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Notes for Mrs. Harjo Sophomore Persuasive Essay!

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  1. 1. 1) Notes: Persuasive Paper 2) Go over DCA persuasive essay assignment guidelines and expectations 3) Prewriting and rough draf Today: November 10, 2011
  2. 2. Persuasion: The Art of Aristotle Logos, Pathos, Ethos … .and MORE!
  3. 3. Rhetoric <ul><li>Aristotle 's Rhetoric is an ancient Greek treatise on the art of persuasion, dating from the fourth century BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>The Rhetoric is regarded by most rhetoricians as &quot;the most important single work on persuasion ever written.&quot; </li></ul>
  4. 4. LOGOS <ul><li>Definition: Logic </li></ul><ul><li>An argument based on logos needs to be logical, and in fact the term logic derives from it. Logos normally implies numbers, polls, and other mathematical or scientific data. </li></ul><ul><li>Logos has many advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Data is hard to manipulate, so it is harder to argue against a logos argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Logos makes the speaker look prepared and knowledgeable to the audience, enhancing ethos. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pathos <ul><li>Definition: An appeal to emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional appeal can be accomplished in a multitude of ways: </li></ul><ul><li>By metaphor or story telling, common as a hook , </li></ul><ul><li>By a general passion in the delivery and an overall amount of emotional items in the text of the speech, or in writing. </li></ul><ul><li>In rhetoric, pathos is the use of emotional appeals to alter the audience's judgment. A common use of pathos in argument is creating a sense of rejection if the audience doesn't agree. Creating a fear of rejection is in essence, creating a pathos argument. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pathos (continued) <ul><li>Many refer to Pathos as the &quot;band-wagon&quot; appeal, or trying to convince the audience to join in on the speaker's belief. By making the statement in a way that cannot be argued, the audience feels driven to believe the speaker's opinion as a fact, thus joining the speaker in belief as it being a commonly accepted idea. This is a major theme used in any form of propaganda. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ethos <ul><li>Definition: Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>At first speakers must establish ethos . On the one hand, this can mean merely &quot;moral competence&quot;, but Aristotle broadens this word to encompass expertise and knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Trust me, I have been there before” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Rhetorical Questions <ul><li>A rhetorical question is a figure of speech in the form of a question posed for rhetorical effect rather than to receive an answer. </li></ul><ul><li>They encourage the listener to reflect on what the implied answer to the question must be. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Parallelism <ul><li>Definition: to give two or more parts of the sentences a similar form so as to give the whole a definite pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the Season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The mediocre teacher tells, The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires. (William A. Ward) </li></ul><ul><li>The mistakes of the fool are known to the world, but not to himself. The mistakes of the wise man are known to himself, but not to the world. (Charles Caleb Colton) </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I may remember. Involve me and I will learn. (Benjamin Franklin) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Alternate ViewPoints <ul><li>A.K.A. REBUTTAL, OPPOSING ARGUMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>What those who oppose your position would argue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are arguing in FAVOR of the death penalty, what might some counter-arguments be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are arguing in FAVOR of open lunch for sophomores, what might some counter-arguments be? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Counter-argument <ul><li>But…you CAN’T just state the counter-argument…you must rebut it (tell WHY those who disagree with your position are wrong) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Modern Day “Rhetoric” <ul><li>The MULTI-BILLION dollar industry of advertisement, still utilizes the philosophies that Aristotle put forth in in the fourth century BCE. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Slogans <ul><li>What is a slogan? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A phrase expressing the aims or nature of an enterprise, organization, or candidate; a motto </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can you name some famous slogans? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Top Slogans of the Past Decade <ul><li>DeBeer’s Diamonds: </li></ul><ul><li>Frosted Flakes </li></ul><ul><li>M&M’s </li></ul><ul><li>Miller Lite </li></ul><ul><li>Wheaties </li></ul><ul><li>Energizer Batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Life Alert </li></ul><ul><li>Las Vegas </li></ul><ul><li>#1 (Any guesses????) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Slogans Gone Bad <ul><li>The NOVA AWARDS! </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.tallrite.com/LightRelief/AdvertisingSlogans.htm </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Definition: the substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener </li></ul>Euphemisms
  18. 18. <ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>A “pre-owned vehicle” is really just a ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion/Propaganda: </li></ul><ul><li>A “conflict” or an “operation” is really just a ___________. </li></ul>Used in:
  19. 19. <ul><li>Job Titles: </li></ul><ul><li>A “maintenance engineer” is a________ </li></ul><ul><li>A “canine relocation specialist” is a ______ </li></ul><ul><li>A “domestic assistant” is a ___________. </li></ul><ul><li>A “vision clearance engineer” is a _________. </li></ul><ul><li>A “correctional facilities loss prevention manager is a ______________. </li></ul>Used in: (continued)
  20. 20. <ul><li>Definition: is language deliberately constructed to disguise or distort its actual meaning with the aim to deceive </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>“ downsizing” </li></ul><ul><li>George Bush says that we use “Advanced interrogation techniques” instead of____ </li></ul><ul><li>He also said that returning soldiers from the middle east experience “operational exhaustion” </li></ul>Doublespeak
  21. 21. Let’s take a look at the assignment: <ul><li>You may NOT use the first or second person! (No I, me, my, you, your) </li></ul><ul><li>You HAVE to take a stand (choose ONE side of the issue and prove it) </li></ul><ul><li>You HAVE to address the alternate viewpoints </li></ul><ul><li>You MUST turn it in on time! </li></ul>