
$3.00 per standard hour
Denominator
hours
Budget Variance 10,000 U
Volume Variance 18,000 U
{
{
Actual
$280,000
19.
10A-19
Reconciling Overhead Variances and
Underapplied or Overapplied Overhead
In a standardIn a standard
cost system:cost system:
Favorable
variances are equivalent
to overapplied overhead.
The sum of the overhead variances
equals the under- or overapplied
overhead cost for the period.
20.
10A-20
Predetermined overhead rate (a) 4.00$ per machine-hour
Standard hours allowed for the actual output (b) 84,000 machine hours
Manufacturing overhead applied (a) × (b) 336,000$
Actual manufacturing overhead 380,000$
Manufacturing overhead underapplied or
overapplied 44,000$ underapplied
Computation of Underapplied Overhead
ColaCo
Reconciling Overhead Variances and
Underapplied or Overapplied Overhead
23.
10A-23
Computing the Sum of All Variances
Variable overhead rate variance 12,000$ U
Variable overhead efficiency variance 4,000 U
Fixed overhead budget variance 10,000 U
Fixed overhead volume variance 18,000 U
Total of the overhead variances 44,000$ U
Computing the Sum of All variances
ColaCo
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