SKILL SETS OF TODAY’S PHOTOJOURNALISTSA PRESENTATION BY:SHARMITA DAS BSC. MCAJ, SEMESTER-6 ROLL NO.-10102680019
HISTORY OF PHOTOJOURNALISM• “A silent depiction of a million words”, an anonymous described photography as such.• Photojournalism ages back to the World War II when the Germans used pictures in papers for the propaganda of Hitler.• In the later eras, several magazines such as Picture Post(London), Paris Match(Paris), Life(USA), etc., made avid use of photojournalism, making 1930s-1960s the Golden Era of Photography.• The term “Photojournalism” was coined by Frank Luther Mott.• In that era, the journalists had to carry heavy equipments, huge cameras, big stands, etc., and thus photojournalism was a tiresome job.
MODERN PHOTOJOURNALISM• The beginning of modern photography dates back to 1925 in Germany, the event being the invention of the first 35mm reel camera, The Leica.• Henri Cartier Bresson is considered as the Father of modern photojournalism although several others like Eric Salomon share the credit.• Modernization started with candid photography that continued to panoramic photography and several new styles.• The Golden Age of modern photojournalism dates from 1935-1975 when images were actually used to depict words and photographs accompanied almost all articles printed on newspapers or shown in TV.
THE REVOLUTION• There was a time when photojournalists carried manual Single LensReflector cameras (SLR) before which Double lens reflectors andBellow Type cameras were in trend.• With the invention of digital cameras, photography was taken to thenext level.• Along with manual zoom lenses, photographers also started usingdigital zoom cameras.• Point and shoot cameras started filling up the pockets of evenprofessional photographers.• The dark room existed, but negatives were replaced by digitalphotographs and editing softwares.• All heavy stands were replaced by light weight tripods made of steelor plastic even.
LIST OF MANUAL SKILLS• Photojournalists should be organized and practical have a good range of photographic skills and “an eye for photography” .• The biggest need of a photojournalist is DEDICATION.• They should have the ability to deal with the unexpected in a calm and professional manner, specially when working and lighting conditions are less than ideal, and there is often only limited time available to get the great for the brief.• They should have good inter-personal skills along with business and management skills, as both public and private businesses must be financially accountable and meet performance targets.
LIST OF DIGITAL SKILLS A keen eye, a way with words and a knack to put them both together, with a steady hand and a clear sense of manual adjustments make a photojournalist… Photojournalists should be able to edit photographs using digital softwares like Photoshop, Photoscape, CorelDraw, etc. They should also know how to develop photographs from negatives in case of film cameras. They should have the idea of “Shooting the Suitable”, that is, clicking and putting photographs that are suitable to the actual article. They should know the end use of photographs and how to use them for brochures, annual reports, internal newsletters, websites, publicity and PR. They should know the use of all digital skill sets of photography.
• DIGITAL CAMERA Point-and-shoot camera Bridge camera Digital SLR • MOBILE PHONE CAMERA • SMART PHONE CAMERA• CONNECTED CAMERA ( THE LATEST ASSET)
DIGITAL CAMERA• Digital and film cameras share an optical system, typically using a lens with a variable diaphragm to focus light onto an image pickup device. The diaphragm and shutter admit the correct amount of light to the imager, just as with film but the image pickup device is electronic rather than chemical. However, unlike film cameras, digital cameras can display images on a screen immediately after being recorded, and store and delete images from memory. Many digital cameras can also record moving video with sound. Some digital cameras can crop and stitch pictures and perform other elementary image editing.• Most cameras sold today are digital and digital cameras are incorporated into many devices ranging from PDAs and mobile phones (called camera phones) to vehicles.
POINT-AND-SHOOT CAMERAS• As per the name, they come with a tagline, “Now anybody can be a photographer”.• Being digital, they have screen displays and live previews and many, now come with video recording facilities.• Their biggest advantage is their small size. Known as compact cameras, they are portable with retractable fixed lens and thus, very useful for photojournalists working under critical conditions.• Most compact cameras now have mega zoom lenses up to 10-15x along with wide angle. Thus, photojournalists find it easy when they don’t have to carry multiple lenses for multiple photographic purposes.
•Many of them are dust andwater resistant, but theirdisadvantage is that, they don’tfunction in very lowtemperature.•They have inbuilt flash andseveral modes along with automode, like non-flash mode,night mode, etc.•Their main disadvantage is thatthey use low image sensors ofrange 6-11mm, corresponding toa crop factor between 7 and 4.This gives them weaker low-light performance, greater depthof field, generally closerfocusing ability, and smallercomponents than camerasusing larger sensors.
BRIDGE CAMERAS• These are higher end digital cameras physically resembling the DSLRs and sharing some of their features, but using a fixed lens and a small sensor like a compact camera.• Like others, they have a contrast-detect mechanism for autofocus but many have manual focus like DSLRs with some having separate manual rings.• They have longer shutter-lag than normal DSLRs but they are capable of quite a good quality picture (with sufficient light) while being more compact and lighter than DSLRs.
In low light conditions and/or at ISO equivalents above 800, mostbridge cameras (or mega zooms) lack in image quality when comparedto even entry level DSLRs. However, their larger depth of field due tosmall size is usually an advantage in snapshots and sometimes inmore studied work.
DIGITAL SLR CAMERA• Along with manual adjustments, SLR cameras mostly have automatic modes like night mode, incandescent mode, etc., along with settings for auto aperture and shutter priority.• They have dust reduction systems and image stabilization systems to reduce noise in photographs and prevent blur in long handheld exposures.• With the facility of interchangeable lens, one can change the lens according to ones needs. For example, zoom lens for photography in a bird sanctuary and macro for a butterfly.
•Many DSLRs come with a high definition video recording mode thatoffers a plus point for photojournalists as they can record anysudden important event.•Apart from viewfinder, most DSLR cameras have live display onLCD back screens. Some even have rotator screens that can beadjusted according to the camera set up.•Large sensor sizes, better image quality, depth-of-fieldcontrol, wider angle and touch up facilities to edit pictures in thecamera itself help the photojournalists hugely.
CAMERA MOBILE PHONES• Usually mobile cameras have fixed lenses with little or no zoom facilities.• Some higher models have inbuilt flash but most models cone without flash.• Most video cameras have video recording facilities.• Some upgraded models have focusing facilities.• The quality of images are low because of low sensor/pixel size.• Instead of all the drawbacks, mobile cameras are immediate helping hands for journalists when they are without a cameraman and have to suddenly capture any important and sudden event.
SMARTPHONES• Built on mobile operating system, the smartphone, with more advanced computing and connecting capabilities, can be referred to as a personal digital assistant.• Their cameras, though low- end digital, have quite good picture quality.• Most of them are provided with a front camera along with a back end camera accompanied by flash.
• Although they have much lower zooming qualities, aperture and shutter speed than professional cameras, smartphones have exceptional focusing quality which helps in macro photography.• They also have HDR, Panorama and Instagram facilities along with several editing softwares installed.• They provide exceptional connectivity that helps the photographer in case he has to send photographs immediately.
CONNECTED CAMERA-SAMSUNG’S NEWEST INVENTION• The latest device – powered by Google’s Android software like many key Samsung gadgets including Galaxy S smartphones or Galaxy Tab tablets – operates more like a smartphone.• The “Galaxy” camera, named after the Korean firm’s signature smartphone and tablet PC series, enables users to upload photos and videos directly to the Internet without having to hook it up to a computer.• It allows users to download apps aimed at polishing photos or videos, automatically share images stored in the camera with certain mobile devices located nearby, or to have the images automatically stored in a cloud-computing server.
Users have to subscribe to wireless plans to use the gadget, featuringa 4.8-inch LCD touch screen, a 21x optical lens and Android features.
With all these gadgets, photojournalism has become easier. Thus… HAPPY PHOTOGRAPHY!!!