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Chapter 1 Intermediate 15th Ed

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  • 1. INTERMEDIATE Intermediate ACCOUNTING Intermediate Accounting Accounting F I F T E E N T H 1-1 E D I T I O N Prepared by Prepared by Coby Harmon Prepared by Coby Harmon Coby Harmon University of California Santa BarbaraBarbara University of California, Santa University Westmont College College of California, Santa Barbara Westmont kieso weygandt warfield team for success
  • 2. PREVIEW OF CHAPTER 1 Intermediate Accounting 15th Edition Kieso Weygandt Warfield 1-2
  • 3. 1 Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify the major financial statements and other means of financial reporting. 2. Explain how accounting assists in the efficient use of scarce resources. 3. 5. 1-3 Explain the need for accounting standards. Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process. Explain the meaning of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the role of the Codification for GAAP. 7. Describe the impact of user groups on the rule-making process. 8. Describe some of the challenges facing financial reporting. 9. Understand issues related to ethics and financial accounting. Identify the objective of financial reporting. 4. 6.
  • 4. Financial Statements and Reporting Essential characteristics of accounting are: (1) the identification, measurement, and communication of financial information about (2) economic entities to (3) interested parties. 1-4 LO 1 Identify the major financial statements and other means of financial reporting.
  • 5. Financial Statements and Reporting Economic Entity Financial Statements Additional Information Financial Information Balance Sheet President’s letter Income Statement Prospectuses Statement of Cash Flows Reports filed with governmental agencies Accounting? Identifies and Measures and Communicates Statement of Owners’ or Stockholders’ Equity Note Disclosures GAAP News releases Forecasts Environmental impact statements Etc. 1-5 LO 1 Identify the major financial statements and other means of financial reporting.
  • 6. Financial Statements and Reporting Question What is the purpose of information presented in notes to the financial statements? a. b. To correct improper presentation in the financial statements. c. To provide recognition of amounts not included in the totals of the financial statements. d. 1-6 To provide disclosure required by generally accepted accounting principles. To present management’s responses to auditor comments. LO 1 Identify the major financial statements and other means of financial reporting.
  • 7. 1 Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify the major financial statements and other means of financial reporting. 2. Explain how accounting assists in the efficient use of scarce resources. 3. 5. 1-7 Explain the need for accounting standards. Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process. Explain the meaning of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the role of the Codification for GAAP. 7. Describe the impact of user groups on the rule-making process. 8. Describe some of the challenges facing financial reporting. 9. Understand issues related to ethics and financial accounting. Identify the objective of financial reporting. 4. 6.
  • 8. Financial Statements and Reporting Accounting and Capital Allocation Resources are limited. Efficient use of resources often determines whether a business thrives. Illustration 1-1 Capital Allocation Process 1-8 LO 2 Explain how accounting assists in the efficient use of scare resources.
  • 9. Accounting and Capital Allocation Question An effective process of capital allocation is critical to a healthy economy, which a. b. encourages innovation. c. provides an efficient and liquid market for buying and selling securities. d. 1-9 promotes productivity. All of the above. LO 2 Explain how accounting assists in the efficient use of scare resources.
  • 10. IT’S THE ACCOUNTING “It’s the accounting.” That’s what many investors seem to be saying these days. Even the slightest hint of any accounting irregularity at a company leads to a subsequent pounding of the company’s stock price. For example, the Wall Street Journal has run the following headlines related to accounting and its effects on the economy. • Stocks take a beating as accounting woes spread beyond Enron. • Quarterly reports from IBM and Goldman Sachs sent stocks tumbling. • VeriFone finds accounting issues; stock price cut in half. • Bank of America admits hiding debt. • Facebook, Zynga, Groupon: IPO drops due to accounting, not valuation. It now has become clear that investors must trust the accounting numbers, or they will abandon the market and put their resources elsewhere. With investor uncertainty, the cost of capital increases for companies who need additional resources. In short, relevant and reliable financial information is necessary for markets to be efficient. 1-10 LO 2 Explain how accounting assists in the efficient use of scare resources.
  • 11. 1 Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify the major financial statements and other means of financial reporting. 2. Explain how accounting assists in the efficient use of scarce resources. 3. 5. 1-11 Explain the need for accounting standards. Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process. Explain the meaning of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the role of the Codification for GAAP. 7. Describe the impact of user groups on the rule-making process. 8. Describe some of the challenges facing financial reporting. 9. Understand issues related to ethics and financial accounting. Identify the objective of financial reporting. 4. 6.
  • 12. Financial Statements and Reporting Objectives of Financial Reporting Provide financial information about the reporting entity that is useful to  present and potential equity investors,  lenders, and  other creditors in making decisions in their capacity as capital providers. 1-12 LO 3 Identify the objectives of financial reporting.
  • 13. Objective of Financial Accounting General-Purpose Financial Statements  Provide financial reporting information to a wide variety of users.  Provide the most useful information possible at the least cost. Equity Investors and Creditors  1-13 Investors are the primary user group. LO 3 Identify the objectives of financial reporting.
  • 14. Objective of Financial Accounting Entity Perspective  Companies viewed as separate and distinct from their owners. Decision-Usefulness Investors are interested in assessing the company’s 1. ability to generate net cash inflows and 2. management’s ability to protect and enhance the capital providers’ investments. 1-14 LO 3 Identify the objectives of financial reporting.
  • 15. DON’T FORGET STEWARDSHIP In addition to providing decision-useful information about future cash flows, management also is accountable to investors for the custody and safekeeping of the company’s economic resources and for their efficient and profitable use. For example, the management of The Hershey Company has the responsibility for protecting its economic resources from unfavorable effects of economic factors, such as price changes, and technological and social changes. Because Hershey’s performance in discharging its responsibilities (referred to as its stewardship responsibilities) usually affects its ability to generate net cash inflows, financial reporting may also provide decision-useful information to assess management performance in this role. 1-15 LO 3 Identify the objectives of financial reporting.
  • 16. 1 Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify the major financial statements and other means of financial reporting. 2. Explain how accounting assists in the efficient use of scarce resources. 3. 5. 1-16 Explain the need for accounting standards. Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process. Explain the meaning of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the role of the Codification for GAAP. 7. Describe the impact of user groups on the rule-making process. 8. Describe some of the challenges facing financial reporting. 9. Understand issues related to ethics and financial accounting. Identify the objective of financial reporting. 4. 6.
  • 17. The Need To Develop Standards Various users need financial information The accounting profession has attempted to develop a set of standards that are generally accepted and universally practiced. 1-17 Financial Statements Balance Sheet Income Statement Statement of Stockholders’ Equity Statement of Cash Flows Note Disclosure Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) LO 4 Explain the need for accounting standards.
  • 18. 1 Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify the major financial statements and other means of financial reporting. 2. Explain how accounting assists in the efficient use of scarce resources. 3. 5. 1-18 Explain the need for accounting standards. Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process. Explain the meaning of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the role of the Codification for GAAP. 7. Describe the impact of user groups on the rule-making process. 8. Describe some of the challenges facing financial reporting. 9. Understand issues related to ethics and financial accounting. Identify the objective of financial reporting. 4. 6.
  • 19. Parties Involved In Standard Setting Three organizations:   American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA).  1-19 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). LO 5 Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process.
  • 20. Parties Involved In Standard Setting Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)  Established by federal government.  Accounting and reporting for public companies. Securities Act of Securities Act of 1933 1933 Securities Act of Securities Act of 1934 1934  SEC requires public companies to adhere to GAAP.  SEC Oversight.  1-20 Encouraged private standard-setting body.  http://www.sec.gov/ Enforcement Authority. LO 5 Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process.
  • 21. Parties Involved In Standard Setting American Institute of CPAs (AICPA)  National professional organization  Established the following: http://www.aicpa.org/ Committee on Accounting Procedures Accounting Principles Board   1959 to 1973  Issued 51 Accounting Research Bulletins (ARBs)  Issued 31 Accounting Principle Board Opinions (APBOs)  1-21 1939 to 1959 Problem-by-problem approach failed  Wheat Committee recommendations adopted in 1973 LO 5
  • 22. Parties Involved In Standard Setting Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Wheat Committee’s recommendations resulted in creation of FASB. Financial Accounting Foundation Financial Accounting Standards Board Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council 1-22    Selects members of the FASB. Funds their activities. Exercises general oversight.  Mission to establish and improve standards of financial accounting and reporting.  Consult on major policy issues. LO 5
  • 23. Financial Accounting Standards Board Missions is to establish and improve standards of financial accounting and reporting. Differences between FASB and APB include:   Full-time, Remunerated Membership.  Greater Autonomy.  Increased Independence.  1-23 Smaller Membership. Broader Representation. http://www.fasb.org/ LO 5 Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process.
  • 24. Financial Accounting Standards Board Question The first step taken in the establishment of a typical FASB statement is a. b. A public hearing on the proposed standard is held. c. The board evaluates the research and public response and issues an exposure draft. d. 1-24 The board conducts research and analysis and a discussion memorandum is issued. Topics are identified and placed on the board’s agenda. LO 5 Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process.
  • 25. Financial Accounting Standards Board Illustration 1-3 The Due Process System of the FASB 1-25 LO 5 Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process.
  • 26. Financial Accounting Standards Board Types of Pronouncements   1-26 Accounting Standards Updates. Financial Accounting Concepts. LO 5 Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process.
  • 27. 1 Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify the major financial statements and other means of financial reporting. 2. Explain how accounting assists in the efficient use of scarce resources. 3. 5. 1-27 Explain the need for accounting standards. Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process. Explain the meaning of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the role of the Codification for GAAP. 7. Describe the impact of user groups on the rule-making process. 8. Describe some of the challenges facing financial reporting. 9. Understand issues related to ethics and financial accounting. Identify the objective of financial reporting. 4. 6.
  • 28. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles Principles that have substantial authoritative support. Major sources of GAAP:   APB Opinions.  1-28 FASB Standards, Interpretations, and Staff Positions. AICPA Accounting Research Bulletins. LO 6 Explain the meaning of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the role of the Codification for GAAP.
  • 29. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles Illustration 1-4 GAAP Documents 1-29 LO 6 Explain the meaning of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the role of the Codification for GAAP.
  • 30. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles Question Which of the following accounting pronouncements is the most authoritative? a. b. FASB Technical Bulletins. c. AICPA Accounting Principles Board Opinion. d. 1-30 FASB Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts. AICPA Statement of Position. LO 6 Explain the meaning of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the role of the Codification for GAAP.
  • 31. YOU HAVE TO STEP BACK Should the accounting profession have principles-based standards or rules-based standards? Critics of the profession today say that over the past three decades, standard-setters have moved away from broad accounting principles aimed at ensuring that companies’ financial statements are fairly presented. Instead, these critics say, standard-setters have moved toward drafting voluminous rules that, if technically followed in “check-box” fashion, may shield auditors and companies from legal liability. That has resulted in companies creating complex capital structures that comply with GAAP but hide billions of dollars of debt and other obligations. To add fuel to the fi re, the chief accountant of the enforcement division of the SEC noted, “One can violate SEC laws and still comply with GAAP.” In short, what he is saying is that it is not enough just to check the boxes. This point was reinforced by the Chief Accountant of the SEC, who remarked that judgments should result in “accounting that reflects the substance of the transaction, as well as being in accordance with the literature.” That is, you have to exercise judgment in applying GAAP to achieve high-quality reporting. 1-31 LO 6 Explain the meaning of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the role of the Codification for GAAP.
  • 32. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles FASB Codification  Goal in developing the Codification is to provide in one place all the authoritative literature related to a particular topic.  Creates one level of GAAP, which is considered authoritative.  All other accounting literature is considered non-authoritative. FASB has developed the Financial Accounting Standards Board Codification Research System (CRS). CRS is an online real-time database that provides easy access to the Codification. 1-32 LO 6
  • 33. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles Illustration 1-5 FASB Codification Framework 1-33 LO 6
  • 34. 1 Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify the major financial statements and other means of financial reporting. 2. Explain how accounting assists in the efficient use of scarce resources. 3. 5. 1-34 Explain the need for accounting standards. Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process. Explain the meaning of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the role of the Codification for GAAP. 7. Describe the impact of user groups on the rule-making process. 8. Describe some of the challenges facing financial reporting. 9. Understand issues related to ethics and financial accounting. Identify the objective of financial reporting. 4. 6.
  • 35. Issues in Financial Reporting GAAP in a Political Environment Illustration 1-6 User Groups that Influence the Formulation of Accounting Standards GAAP is as much a product of political action as they are of careful logic or empirical findings. 1-35 LO 7 Describe the impact of user groups on the rule-making process.
  • 36. 1-36 LO 7 Describe the impact of user groups on the rule-making process.
  • 37. CAN YOU DO THAT One of the more difficult issues related to convergence and international accounting standards is that countries have different cultures and customs. For example, the former chair of the IASB explained it this way regarding Europe: “In the U.K. everything is permitted unless it is prohibited. In Germany, it is the other way around; everything is prohibited unless it is permitted. In the Netherlands, everything is prohibited even if it is permitted. And in France, everything is permitted even if it is prohibited. Add in countries like Japan, the United States and China, it becomes very difficult to meet the needs of each of these countries.” With this diversity of thinking around the world, it understandable why accounting convergence has been so elusive. 1-37 LO 7 Describe the impact of user groups on the rule-making process.
  • 38. Issues in Financial Reporting Expectation GAAP What the public thinks accountants should do vs. what accountants think they can do.   Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002).  1-38 Difficult to close in light of accounting scandals. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB). LO 7 Describe the impact of user groups on the rule-making process.
  • 39. 1 Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify the major financial statements and other means of financial reporting. 2. Explain how accounting assists in the efficient use of scarce resources. 3. 5. 1-39 Explain the need for accounting standards. Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process. Explain the meaning of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the role of the Codification for GAAP. 7. Describe the impact of user groups on the rule-making process. 8. Describe some of the challenges facing financial reporting. 9. Understand issues related to ethics and financial accounting. Identify the objective of financial reporting. 4. 6.
  • 40. Issues in Financial Reporting Financial Reporting Challenges   Forward-looking information.  Soft assets.  Timeliness  1-40 Non-financial measurements. Understandability LO 8 Describe some of the challenges facing financial reporting.
  • 41. Issues in Financial Reporting International Accounting Standards Two sets of standards accepted for international use:   1-41 U.S. GAAP, issued by the FASB. International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), issued by the IASB. LO 8 Describe some of the challenges facing financial reporting.
  • 42. 1 Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify the major financial statements and other means of financial reporting. 2. Explain how accounting assists in the efficient use of scarce resources. 3. 5. 1-42 Explain the need for accounting standards. Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process. Explain the meaning of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the role of the Codification for GAAP. 7. Describe the impact of user groups on the rule-making process. 8. Describe some of the challenges facing financial reporting. 9. Understand issues related to ethics and financial accounting. Identify the objective of financial reporting. 4. 6.
  • 43. Issues in Financial Reporting Ethics in the Environment of Financial Accounting In accounting, we frequently encounter ethical dilemmas.   1-43 GAAP does not always provide an answer. Doing the right thing is not always easy or obvious. LO 9 Understand issues related to ethics and financial accounting.
  • 44. RELEVANT FACTS   1-44 International standards are referred to as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), developed by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). Recent events in the global capital markets have underscored the importance of financial disclosure and transparency not only in the United States but in markets around the world. U.S standards, referred to as generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), are developed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). The fact that there are differences between what is in this textbook (which is based on U.S. standards) and IFRS should not be surprising because the FASB and IASB have responded to different user needs. In some countries, the primary users of financial statements are private investors; in others, the primary users are tax authorities or central government planners. It appears that the United States and the international standard-setting environment are primarily driven by meeting the needs of investors and creditors. LO 10 Compare the procedures related to financial accounting and accounting standards under GAAP and IFRS.
  • 45. RELEVANT FACTS   1-45 The internal control standards applicable to Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) apply only to large public companies listed on U.S. exchanges. There is a continuing debate as to whether non-U.S. companies should have to comply with this extra layer of regulation. Debate about international companies (non-U.S.) adopting SOX-type standards centers on whether the benefits exceed the costs. The concern is that the higher costs of SOX compliance are making the U.S. securities markets less competitive. The textbook mentions a number of ethics violations, such as WorldCom, AIG, and Lehman Brothers. These problems have also occurred internationally, for example, at Satyam Computer Services (India), Parmalat (Italy), and Royal Ahold (the Netherlands). LO 10 Compare the procedures related to financial accounting and accounting standards under GAAP and IFRS.
  • 46. RELEVANT FACTS   1-46 IFRS tends to be simpler in its accounting and disclosure requirements; some people say more “principles-based.” GAAP is more detailed; some people say more “rules-based.” This difference in approach has resulted in a debate about the merits of “principles-based” versus “rules-based” standards. The SEC allows foreign companies that trade shares in U.S. markets to file their IFRS financial statements without reconciliation to GAAP. LO 10 Compare the procedures related to financial accounting and accounting standards under GAAP and IFRS.
  • 47. ABOUT THE NUMBERS 1-47 Illustration IFRS1-1 Global Companies LO 10 Compare the procedures related to financial accounting and accounting standards under GAAP and IFRS.
  • 48. International Standard-Setting Organizations: International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)   Standards used on most foreign exchanges.  Standards used by foreign companies listing on U.S. securities exchanges.  1-48 Issues International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). IFRS used in over 115 countries. LO 10 Compare the procedures related to financial accounting and accounting standards under GAAP and IFRS.
  • 49. IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTIONS IFRS stands for: a. International Federation of Reporting Services. b. Independent Financial Reporting Standards. c. International Financial Reporting Standards. d. Integrated Financial Reporting Services. 1-49 LO 10 Compare the procedures related to financial accounting and accounting standards under GAAP and IFRS.
  • 50. International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO)  Does not set accounting standards.  Dedicated to ensuring that global markets can operate in an efficient and effective basis. http://www.iosco.org/ 1-50 LO 10 Compare the procedures related to financial accounting and accounting standards under GAAP and IFRS.
  • 51. IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTIONS The major key players on the international side are the: a. IASB and FASB. b. SEC and FASB. c. IOSCO and the SEC. d. IASB and IOSCO. 1-51 LO 10 Compare the procedures related to financial accounting and accounting standards under GAAP and IFRS.
  • 52. International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) Composed of four organizations—  International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation (IASCF).  International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).  1-52 Standards Advisory Council.  http://www.iasb.org International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). LO 10 Compare the procedures related to financial accounting and accounting standards under GAAP and IFRS.
  • 53. Illustration IFRS1-2 International Standard-Setting Structure 1-53 LO 10 Compare the procedures related to financial accounting and accounting standards under GAAP and IFRS.
  • 54. Types of Pronouncements   Framework For Financial Reporting.  1-54 International Financial Reporting Standards. International Financial Reporting Interpretations. LO 10
  • 55. Hierarchy of IFRS Companies first look to: 1. International Financial Reporting Standards; 2. International Accounting Standards; and 3. Interpretations originated by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) or the former Standing Interpretations Committee (SIC). 1-55 LO 10 Compare the procedures related to financial accounting and accounting standards under GAAP and IFRS.
  • 56. IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTIONS IFRS is comprised of: a. International Financial Reporting Standards and FASB financial reporting standards. b. International Financial Reporting Standards, International Accounting Standards, and international accounting interpretations. c. International Accounting Standards and international accounting interpretations. d. FASB financial reporting standards and International Accounting Standards. 1-56 LO 10 Compare the procedures related to financial accounting and accounting standards under GAAP and IFRS.
  • 57. International Accounting Convergence The SEC appears committed to move to IFRS, assuming that certain conditions are met. Illustration IFRS1-3 SEC Roadmap Any U.S. incorporation of IFRS in GAAP will occur over several years. 1-57 LO 10
  • 58. IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTIONS Which of the following statements is true? a.The IASB has the same number of members as the FASB. b.The IASB structure has both advisory and interpretation functions, but no trustees. c.The IASB has been in existence longer than the FASB. d.The IASB structure is quite similar to the FASB’s, except the IASB has a larger number of board members. 1-58 LO 10 Compare the procedures related to financial accounting and accounting standards under GAAP and IFRS.
  • 59. ON THE HORIZON Financial statements prepared according to IFRS have become an important standard around the world for communicating financial information to investors and creditors. The SEC and the FASB are working with their international counterparts to achieve the goal of a single set of high-quality financial reporting standards for use around the world. While there are still many bumps in the road to the establishment of one set of worldwide standards, we are optimistic that this goal can be achieved, which will be of value to all. 1-59 LO 10 Compare the procedures related to financial accounting and accounting standards under GAAP and IFRS.
  • 60. Copyright Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. 1-60

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