Health problems that
occur during pregnancy.
involve the mother’s
health, the fetus or both.
1. Miscarriage/Pregnancy loss
20% of pregnancies end in miscarriages
Signs include vaginal spotting or bleeding
2. High blood pressure
When arteries carrying blood from the heart to the body
organs are narrowed, which causes pressure to increase.
In pregnancy it makes it hard for blood to reach the placenta,
which provides nutrients and oxygen to the fetus.
Reduced blood flow slows the flow of fetus
Occurs when a women didn’t have
diabetes before pregnancy but starts
developing it during pregnancy.
In this, hormonal changes from
pregnancy cause body to not make
enough insulin causing glucose to
build up in your body
Can cause health problems
exp: heart disease & vision
If not treated can lead to large
which increases cesarean delivery
4. Ectopic Pregnancy
When a fertilize egg implants outside the
There is no way to transplant it into the
uterus so ending the pregnancy is the
5. Placenta previa
your placenta is lying unusually low in your
uterus, next to or covering your cervix.
located near the top of the uterus – that
supplies your baby with nutrients through
the umbilical cord.
If placenta gets close to
Cervix: can cause bleeding
Fertilization and Fetal
Fertilization of the of the oocyte by a sperm usually take
place in the fallopian tube. The chromosomes of the ovum
combine with those of the sperm to for the diploid zygote;
it divides many time to form a zygote; it divides many
times to form a blastocyst, which implants itself in the
The blastocyst becomes an embryo and then a fetus,
which is nourished through the placenta via the umbilical
Preconception care is aimed at interventions that
help to improve pregnancy outcomes.
The most commonly used chemical pregnancy test
can be taken 2-4 weeks after a woman misses her
menstrual period. Pregnancy is confirmed by the
detection of the fetal heartbeat and movements or
through examination by ultrasound.
A woman’s feelings vary greatly during pregnancy. It
is important for her to share her concerns and have
support from her partner, friends, relatives. And
health care practitioners. Her feelings about
sexuality are likely to change during pregnancy.
Sexual activity is generally save unless there is pain,
bleeding, or a history of miscarriage
Harmful substances may be passed to the embryo
or fetus through the placenta (ex. alcohol, tobacco,
certain drugs, and environmental pollutants) as well
as infectious diseases (ex. STD’S)
Labor and Delivery
In the last trimester of pregnancy, a woman feels Braxton-Hix
contractions. These contractions also begin the effacement
and dilation of the cervix to permit delivery.
During labor, contractions begin with the effacement (thinning)
and dilation (gradual opening) of the cervix.
True labor begins when the uterine contractions are regularly
spaced, thinning and dilation of the cervix occurs, and the
fetus presents a part of itself into the vagina.
Three Stages of
The first stage is usually the longest
(4-16 hours or longer) – early sign is
the expulsion of a plug of a slightly
bloody mucus that has blocked the
opening of the cervix during
The second-stage begins when the
baby’s head moves into the birth canal
and ends when the baby is born. –
During this time, many women
experience a great force in their
Three Stages of
The third stage is when the placenta (afterbirth) is
delivered . After the baby has been deliver, the
uterus continues to contract, expelling the placenta,
the remaining section of the umbilical cord, and the
Once the ovum has been released from the ovary, it
drifts into the fallopian tube and may be fertilized if
live sperm is present
Oocyte- Ovum or unfertilized egg
Oocyte remains viable for 12-24 hours after
For fertilization to occur, intercourse must take place
within 5 days before and 1 day after ovulation
The process by which their membranes become
fragile enough to release enzymes from their
Acrosomes- The helmet like coverings of the
Within 9 months, this single cell zygote may become
600 trillion cells that constitute a human being.
Development of the
The zygote undergoes a series of divisions, during
which the cells replicate
On the 5th day the blastocyst(100 cells) arrives in the
uterine cavity, where it floats for a day or two before
implanting in the soft, blood-rich uterine lining which
has spent 3 weeks preparing for arrival. The process of
implantation takes about a week. An embryo which will
turn into a fetus in about 8 weeks of gestation.
Development of the
During the first 2 or 3 weeks , the embryonic
membranes are formed. This includes the amniotic
3rd- 4th week the organs are beginning to develop
and body segments and the brain form. The
digestive and circulatory system begin to develop in
the 4th week and the heart begins to pump blood.
5th-6th week the formation of arms and legs. The 6th
week the eyes and ears form.
A few facts….
There were 4.1 million births in the United States in
2009, nearly 3% less than in 2008.
The percentage of births to unmarried woman has
continued to increase.
The term child-free is used to describe those who
expect and intend to remain nonparents.
Preconception Care, Pregnancy Detection, &
Changes during Pregnancy
Preconception is used to identify and early defects that the
child or mother may have. During preconception partners
must be very cautious of how they are taking care of their
bodies. Pregnancy Detection can be as early as 7 weeks. A
babies sex can be determined with 95% accuracy at 7 weeks
and 99% at 20 weeks through a blood test. If a Y
chromosome is detected the fetus is male, the absence Y
means Female. In China men and wanted more than Females.
Changes in Woman During
Women go through 3 trimesters.
1st trimester (3 months)- Nausea,vommiting, and
swelling of breast are symptoms
2nd trimester- The fetus begins to move and nausea
is less common
3rd trimester- the fetus is the size of the mothers fist .
Swelling is more common in women now with their
feet and ankles.
The inability to conceive a child after a year of
unprotected intercourse, or the inability to carry
a child to term.
About 10% (6.1 million) women aged _____in the
United States have difficulty getting or staying pregnant.
Low/HIGH levels of body fat
Waiting to Conceive
Around what age do women get
Low Sperm Count
Decreased Sperm Mobility
Rate of sperm
Myth or NO?
“We can’t get pregnant because we’re too anxious”
Surrogate Motherhood: Positive vs. Negative
-Gestational Carrier (Ovaries but NO Uterus)