1                      What Is Strategy                         Chapter Title                        and Why Is           ...
“Without a strategythe organization islike a ship without a      rudder.” Joel Ross and Michael          Kami             ...
Chapter Roadmap   What Do We Mean By Strategy?       Strategy and the Quest for Competitive Advantage       Identifying...
Thinking Strategically:    The Three Big Strategic Questions1. What’s the company’s present situation?2. Where does the co...
What Do We Mean By “Strategy”? Consistsof competitive moves and business  approaches used by managers to run the  company...
The Hows That          Define a Firms Strategy How   to grow the business How   to please customers                Strat...
Choosing the “Hows” of Strategy   Strategic choices about “how” are based on     Trial-and-error organizational learning...
Key Elements of a Successful Strategy   Developing a successful strategy hinges on making    competitive moves aimed at  ...
Key Elements:    Comcast’s Strategy   Roll out high-speed Internet or broadband service to customers via    cable modems...
For Discussion: Your OpinionFrom your perspective as a cable or satellite serviceconsumer, does Comcast’s strategy (as des...
Strategy and the Quest for            Competitive Advantage The heart and soul of any strategy are the actions  and moves...
A Powerful Strategy Leads to      Sustainable Competitive Advantage   A company achieves sustainable competitive advantag...
Four “Best” Strategic Approaches to  Building Sustainable Competitive Advantage Being  the industry’s low-cost provider (...
Competitive Advantage Examples Strive   to be the industry’s low-cost provider     Wal-Mart     Southwest Airlines Out...
Competitive Advantage Examples (cont)   Focus on a narrow market niche       eBay – Online auctions       Jiffy Lube In...
Fig. 1.1: Identifying a Company’s Strategy                                             1-16
Test Your KnowledgeA company’s strategy and its quest for competitive advantageare tightly related because  A. a company’s...
Why Do Strategies Evolve?A company’s strategy is a work in progress Changes      may be necessary to react to     Shift...
Fig. 1.2: A Company’s Strategy IsPartly Proactive and Partly Reactive                                       1-19
Crafting Strategy Is an          Exercise in Entrepreneurship Strategy-making     is a market-driven activity involving  ...
Linking Strategy With Ethics Ethical    and moral standards go beyond       Prohibitions of law and the language of “tho...
A Firm’s Ethical   Responsibilities to Its StakeholdersOwners/shareholders – Rightfully expect some form of Owners/shareho...
Role of Senior Executives:           Linking Strategy with Ethics Forbid  pursuit of ethically questionable business  opp...
Test Your KnowledgeA companys strategy can be considered “ethical”  A. if all of its different actions and elements are le...
What Is a Business Model?Abusiness model addresses “How do we make money in this business?”      Is the strategy capable...
Relationship Between                 Strategy and Business Model       Strategy . . .                Business Model . . . ...
Microsoft’s Business ModelEmploy a cadre of highly skilled programmers to develop proprietarycode; keep source code hidden...
Red Hat’s Business ModelRely on collaborative efforts of volunteer programmers to create thesoftwareCollect and test enhan...
Test Your KnowledgeThe nitty-gritty issue surrounding a company’s businessmodel is whether  A. the strategy is capable of ...
For Discussion: Your OpinionWho has the best business model –      Microsoft or Red Hat?                                  ...
Tests of a Winning Strategy GOODNESS        OF FIT TEST     How well does strategy fit      the firm’s situation? COMPE...
Other Criteria for Judging              the Merits of a Strategy Internal consistency and unity among all pieces of  the ...
Why Is Strategy Important?A compelling need exists for managers to proactively shape how a firm’s business will be conduc...
Good Strategy + Good Strategy Execution          = Good Management Crafting and executing strategy are core management  f...
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  • Comcast’s strategy appears to be well-matched to its industry and competitive conditions. With revenues of $18 billion and almost 22 million of 74 million (29.7% market share) U.S. cable subscribers, it became the industry leader in the U.S. market in 2002. However, profit margins are not provided in the Illustration Capsule; in the final analysis, a company’s success must be evaluated based on its profitability. The strategy appears to be based on a mixture of the following: an emphasis on differentiating features and resource strengths and competitive capabilities. Comcast is offering several unique technological features, including video-on-demand service and VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol). In addition, a key element of its strategy is an emphasis on providing exceptional customer service. Since most cable subscribers were dissatisfied with the caliber of customer service offered by their local cable companies, Comcast felt that providing exceptional customer service to support its numerous cable services (i.e., video-on-demand, cable modems, HDTV, phone service) would be a differentiating feature of its strategy, clearly separating the company from its competitive rivals. While its unique technological offerings is a key factor in obtaining a competitive advantage, the key to sustaining a competitive advantage is most likely going to be based on providing exceptional customer service to support its numerous cable services. It appears to be committed to this goal based on the following: (1) five weeks of classroom training for its customer service personnel; this was followed by supervisors listening to calls handled by the customer service personnel for 3 weeks; and (2) a goal of answering 90% of calls within 30 seconds.
  • Answer: E
  • Answer: B
  • Answer: C
  • Based on the results, Microsoft’s business model (based on selling proprietary code software and giving service away free) is a proven money-maker, generating billions in profits annually. However, the jury is still out on Red Hat’s business model. It posted losses of $140 million on revenues of $79 million in FY2002 and losses of $6.6 million on revenues of $91 million in FY 2003; however, it earned $14 million on revenues of $126 million in FY 2004.
  • T sand gchap01

    1. 1. 1 What Is Strategy Chapter Title and Why Is It Important? Screen graphics created by:16/e PPT Jana F. Kuzmicki, Ph.D. Troy University-Florida Region McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. “Without a strategythe organization islike a ship without a rudder.” Joel Ross and Michael Kami 1-2
    3. 3. Chapter Roadmap What Do We Mean By Strategy?  Strategy and the Quest for Competitive Advantage  Identifying a Company’s Strategy  Why a Company’s Strategy Evolves Over Time  A Company’s Strategy Is Partly Proactive and Partly Reactive Strategy and Ethics: Passing the Test of Moral Scrutiny The Relationship Between a Company’s Strategy and Its Business Model What Makes a Strategy a Winner? Why Are Crafting and Executing Strategy Important? 1-3
    4. 4. Thinking Strategically: The Three Big Strategic Questions1. What’s the company’s present situation?2. Where does the company need to go from here?  Business(es) to be in and market positions to stake out  Buyer needs and groups to serve  Direction to head3. How should it get there? A company’s answer to “how will we get there?” is its strategy 1-4
    5. 5. What Do We Mean By “Strategy”? Consistsof competitive moves and business approaches used by managers to run the company Management’s “action plan” to  Grow the business  Attract and please customers  Compete successfully  Conduct operations  Achieve target levels of organizational performance 1-5
    6. 6. The Hows That Define a Firms Strategy How to grow the business How to please customers Strategy is HOW How to outcompete rivals to . . . How to manage each functional piece of the business (R&D, production, marketing, HR, finance, and so on) How to respond to changing market conditions How to achieve targeted levels of performance 1-6
    7. 7. Choosing the “Hows” of Strategy Strategic choices about “how” are based on  Trial-and-error organizational learning about what has worked and what has not worked  Management’s appetite for taking risks  Managerial analysis and strategic thinking about how best to proceed, given market conditions and the company’s circumstances In choosing a strategy, management is in effect saying, “Among all the many different business approaches and ways of competing we could have chosen, we have decided to employ this particular combination of competitive and operating approaches in moving the company in the intended direction, strengthening its market position, and competitiveness, and boosting performance.” 1-7
    8. 8. Key Elements of a Successful Strategy Developing a successful strategy hinges on making competitive moves aimed at  Appealing to buyers in ways to set the enterprise apart from rivals and  Carving out its own market position Involves developing a distinctive “aha” element to  Attract customers and  Produce a competitive edge Copying competitive moves of other successful companies rarely works! 1-8
    9. 9. Key Elements: Comcast’s Strategy Roll out high-speed Internet or broadband service to customers via cable modems Promote a new video-on-demand service to allow digital subscribers to watch TV programs whenever they want Promote a video-on-demand service so digital customers can order and watch pay-per-view movies Partner with Sony, MGM, and others to expand movie offerings Use VoIP technology to offer subscribers Internet-based phone service at a fraction of the cost charged by others Use video-on-demand and CDV offerings to combat mounting competition from satellite TV providers Employ a sales force to sell advertising to businesses that were shifting advertising dollars from sponsoring network programs to sponsoring cable programs Significantly improve customer service 1-9
    10. 10. For Discussion: Your OpinionFrom your perspective as a cable or satellite serviceconsumer, does Comcast’s strategy (as described inIllustration Capsule 1.1) seem to be well-matched toindustry and competitive conditions? Does the strategy seem to be keyed to a cost advantage, differentiating features, serving the unique needs of a niche, or developing resource strengths and competitive capabilities rivals can’t imitate or trump (or a mixture of these)? What is there about Comcast’s strategy that can lead to sustainable competitive advantage? 1-10
    11. 11. Strategy and the Quest for Competitive Advantage The heart and soul of any strategy are the actions and moves in the marketplace that a company makes to strengthen its competitive position and gain a competitive advantage over rivals A creative distinctive strategy that sets a company apart from rivals and yields a competitive advantage is a company’s most reliable ticket to above average profitability  Competing with a competitive advantage is more profitable than competing with no advantage  Competing with a competitive disadvantage nearly always results in below-average profitability 1-11
    12. 12. A Powerful Strategy Leads to Sustainable Competitive Advantage A company achieves sustainable competitive advantage when an attractive number or buyers prefer its products/services over those of rivals and when the basis for this preference can be maintained over time  Its nice when a strategy produces a temporary competitive edge but a durable edge over rivals greatly enhances a company’s prospects for winning in the marketplace and realizing above-average profits What separates a powerful strategy from an ordinary strategy is management’s ability to forge a series of moves, both in the marketplace and internally, that produces sustainable competitive advantage! 1-12
    13. 13. Four “Best” Strategic Approaches to Building Sustainable Competitive Advantage Being the industry’s low-cost provider (a cost-based competitive advantage) Incorporate differentiating features (a “superior product” type of competitive advantage keyed to higher quality, better performance, wider selection, value-added services, or some other attribute) Focusing on a narrow market niche (winning a competitive edge by doing a better job than rivals of serving the needs and preferences of buyers comprising the niche) Developing expertise and resource strengths not easily imitated or matched by rivals (a capabilities-based competitive advantage) 1-13
    14. 14. Competitive Advantage Examples Strive to be the industry’s low-cost provider  Wal-Mart  Southwest Airlines Outcompete rivals on a key differentiating feature  Johnson & Johnson – Reliability in baby products  Harley-Davidson – King-of-the-road styling  Rolex – Top-of-the-line prestige  Mercedes-Benz – Engineering design and performance  L.L. Bean – Good value  Amazon.com – Wide selection and convenience 1-14
    15. 15. Competitive Advantage Examples (cont) Focus on a narrow market niche  eBay – Online auctions  Jiffy Lube International – Quick oil changes  McAfee – Virus protection auctions  Starbucks – Premium coffees and coffee drinks  The Weather Channel – Cable TV Develop expertise, resource strengths, and capabilities not easily imitated by rivals  FedEx – Next-day delivery of small packages  Walt Disney – Theme park management and family entertainment  Toyota – Sophisticated production system  Ritz-Carlton – Personalized customer service 1-15
    16. 16. Fig. 1.1: Identifying a Company’s Strategy 1-16
    17. 17. Test Your KnowledgeA company’s strategy and its quest for competitive advantageare tightly related because A. a company’s strategy determines whether it will have lower or higher costs than rivals and thus be at a competitive advantage or disadvantage. B. competitive advantage is essential to having a profitable business model. C. choosing a competitive advantage to pursue also helps a company choose which business model is most appropriate. D. competitive advantage enables a company to achieve its strategic objectives. E. a strategy that leads to sustainable competitive advantage is a company’s most reliable means of achieving above-average profitability and financial performance. 1-17
    18. 18. Why Do Strategies Evolve?A company’s strategy is a work in progress Changes may be necessary to react to  Shifting market conditions  Technological breakthroughs  Fresh moves of competitors  Evolving customer preferences  Emerging market opportunities  New ideas to improve strategy  Crisis situations 1-18
    19. 19. Fig. 1.2: A Company’s Strategy IsPartly Proactive and Partly Reactive 1-19
    20. 20. Crafting Strategy Is an Exercise in Entrepreneurship Strategy-making is a market-driven activity involving  Studying market trends and competitors’ actions  Keen observation of customer needs  Scrutinizing business possibilities based on new technologies  Building firm’s market position via acquisitions or new product introductions  Pursuing ways to strengthen firm’s competitive capabilities  Proactively searching out opportunities to  Do new things or  Do existing things in new or better ways 1-20
    21. 21. Linking Strategy With Ethics Ethical and moral standards go beyond  Prohibitions of law and the language of “thou shalt not” to issues of  Duty and “right” vs. “wrong” Ethicaland moral standards address “What is the right thing to do?” Two criteria of an ethical strategy:  Does not entail actions and behaviors that cross the line from “should do” to “should not do” and “unsavory” or “shady” and  Allows management to fulfill its ethical duties to all stakeholders 1-21
    22. 22. A Firm’s Ethical Responsibilities to Its StakeholdersOwners/shareholders – Rightfully expect some form of Owners/shareholders – Rightfully expect some form ofreturn on their investment return on their investmentEmployees -- Rightfully expect to be treated with dignityEmployees Rightfully expect to be treated with dignityand respect for devoting their energies to the enterpriseand respect for devoting their energies to the enterpriseCustomers -- Rightfully expect a seller to provide themCustomers Rightfully expect a seller to provide themwith a reliable, safe product or servicewith a reliable, safe product or serviceSuppliers -- Rightfully expect to have an equitable Suppliers Rightfully expect to have an equitablerelationship with firms they supply and be treated fairly relationship with firms they supply and be treated fairlyCommunity -- Rightfully expect businesses to be goodCommunity Rightfully expect businesses to be goodcitizens in their communitycitizens in their community 1-22
    23. 23. Role of Senior Executives: Linking Strategy with Ethics Forbid pursuit of ethically questionable business opportunities Insist all aspects of company strategy reflect high ethical standards Make it clear all employees are expected to act with integrity Install organizational checks and balances to  Monitor behavior  Enforce ethical codes of conduct  Provide guidance to employees in gray areas Display genuine commitment to conduct business activities ethically 1-23
    24. 24. Test Your KnowledgeA companys strategy can be considered “ethical” A. if all of its different actions and elements are legal and in compliance with governmental rules and regulations. B. so long as its actions and behaviors can pass the test of “moral scrutiny” and are aboveboard in the sense of not being shady or unconscionable, injurious to others, or unnecessarily harmful to the environment. C. only if all elements of the strategy are in accord with what is generally considered as being in the overall best interests of society at large. D. so long as religious authorities and noted ethics experts find nothing “wrong” in the company’s actions. E. if it is in compliance with the company’s code of ethics and has been approved by the company’s chief ethics officer. 1-24
    25. 25. What Is a Business Model?Abusiness model addresses “How do we make money in this business?”  Is the strategy capable of delivering good bottom-line results? Do the revenue-cost-profit economics of the strategy make good business sense?  Look at revenue streams the strategy is expected to produce  Look at associated cost structure and potential profit margins  Do resulting earnings streams and ROI indicate the strategy makes sense and the company has a viable business model for making money? 1-25
    26. 26. Relationship Between Strategy and Business Model Strategy . . . Business Model . . . Deals with a company’s Concerns whether revenuescompetitive initiatives and and costs flowing from the business approaches strategy demonstrate a business can be amply profitable and viable s Bus del ines Mo egy S trat 1-26
    27. 27. Microsoft’s Business ModelEmploy a cadre of highly skilled programmers to develop proprietarycode; keep source code hidden from usersSell resulting OS and software packages to PC makers and users atrelatively attractive prices to achieve a 90% or more market shareMost costs in developing software are fixed; variable costs are small;once break-even volume is reached, revenues from additional salesare almost pure profitProvide modest level of technical support to users at no costProvide modest level of technical support to users at no costRejuvenate revenues by periodically introducing next-generationRejuvenate revenues by periodically introducing next-generationsoftware with features inducing PC users to upgrade their operatingsoftware with features inducing PC users to upgrade their operatingsystemssystems 1-27
    28. 28. Red Hat’s Business ModelRely on collaborative efforts of volunteer programmers to create thesoftwareCollect and test enhancements and new applications submitted byvolunteer programmers for evaluation and inclusion in new releasesof LinuxMarket upgraded and tested family of Red Hat products to largecompanies, charging a subscription fee that includes 24/7 supportwithin 1 hour in 7 languagesMake source code open and available to all usersMake source code open and available to all usersCapitalize on specialized expertise required to use Linux byCapitalize on specialized expertise required to use Linux byproviding fee-based training, consulting, software customization, andproviding fee-based training, consulting, software customization, andclient-directed engineering to Linus usersclient-directed engineering to Linus users 1-28
    29. 29. Test Your KnowledgeThe nitty-gritty issue surrounding a company’s businessmodel is whether A. the strategy is capable of producing sustainable competitive advantage. B. it matches the company’s external and internal situation. C. the chosen strategy makes good business sense from a money-making perspective. D. the company’s strategy and strategic moves are mostly proactive. E. the company’s strategy stands a really good chance of hitting a home-run in the marketplace. 1-29
    30. 30. For Discussion: Your OpinionWho has the best business model – Microsoft or Red Hat? 1-30
    31. 31. Tests of a Winning Strategy GOODNESS OF FIT TEST  How well does strategy fit the firm’s situation? COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE TEST  Does strategy lead to sustainable competitive advantage? PERFORMANCE TEST  Does strategy boost firm performance? 1-31
    32. 32. Other Criteria for Judging the Merits of a Strategy Internal consistency and unity among all pieces of the strategy Degree of risk the strategy poses as compared to alternative strategies Degree to which the strategy is flexible and adaptable to changing circumstances While these criteria are relevant, they seldom override the importance of the three tests of a winning strategy! 1-32
    33. 33. Why Is Strategy Important?A compelling need exists for managers to proactively shape how a firm’s business will be conductedA strategy-focused firm is more likely to be a strong bottom-line performer than one that views strategy as secondary 1-33
    34. 34. Good Strategy + Good Strategy Execution = Good Management Crafting and executing strategy are core management functions Among all things managers do, nothing affects a company’s ultimate success or failure more fundamentally than how well its management team  Charts a company’s direction,  Develops competitively effective strategic moves and business approaches, and  Pursues what needs to be done internally to produce good day-in/day-out strategy execution Excellent execution of an excellent strategy is the best test of managerial excellence – and the most reliable recipe for winning in the marketplace! 1-34

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