Yes, Luigi, Super Mario Can Help People Learn

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This presentation was delivered at the CIASTD 2012 Fall Conference in INdianapolis. It explains the linkage between games and learning and describes how game elements can match to needed learning …

This presentation was delivered at the CIASTD 2012 Fall Conference in INdianapolis. It explains the linkage between games and learning and describes how game elements can match to needed learning elements. The second half of it features a case study of a game implemented by ExactTarget, a Indianapolis-based marketing firm, and the business results achieved through game play

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  • Display until start of session. Verify title and that people are expecting to hear about the Power of Play.
  • NTRODUCTION OF SELVES AND ROLES WE’LL PLAY IN PRESENTATION:SHARON – Sharing the “why” of games and gamification and the instructional design that links Knowledge Guru to the power of play.SCOTT – Case study of how ExactTargert used a game to drive learning and business results. Game leveraged Knowledge Guru game engine.
  • Let’s find out a little bit about who we have on the webinar – and what your motivation might be for being here.The first three items you can respond to by simply using the drawing tool I’ve activated for you. Simply place a checkmark or X if the statement is true for you.The final item is one where you can send us an IM.I’ll give you a minute or so to make your responses.Wait for them and see if you can pull one o fthe comments for use as a segueway. One possible one is “Lots of you like to play games so let’s begin by playing one!”
  • Display until start of session. Verify title and that people are expecting to hear about the Power of Play.
  • Display until start of session. Verify title and that people are expecting to hear about the Power of Play.
  • These are the five benefits of games I want to focus on – some of which are interrelated:Ability to create clear, measurable goals and contextualize the goal or link the goal to the job (Hit your sales goal, increase customer satisfaction, decrease complaints, etc.)Continuous or frequent feedback (biggest factor in changing performance, BTW)Compared to optimal “right”Compared to othersCompared to previous bestThat can be contextualized (see this “sales goal” example related to course for sales reps.A reason to careGetting a certain score, achieving a goal, gaining masteryAchieving certain things (winning, unlocking levels, acquiring things such as badges, status, etc.)Being better than another player – or becoming as good as another playerContinuous learning: action and immersion into the experience – whether casual or “serious”Tons of opportunities to practice, fail, repeat, and gain proficiency Mental engagement, social interaction and fun - all of which maximize learning.Need and opportunity to stay connected to what’s going on in the game to succeed – and the ability to truly self-pace.Comparing scores to team members or other employeesOpportunities to collaborate and partnerSense of collective accomplishment or community
  • Lots of data exist to point to the efficacy and value of game-based learning. The military and the healthcare worlds have done a great job of demonstrating the ROI a game can bring. These two arenas – along with the explosion of video-based games - have largely paved the way for trend called “gamification of learning.”People recognize the power of games – and they want to leverage that power in learning. Games hold our interest in a way that a screen of text coupled with an image or two and a next button never well.Online White Paper: “Game-Based Learning: What it is. Why it works. Where it is going.http://www.newmedia.org/game-based-learning--what-it-is-why-it-works-and-where-its-going.html
  • Winning?Triumphing….over adversity, an arch nemesis, a major challengeCollaborating – to overcome an enemy, to master a challenge, to solve the puzzle, etc.Exploring and buildingCollectingProblem-solving or strategizingRole playing or imagining (game aesthetics are HUGE element of the fun!!)Surprise – surprising others and being surprised ourselves.
  • These are the five benefits of games I want to focus on – some of which are interrelated:Ability to create clear, measurable goals and contextualize the goal or link the goal to the job (Hit your sales goal, increase customer satisfaction, decrease complaints, etc.)Continuous or frequent feedback (biggest factor in changing performance, BTW)Compared to optimal “right”Compared to othersCompared to previous bestThat can be contextualized (see this “sales goal” example related to course for sales reps.A reason to careGetting a certain score, achieving a goal, gaining masteryAchieving certain things (winning, unlocking levels, acquiring things such as badges, status, etc.)Being better than another player – or becoming as good as another playerContinuous learning: action and immersion into the experience – whether casual or “serious”Tons of opportunities to practice, fail, repeat, and gain proficiency Mental engagement, social interaction and fun - all of which maximize learning.Need and opportunity to stay connected to what’s going on in the game to succeed – and the ability to truly self-pace.Comparing scores to team members or other employeesOpportunities to collaborate and partnerSense of collective accomplishment or community
  • I think the continuous feedback – with opportunity for self-correction and then additional practice – is the hugest benefit (along with engagement) that games have over traditional learning formats.We have AMPLE evidence that just telling someone the right thing to do – or the right piece of information – doesn’t get them to use it!!!!There is a terrific article in Wired magazine that I want to reference at this point and highly encourage all of you to read. It explains feedback loops and why/how they change our behavior. Understanding the power and impact of feedback loops is key to understanding “why games.”
  • School district had huge problem with speeding.Tried replacing old signs with bigger, new ones, ticketing people during drop-off, pick-up times. Nothing worked.What finally gave measurable improvement was “dynamic speed displays” or driver feedback signs. “Your speed.”The signs worked in California in 2003 – and they’ve gained much more widespread use since then as costs have gone done. Such signs have proven to be consistently effective, getting people to slow by 10 mph over several miles. They work because they leverage a feedback loop.Feedback loop = action (speeding) information (how fast you’re going) reaction (adjustment in speed) Provide info about actions in real-time – or close to it – and then give opportunity to change actions and move toward better behavior.Games provide an amazing way to leverage the power of feedback loops as players get continual information about how they are doing and have the opportunity to modify their behavior in the game to improve their performance. This can happen WITHIN A game – or by playing repeated episodes of a game (e.g. people get better at a game the more times they play it. The fun of the game encourages repetition of play. REPETITION is a key part of remembering.
  • Here’s a “cheat chart” on the types of games that you might use for various levels in the hierarchy.Casual games are those that require little set up, little time to play…though you could end up playing for a long time. Bejeweled, Angry Birds, and Apples to Apples are examples of more casual games. Puzzle games can be a subset of a casual game or stand alone by themselves. Walk the Plank is a casual game that is also about solving puzzles.As you get to more sophistated levels of the hierarchy the best type of game changes on you. You start needing scenarios and simulations. At the highest level – problem-solving – you might include branching to ensure that the decisions people make in the game have an impact on outcome.Game cost goes up as complexity increases. The casual games can be done pretty inexpensivly. The more robust games that feature simulation get more costly – with costs driven by complexity of the comptent and the need for richer multimedia.
  • Display until start of session. Verify title and that people are expecting to hear about the Power of Play.
  • Here’s a “cheat chart” on the types of games that you might use for various levels in the hierarchy.Casual games are those that require little set up, little time to play…though you could end up playing for a long time. Bejeweled, Angry Birds, and Apples to Apples are examples of more casual games. Puzzle games can be a subset of a casual game or stand alone by themselves. Walk the Plank is a casual game that is also about solving puzzles.As you get to more sophistated levels of the hierarchy the best type of game changes on you. You start needing scenarios and simulations. At the highest level – problem-solving – you might include branching to ensure that the decisions people make in the game have an impact on outcome.Game cost goes up as complexity increases. The casual games can be done pretty inexpensivly. The more robust games that feature simulation get more costly – with costs driven by complexity of the comptent and the need for richer multimedia.
  • Here’s a “cheat chart” on the types of games that you might use for various levels in the hierarchy.Casual games are those that require little set up, little time to play…though you could end up playing for a long time. Bejeweled, Angry Birds, and Apples to Apples are examples of more casual games. Puzzle games can be a subset of a casual game or stand alone by themselves. Walk the Plank is a casual game that is also about solving puzzles.As you get to more sophistated levels of the hierarchy the best type of game changes on you. You start needing scenarios and simulations. At the highest level – problem-solving – you might include branching to ensure that the decisions people make in the game have an impact on outcome.Game cost goes up as complexity increases. The casual games can be done pretty inexpensivly. The more robust games that feature simulation get more costly – with costs driven by complexity of the comptent and the need for richer multimedia.
  • Here’s a “cheat chart” on the types of games that you might use for various levels in the hierarchy.Casual games are those that require little set up, little time to play…though you could end up playing for a long time. Bejeweled, Angry Birds, and Apples to Apples are examples of more casual games. Puzzle games can be a subset of a casual game or stand alone by themselves. Walk the Plank is a casual game that is also about solving puzzles.As you get to more sophistated levels of the hierarchy the best type of game changes on you. You start needing scenarios and simulations. At the highest level – problem-solving – you might include branching to ensure that the decisions people make in the game have an impact on outcome.Game cost goes up as complexity increases. The casual games can be done pretty inexpensivly. The more robust games that feature simulation get more costly – with costs driven by complexity of the comptent and the need for richer multimedia.
  • Here’s a “cheat chart” on the types of games that you might use for various levels in the hierarchy.Casual games are those that require little set up, little time to play…though you could end up playing for a long time. Bejeweled, Angry Birds, and Apples to Apples are examples of more casual games. Puzzle games can be a subset of a casual game or stand alone by themselves. Walk the Plank is a casual game that is also about solving puzzles.As you get to more sophistated levels of the hierarchy the best type of game changes on you. You start needing scenarios and simulations. At the highest level – problem-solving – you might include branching to ensure that the decisions people make in the game have an impact on outcome.Game cost goes up as complexity increases. The casual games can be done pretty inexpensivly. The more robust games that feature simulation get more costly – with costs driven by complexity of the comptent and the need for richer multimedia.
  • Here’s a “cheat chart” on the types of games that you might use for various levels in the hierarchy.Casual games are those that require little set up, little time to play…though you could end up playing for a long time. Bejeweled, Angry Birds, and Apples to Apples are examples of more casual games. Puzzle games can be a subset of a casual game or stand alone by themselves. Walk the Plank is a casual game that is also about solving puzzles.As you get to more sophistated levels of the hierarchy the best type of game changes on you. You start needing scenarios and simulations. At the highest level – problem-solving – you might include branching to ensure that the decisions people make in the game have an impact on outcome.Game cost goes up as complexity increases. The casual games can be done pretty inexpensivly. The more robust games that feature simulation get more costly – with costs driven by complexity of the comptent and the need for richer multimedia.
  • Here’s a “cheat chart” on the types of games that you might use for various levels in the hierarchy.Casual games are those that require little set up, little time to play…though you could end up playing for a long time. Bejeweled, Angry Birds, and Apples to Apples are examples of more casual games. Puzzle games can be a subset of a casual game or stand alone by themselves. Walk the Plank is a casual game that is also about solving puzzles.As you get to more sophistated levels of the hierarchy the best type of game changes on you. You start needing scenarios and simulations. At the highest level – problem-solving – you might include branching to ensure that the decisions people make in the game have an impact on outcome.Game cost goes up as complexity increases. The casual games can be done pretty inexpensivly. The more robust games that feature simulation get more costly – with costs driven by complexity of the comptent and the need for richer multimedia.
  • Karl Kapp does a great job of explaining Gagne’s hierarchy – and classifying it pretty clearly – in his book, Gadgets, Games and Gizmo’s. I’m also providing a reference document at the end of this presentation for those of you who really want to drill into this hierarchy and Gagne’s theory about it. : http://www.cpe.uts.edu.au/pdfs/Chapter16MN.pdfGagne’s theory – and it’s embraced by most ISD programs - says learners have to move along the hierarchy. A learner can’t problem-solve if he doesn’t have the types of knowledge that are lower on the hierarcy. first.. Let’s quickly see how we might progress along this hierarchy for something such as the need for a hospital to reduce its indidence of healthcare-acquired infections. That issue would be at the top Games allow you to GAIN this knowledge in a variety of ways other than rote memorization or drill. When ALL you need is to lay the foundation, you can leverage casual games to help people build declarative knowledge and gain understanding onf concepts or rules.When you have to get people to problem-solve, the game can become much more; you can embed the declarative knowledge WITHIN the game (e.g. in the form of job aids or tools/resources that learners leverage) and the game itself can be a problem-solving endeavor with a goal.
  • Here’s an example to help illustrate the hierarchy in action. I used the terms “supply” and “demand” to start my hierarchy. The most complex part of the hierarchy is figuring out how to maintain marketshare in an environment of increasing competition.If my learners don’t even understand the concept of supply and demand – they will have a really tough time problem-solving this complex situation.You could probably create a similar map for situations in your workplace. For a product launch, the problem might be how do we hit $1M in sales, which is our goal. Working backward, you’d start to map out the hierarchy of learning that needs to happen for a sales rep to achieve the sales goal…which might start with basic declarative knowledge about the product itself.I can create a single game – or multiple game,s though, that help people move along this hierarchy. People who know the basics will progress more rapidly through the game, but people who don’t can gain access to resources and info that will help them handle the more challenging problems.
  • Here’s a “cheat chart” on the types of games that you might use for various levels in the hierarchy.Casual games are those that require little set up, little time to play…though you could end up playing for a long time. Bejeweled, Angry Birds, and Apples to Apples are examples of more casual games. Puzzle games can be a subset of a casual game or stand alone by themselves. Walk the Plank is a casual game that is also about solving puzzles.As you get to more sophistated levels of the hierarchy the best type of game changes on you. You start needing scenarios and simulations. At the highest level – problem-solving – you might include branching to ensure that the decisions people make in the game have an impact on outcome.Game cost goes up as complexity increases. The casual games can be done pretty inexpensivly. The more robust games that feature simulation get more costly – with costs driven by complexity of the comptent and the need for richer multimedia.
  • Display until start of session. Verify title and that people are expecting to hear about the Power of Play.
  • Headquartered in Indianapolis, IN.Started about 12 years ago, went public in 2012.Enables marketers through software to integrate data to create a unified view of each consumer and engage in real-time, cross-channel marketing. We have:1,500 employees worldwide250,000 users worldwide500 + partners worldwideCustomers include Best Buy, Groupon, NASA, Nike, Papa Johns, and Microsoft.

Transcript

  • 1. The Power of Play.  
  • 2. Your Game Masters…aka presenters Sharon  Boller   Sco,  Thomas   Bo%om-­‐Line  Performance   ExactTarget  Lead  designer,  Knowledge  Guru™  game  engine.   Director,  Product  Enablement   @Sharon_Boller   @sco%_thomas_et  
  • 3. The Power of Play for You? •  I  like  to  play  (board  games,  team  games,  computer   games,  puzzles,  word  searches,  social  games,  etc.)   •  We  acMvely  use  game-­‐based  learning  in  our   organizaMon   •  I’d  like  to  implement  game-­‐based  learning  in  my   organizaMon  –  but  haven’t  convinced  people  of  its   value  yet.    
  • 4. Agenda.  
  • 5. .  
  • 6. Why   games? “I learned SO“Can you much by playing create this game. It wasmore stuff tons of fun. Ilike this?” Play Game learned more by playing this game than any webinar, meeting, or “Mind- document I’ve blowing” encountered.” Annika, Age 8
  • 7. 1   Why do games work? 2   3   The  short  answer?     Because  they  are   FUN.    
  • 8. Expert  view:  Carnegie  Mellon….  To  progress  in  a  game  is  to  learn;  when  we  are  ac3vely  engaged  with  a  game,  our  minds  are  experiencing  the  pleasure  of  grappling  with  (and  coming  to  understand)  a  new  system.      (Jessica  Trybus,  New  Media  InsMtute’s  resident  Game-­‐based  Learning  and  CommunicaMons  Guru  and  Director  of  Edutainment  for  Carnegie  Mellon  Universitys  Entertainment  Technology  Center.)    www.bo%omlineperformance.com  
  • 9. But what’s FUN?•  Winning•  Achieving goals•  Triumphing•  Collaborating•  Exploring and building•  Collecting•  Problem-solving or strategizing•  Role playing or imagining•  Surprise – surprising others and being surprised ourselves.
  • 10. What’s Required to Learn? Relevant   Prac7ce   Ability    to     retrieve   later  Specific,  7mely  feedback  
  • 11. More  on  Feedback “The  premise  of  a   feedback  loop  is   simple:  Provide  people   with  informaMon  about   their  acMons  in  real   Mme,  then  give  them  a   chance  to  change   those  acMons,  pushing   them  toward  be%er   behaviors.”     Wired  Magazine,  June   19,  2011  www.bo%omlineperformance.com  
  • 12. Breaking  it  down  further:  Feedback   School  district  had  huge  problem  with   speeding.     Tried  replacing  old  signs  with  bigger,  new   ones,  MckeMng  people  during  drop-­‐off,   pick-­‐up  Mmes.  Nothing  worked.     What  finally  gave  measurable   improvement  was  “dynamic  speed   displays”  or  driver  feedback  signs.  “Your   speed.”     Signs  have  proven  to  be  consistently   effecMve,  gecng  people  to  slow  by  10   mph  over  several  miles.  They  work   because  they  leverage  a  feedback  loop.  www.bo%omlineperformance.com  
  • 13. Linking  Games  to  LearningLearning  Element   Game  Elements  that  Match  MoMvaMon   Game  goals,  PBLs,  levels,  flow,  the   “fun”  Relevant   Game  mechanics,  story,  challenges,    pracMce   (.e.g.  the  rules),  game  theme.  Feedback   Rewards  and  consequences  Retrieval  later   1)  Repeat  to  remember  –  repeMMon;  2)   spaced  learning  3)  Relevant  pracMce.    
  • 14. .  
  • 15. How   Guru links to LearningMoMvaMon  –  in  story,  in  challenge  (become  a  Guru)   Annika, Age 8
  • 16. How   Guru links to LearningMoMvaMon  –  in  PBLs   Annika, Age 8
  • 17. How   Guru links to LearningRelevance–  no  extraneous  content,  period.   Annika, Age 8
  • 18. How   Guru links to LearningRelevance–  game  quesMons  mirror  customer  ?s   Annika, Age 8
  • 19. How   Guru links to LearningFeedback–  immediate,  followed  by  immediate  opp  to  retry.  Consequence  =  points  gained/lost.   Annika, Age 8
  • 20. How   Guru links to LearningRetrieval–  repeMMon,  spaced  learning   Annika, Age 8
  • 21. Hierarchy  of  Knowledge  &  Role  of  Games   Type  of  knowledge   What  it  means  Low   DeclaraMve     Facts.  (Product  specificaMons,  definiMons  for   words,  data  and  staMsMcs)   Concepts   Groupings  of  things:  “Quality  means  responding  to   Complexity     customers  promptly,  proacMvely  suggesMng   helping  things,  etc.   Rules   RelaMonships  between  things  –  “if,  then”   Procedures   Ordered  sequence  of  rules  that  translate  into   series  of  steps  to  follow  to  execute  something   Principles   Non-­‐sequenMal  guidelines.  User  has  to  figure  out   what’s  appropriate  given  a  specific  situaMon  and   set  of  facts.    High   Problem-­‐solving   Novel  situaMons  that  require  use  of  previously-­‐ acquired  knowledge  to  solve  problem.   www.bo%omlineperformance.com  
  • 22. The  Hierarchy  in  AcMon   Type  of  knowledge   What  it  means  Low   DeclaraMve     Supply  is  the  amount  of  something  you  have  to   sell.   Demand  is  customers’  desire  and  consumpMon  for   what  you  sell.   Complexity     Concepts   Supply  and  demand  are  linked.   Rules   If  demand  is  high  and  supply  is  low,  you  can  charge   more  for  your  product.   Procedures   “How  to  use  CRM  to  manage  client  contacts.”   “How  to  manage  inventory  of  widget  X.”   Principles   “Purple  cow”  –  making  a  product  remarkable.   Problem-­‐solving   CompeMtor  is  introducing  a  similar  product  onto  High   market.  How  do  you  protect  marketshare  and   maintain  margins?   www.bo%omlineperformance.com  
  • 23. Games  that  match   Type  of   Games  to  use   knowledge   DeclaraMve     Matching,  puzzle,  word  search,  etc  –  puzzle   style  games,  quiz-­‐style  games  (Walk  the  plank   is  example)   Concepts   SorMng,  quiz-­‐style  games   Rules   ApplicaMon  games  –  which  rule  applies  here?   Procedures   SimulaMons   Principles   SimulaMons   Problem-­‐solving   SimulaMons   Check out Karl Kapp’s book, Gadgets, Gizmo’s, & Games for specific ideas.www.bo%omlineperformance.com  
  • 24. .  
  • 25. ExactTarget (NYSE: ET) Based  in  Indy,  we  enable  marketers  -­‐  through   sorware  -­‐  to  integrate  data  to  create  a  unified   view  of  each  consumer  and  engage  in  real-­‐ Mme,  cross-­‐channel  markeMng.     We  have:   ü  1,500  employees  worldwide   ü  250,000  users  worldwide   ü  500  +  partners  worldwide      
  • 26. Why  ExactTarget used the Guru1.  MulMple  Product  Lines  and  MulMple  Product  Launches   •  9  disMnct  product  lines  within  organizaMon   •  Product  line  releases  each  month  2.  Employees,  clients,  and  partners  had  training  overload;   we  needed  to  find  a  way  to  “mix  it  up.”  3.  MobileConnect  was  one  of  the  largest  product  launches   we  ever  had.  Cri7cal  for  us  to  educate  folks.  
  • 27. Positioning the game1. Reinforcement tactic rather than primary learning method. 2. Marketed  the   heck  out  of  it.  
  • 28. Marketing Messages ET Used     Internal TVannouncements, posters Incentives (prizes)
  • 29.     Email messages
  • 30. Positioning the game (cont.)3. Required in some functional units. Provided managers4. with idea kits. Drew attention to5. leaderboards on a regular basis.
  • 31. What Did Folks Say…     The game was great! It was a fun   way to learn about MobileConnect. I enjoyed the   scenario-type questions, which put it all in perspective. I’m a pretty competitive person, so   challenging myself to get one of the top scores added a layer of fun to learning about the MobileConnect  product.     The repetition of the different paths helped me retain the information.
  • 32. ExactTarget  Business  Results…Sales  Related  Metrics:  1.  Quickest  pipeline  developed  and  closed  compared  to   previous  product  launches  over  the  past  two  years    2.  Average  contract  value  2x  more  than  comparable   products  Support  Related  Metrics:  1.  First-­‐call  support  resoluMon  up  45%  compared  to   other  product  lines  (a  savings  of  ~$35/call)  
  • 33. Top Considerations….1. Can you sell it to stakeholders? Can you articulate WHY games will work?2. Can you specify REAL results you’re seeking? Design game to results you’re targeting.3. Is your audience receptive (not stakeholders, target audience)4. Can you promote it? Build it and they will come approach won’t work.
  • 34. Implementation Tips1. Play test, play test, play test – don’t launch until the game is really ready.2. Involve stakeholders in game design process; gets their buy- in EARLY.3. “Market the heck out of it.”4. Monitor play; promote what’s going on during play.
  • 35. Want info electronically?•  Text  the  word  GURU  and  your  email  address  to   38767   –  EX:  GURU  sthomas@exac%arget.com  •  Email  will  be  sent  with  links  to  a  variety  of   informaMon  sources  regarding  this  breakout  session  •  You  can  also  email  sharon@theknowledgeguru.com   and  request  info  as  well.  •  Check  out  public  games  for  yourself  at   www.theknowledgeguru.com/  or  download  a   sample  game  –  NutriMon  Guru  -­‐  from  App  store.  
  • 36. Thank You! Contact Us…Email sharon@bottomlineperformance.com   sthomas@exac,arget.com  Twi%er   Sharon_BollerHandles   scott_thomas_etWebsites   www.theknowledgeguru.com www.exacttarget.com