CERVICAL VERTEBREAThe upper part of the spine consist of 7 bones.The atlis is the bone right below the skull that hold it up andthe axis is the bone tight below that that helps it turn.
THORACIC VERTEBRAE This part of the vertebrae consist of 12 bones.
LUMBAR VERTEBRAEThis part of the vertebrae consist of 5 bones.
SACRUMThis contains 5 different bones that over time fuse into one.
COCCYX• or tailbone, is the triangular bony structure located at the bottom of the vertebral column. It is composed of three to five bony segments held in place by joints and ligaments.
STERNUMAlso known as the manubrium sterni it is the broad,upper part of the sternum.
TRUE RIBSThey are the first 7 ribs in the body. They are calledtrue ribs because they are actually connected to thesternum directly.
FALSE RIBSThese are the 3 ribs right under the true ribs. They arecalled false because they are no directly connected thesternum, instead they are connected to a cartilage.
FLOATING RIBSThese are the last 2 ribs right below the rib cage. They arecalled floating ribs because they are not connected to thesternum or another ribs at all. They are just connected to thespine and stick out.
CARPALS AND METACARPALS AND PHALANGES• There are eight carpal bones in the base of each hand. There are five metacarpals in each hand. There are 16 bones for phalanges. From closet to the center of the hand going outward it goes from proximal, middle, and distal. There is no first middle phalange only proximal and distal. 1
The upper and lower extremities of humans offer many interesting points of comparison and of contrast. They and their individual components are homologous—i.e., of a common origin and patterned on the same basic plan. A long evolutionary history and profound changes in the function of these two pairs of extremities have led, however, to considerable differences between them. (3)
• lower extremity- • Coxal (Pelvic Girdle)- What bones make up the Acetabelum? Howcan an anthropologist tell the difference between a male and female? • Ilium- Iliac crest, ASIS, AIIS, PSIS, PIIS, Greater Sciatic Notch • Ishium- ishial tuberosity • Pubis- Pubic Tubercle • Femur- head, neck, greater trochanter, Lesser trochanter, condyles, epicondyles, trochlea • Patella • Tibia- condyles, Tibial Tuberosity, Tibial Plateau, Medial Malleolus • Fibula- Head, Lateral malleolus • Tarsals- Talus, Calcaneus, Navicular, (1,2,3) Cuneiforms, Cuboid • Metatarsals- Long Bones Numbered I through V • Phalanges- Proximal, Medial, Distal I through V
COXAL PELVIC GIRDLE The ilium / pubis and ischium bones make up the Acetabelum.Male Female•narrower, heart-shaped pelvic inlet •open, circular pelvic inlet•narrower sciatic notch •broader sciatic notch•narrower angle where the two pubic bones in •wider angle where the two pubic bones meet infront front •more outwardly flared hip bones This chart helps to explain how anthropologists can determine weather pelvic bones are male of female. (1)
ISHIUM- ISHIAL TUBEROSITYISHIUM• is a bone in pelvis: the lowest and rearmost of the three bones that make up each half of the pelvisPUBIS• lower front of hipbone: the bone that forms the lower front section of the hipbone in humans and is one of a pair joined at the front of the pelvis.ILIUM• Ilium the uppermost of the three bones composing each half of the pelvis(3)
FEMUR• of thigh: relating to, in, or involving the thigh or femur (3)
PATELLA• middle joint of human leg: the joint of the human leg between the thigh and the lower leg, where the femur and the tibia meet, covered in front by the kneecap patella (4) patella
TIBIA• inner bone of lower leg: the inner and larger of the two bones in the lower leg, extending from the knee to the ankle bone alongside the fibula (5) tibia
FIBULA• human leg bone: the outer and narrower of the two bones in the human lower leg between the knee and ankle(6) fibula
TARSALS• human leg bone: the outer and narrower of the two bones in the human lower leg between the knee and ankle(7) tarsals
METATARSALS • Metatarsals- Long Bones Numbered I through V • of foot bones: belonging or relating to the bones between the toes and ankle(6) metatarsals
PHALANGES• Phalanges- Proximal, Medial, Distal I through V• finger and toe bone: a finger or toe bone of a human being or vertebrate animal(6) phalanges
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