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Hs powerpoint

  2. 2.  Health problems that occur during pregnancy.  These complications involve the mother’s health, the fetus or both. Complications of Pregnancy
  3. 3. Complications of Pregnancy 1. Miscarriage/Pregnancy loss  20% of pregnancies end in miscarriages  Signs include vaginal spotting or bleeding 2. High blood pressure  When arteries carrying blood from the heart to the body organs are narrowed, which causes pressure to increase.  In pregnancy it makes it hard for blood to reach the placenta, which provides nutrients and oxygen to the fetus.  Reduced blood flow slows the flow of fetus
  4. 4. 3.Gestational Diabetes  Occurs when a women didn’t have diabetes before pregnancy but starts developing it during pregnancy.  In this, hormonal changes from pregnancy cause body to not make enough insulin causing glucose to build up in your body  Can cause health problems  exp: heart disease & vision problems  If not treated can lead to large infant which increases cesarean delivery Complications of Pregnancy
  5. 5. 4. Ectopic Pregnancy  When a fertilize egg implants outside the uterus  There is no way to transplant it into the uterus so ending the pregnancy is the only option. 5. Placenta previa  your placenta is lying unusually low in your uterus, next to or covering your cervix.  located near the top of the uterus – that supplies your baby with nutrients through the umbilical cord.  If placenta gets close to Cervix: can cause bleeding Complications of Pregnancy
  6. 6. Fertilization and Fetal Development  Fertilization of the of the oocyte by a sperm usually take place in the fallopian tube. The chromosomes of the ovum combine with those of the sperm to for the diploid zygote; it divides many time to form a zygote; it divides many times to form a blastocyst, which implants itself in the uterine wall.  The blastocyst becomes an embryo and then a fetus, which is nourished through the placenta via the umbilical cord.
  7. 7. Becoming Pregnant  Preconception care is aimed at interventions that help to improve pregnancy outcomes.  The most commonly used chemical pregnancy test can be taken 2-4 weeks after a woman misses her menstrual period. Pregnancy is confirmed by the detection of the fetal heartbeat and movements or through examination by ultrasound.
  8. 8.  A woman’s feelings vary greatly during pregnancy. It is important for her to share her concerns and have support from her partner, friends, relatives. And health care practitioners. Her feelings about sexuality are likely to change during pregnancy.  Sexual activity is generally save unless there is pain, bleeding, or a history of miscarriage
  9. 9.  Harmful substances may be passed to the embryo or fetus through the placenta (ex. alcohol, tobacco, certain drugs, and environmental pollutants) as well as infectious diseases (ex. STD’S)
  10. 10. Labor and Delivery  In the last trimester of pregnancy, a woman feels Braxton-Hix contractions. These contractions also begin the effacement and dilation of the cervix to permit delivery.  During labor, contractions begin with the effacement (thinning) and dilation (gradual opening) of the cervix.  True labor begins when the uterine contractions are regularly spaced, thinning and dilation of the cervix occurs, and the fetus presents a part of itself into the vagina.
  11. 11. Three Stages of Labor  The first stage is usually the longest (4-16 hours or longer) – early sign is the expulsion of a plug of a slightly bloody mucus that has blocked the opening of the cervix during pregnancy.  The second-stage begins when the baby’s head moves into the birth canal and ends when the baby is born. – During this time, many women experience a great force in their bodies.
  12. 12. Three Stages of Labor  The third stage is when the placenta (afterbirth) is delivered . After the baby has been deliver, the uterus continues to contract, expelling the placenta, the remaining section of the umbilical cord, and the fetal membranes.
  13. 13. Fertilization  Once the ovum has been released from the ovary, it drifts into the fallopian tube and may be fertilized if live sperm is present  Oocyte- Ovum or unfertilized egg  Oocyte remains viable for 12-24 hours after ovulation  For fertilization to occur, intercourse must take place within 5 days before and 1 day after ovulation
  14. 14. Capacitation  The process by which their membranes become fragile enough to release enzymes from their acrosomes  Acrosomes- The helmet like coverings of the sperm’s nuclei  Within 9 months, this single cell zygote may become 600 trillion cells that constitute a human being.
  15. 15. Development of the conceptus  The zygote undergoes a series of divisions, during which the cells replicate  On the 5th day the blastocyst(100 cells) arrives in the uterine cavity, where it floats for a day or two before implanting in the soft, blood-rich uterine lining which has spent 3 weeks preparing for arrival. The process of implantation takes about a week. An embryo which will turn into a fetus in about 8 weeks of gestation.
  16. 16. Development of the Conceptus continued…  During the first 2 or 3 weeks , the embryonic membranes are formed. This includes the amniotic sac .  3rd- 4th week the organs are beginning to develop and body segments and the brain form. The digestive and circulatory system begin to develop in the 4th week and the heart begins to pump blood.  5th-6th week the formation of arms and legs. The 6th week the eyes and ears form.
  17. 17. Being Pregnant  A few facts….  There were 4.1 million births in the United States in 2009, nearly 3% less than in 2008.  The percentage of births to unmarried woman has continued to increase.  The term child-free is used to describe those who expect and intend to remain nonparents.
  18. 18. Preconception Care, Pregnancy Detection, & Changes during Pregnancy  Preconception is used to identify and early defects that the child or mother may have. During preconception partners must be very cautious of how they are taking care of their bodies. Pregnancy Detection can be as early as 7 weeks. A babies sex can be determined with 95% accuracy at 7 weeks and 99% at 20 weeks through a blood test. If a Y chromosome is detected the fetus is male, the absence Y means Female. In China men and wanted more than Females.
  19. 19. Changes in Woman During Pregnancy  Women go through 3 trimesters.  1st trimester (3 months)- Nausea,vommiting, and swelling of breast are symptoms  2nd trimester- The fetus begins to move and nausea is less common  3rd trimester- the fetus is the size of the mothers fist . Swelling is more common in women now with their feet and ankles.
  20. 20. In•fer•til•i•ty -adjective The inability to conceive a child after a year of unprotected intercourse, or the inability to carry a child to term.
  21. 21. Female Infertility About 10% (6.1 million) women aged _____in the United States have difficulty getting or staying pregnant. A. 20-49 B. 15-44 C. 30-59 D. 32-61
  22. 22. Physical Causes Ovulation  Low/HIGH levels of body fat Benign Entities Waiting to Conceive  Around what age do women get pregnant?  Seasoned Ovaries
  23. 23. Male Infertility  Variocele  Low Sperm Count  Decreased Sperm Mobility  Sperm Morphology  Best Indicator  Environmental Factors  Rate of sperm
  24. 24. Infertility Treatment  Myth or NO?  “We can’t get pregnant because we’re too anxious”  Enhancing Fertility  Timing Coitus  Medical Intervention  AI  Surrogate Motherhood: Positive vs. Negative -Gestational Carrier (Ovaries but NO Uterus)