Application of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture
Corporate Mission Atomic energy for peace, health and prosperity Sustainable agricultural development, improved nutrition and food security to contribute to sustainable food security and safety by use of nuclear techniques and biotechnology
Application in Food and Agriculture Insect Pest Control by Sterile Insect Techniques Plant Breeding & Genetics by Mutation Techniques Animal Production & Health by RIA, ELISA, PCR, etc. Soil & Water Management & Crop Nutrition by Isotopic and Nuclear Techniques Food & Environmental Protection by Food Irradiation and Radio- analytical Techniques Nuclear Techniques
Mutation techniques - Improving crop cultivars - Enhancing biodiversity - Increasing farmer’s income
Crop improvement by mutation techniques MUTANT VARIETIES Total Number : 2672 Plant Species : 170 (2006) Sources: FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database Cereals 1206 Flowers 454 Legumes 203 Oil crops 198 Others 611
The impact of mutation induction in crop improvement is measured in millions of ha and billions of $ Zhefu 802 (rice) 10.6 million ha China Baden- Wurttemberg & Bavaria VND95-20 (rice) 280,000 ha Vietnam Saarland Diamant (barley) 2.86 million ha Europe Brandenburg TAG24 (groundnut) 3 million ha India Thuringia Schleswig- Holstein
VND99-3 High quality for export Short duration (100 days) 3 rice harvests per year in the Mekong Delta 8 new high quality rice mutant varieties have been developed and adopted by farmers in Vietnam, where rice export is one of their main revenues . VND95-20 High quality Tolerance to salinity Key rice variety for export “ National Prize of Science and Technology of Viet Nam 2005” for its “significant socio-economic contribution”
2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management Isotopic and nuclear techniques Water Soil Crop Nutrition
Enhance the efficient and sustainable use of soil-water-nutrient resources.
Quantify Biological Nitrogen Fixation.
Minimize effects of soil erosion and degradation.
Enhance water use efficiency by crops.
Select drought and salt-tolerant crops.
Evaluate effects of crop residue incorporation on soil stabilization and fertility enhancement.
Track and quantify off-site water (nutrients) losses beyond the plant rooting zone.
2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management
2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management 12 CO 2 (99%) 13 CO 2 (1%) Plants can be grouped according to 13 C discrimination (rice, wheat, forest, vegetation) (maize, sorghum, sugarcane, some tropical herbs) C4 plants: 13 C = -12 C3 plants: 13 C = -26
2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management FRN with precipitation ( P ) Original soil level Resulting soil level Deposition site 137 Cs > P Erosion site 137 Cs < P
Radiation is used to induce lethal mutations in chromosomes of insect pests to caus e sterility .
Sterile m ales are released into the wild where they compete with wild males for matings with wild females .
SIT relies on:
mass production of the target pest
sterilization and shipment
inundative releases mostly by air
matings result in no offspring
SIT integrated with other pest control methods is applied for suppression, containment, or even eradication.
3. Insect Pest Control by SIT Technical basis
3. Insect Pest Control by SIT Gamma Radiation No Offspring (BIRTH CONTROL) Sterile Sterile Wild
Integrated Pest Management With SIT Component Insect Pest Population Density aerial release of sterile flies ERADICATION months deployment of insecticide- treated targets or traps treatment of cattle with trypanocides treatment of cattle with insecticides
In Chile, fruit and vegetable exports have climbed to US $1.6 billion in 2005 as a result of fruit fly-free status.
Medfly-free status in Mexico translates to annual savings of US $2 billion in reduced crop losses and pesticide costs, and access to export markets.
In Zanzibar, eradication of tsetse and trypanosomiasis resulted in very significant increases of meat and milk production, as well as crop productivity
SIT developed and transferred to over 30 Member States with substantial socio-economic impact:
Exports of bell peppers and tomatoes from Central America to the USA (2004-2006) Overcoming phytosanitary trade barriers to facilitate access of high-value crops to lucrative export markets Fruit fly free areas (FFFA) FFFA in progress
RIA is used to measure the presence of the reproductive hormone progesterone through immunological definition
Isotope I- 125 is used as a label to enable the immunological reaction to be assayed
Disease diagnosis using molecular tools (PCR-ELISA)
DNA assisted selection for productivity and disease resistance
Production of safe standard reagents by irradiation
Evaluation of locally available feeds to overcome nutritional deficiencies
DNA-Assisted Selection Measure productivity Sample DNA (blood, hair, milk) Identify superior genes Develop nuclear-related test for selection and breeding 4. Animal Production & Health 80 cm
Efficient Utilization of Locally Grown Feeds 4. Animal Production & Health Label with isotope e.g. 15 N , 13 C18 Feed to livestock Nutrients dispersed throughout body Tissue sampling to assay isotope distribution Local plant materials
Use of isotope related techniques in disease management Take blood Analyze the result Run ELISA Protected Vaccinate Is this cow vaccinated?
Reducing Health Risks through the early, rapid and sensitive serological and molecular detection (such as ELISA and PCR) Combat Bird Flu Combat Bird Flu