From Other Shores Chapter 5 Presented By: Paris, Deshante, Jorge, Kali, Ju’wan & Vivian
Pacific Migrations Orientals AKA Asians Consisted of Jews, Arabs and Americans from Asia Similar attitudes & traits
Chinese Gold Rush Days 1880 –320,000 living in America Mainly on west coast (Cali) Immigration Officials Chinese Exclusion Act Immigration Reform Act of 1965 Chinatowns & Discrimination 1990’s
Japenese Pacific Shores in 1869 21 years after Chinese! Alien Land Law (1913) Pearl Harbor 1945
Koreans Mostly laborers. A second wave appeared in the mid to late 1950s Immigration Reform Act of 1965 Education Koreans today
Other Asians Different from Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans The first of the two are the Filipinos The second are the south Asians Little in common.
South Asians South Asians are recent arrivals By contrast to Filipinos Rights Immigration reform bill of 1965 High-status group of immigrants Caucasian, Asian American, or Asian
Filipinos Lemuel Ignacio (Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Is There Such an Ethnic Group?) The “Asians” The meaning of color A brief history NOT Orientals Migration and postwar newcomers
In this country Hispanics also called “Latinos” make up the same nationality group.
In 2003 they became the nation’s largest minority, outnumbering African Americans
Hispanic or Latino Include:
Cubans (largest ethnic group in Miami)
Dominicans (New York)
Puerto Ricans who have been citizens since 1917
-Descendants from very early settlers after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the end of the Mexican American war Before being included as a separate census category many were forced to check “White”, “Black”, “Native American”, or other.
Mexicans 2nd to Native “Indians” the Mexicans are hardly migrants Their history dates back to the days of Spanish conquest , and they are often called Hispanos. After the turn of the 20th century increasing numbers of laborers from Mexico crossed the border to the United States Restrictions on overseas immigration during WWI gave cause for this migration and almost 1 million Mexicans entered the country between 1910-1930
Most found work doing stoop labor on farms/ranches or became migrant workers Over ½ took up residence in the United States gravitating to urban areas Following WWII many would achieve middle class status, a success that has been largely overlooked. Racism contended that Mexicans were only good for farm labor, and this widespread attitude served to keep many influential people in the southwest from making necessary changes in the educational system and in social welfare to assist the Mexican Americans
There are two other recognized types of migrants from Mexico: -Wetbacks (named so for crossing Rio Grande illegally) -Braceros (those with permits to work as contract laborers under strict restriction) In 1960 427,000 entered as guest workers Present day there is now more surveillance of the border than ever before but Mexicans have continued to pour into country Some are facilitated by “Coyotes”; Men & Women who make their living as smugglers of human beings
Today Mexican Americans are the fastest growing “nationality group” in the United States and this fact has raised concerns in many quarters To some, it is the “brown waves of Mexicans” coming across the border that is said to be poised, not only to undercut the farm labor market but to destroy American Civilization itself.
Puerto Ricans Puerto Rico has been in american possession since the end of the Spanish-American war became united states citizen in 1917 by choice migration began in early 20th century migration with a prime objective of stayin in the USA has risen sharply due to increase job opportunities, popular culture, improved transportation over 3/4 of their total number live in New York
Census Bureau data provides evidence of difficulties PR have in succeeding they are more likely to come from urban areas and have higher proportion of skilled and semiskilled workers than the native population. Unemployed PR go to New York primarily They continue to come not to seek work but to seek better work, yet still find problems in nearly a third of PR families continue to live below poverty level. PR were the first major group to migrate to Urban centers in the US On the main land, color determines what class a person belongs in, in Puerto Rico the class a person belongs to determines his color.
Cubans Until Cuban revolution in 1959 most Americans knew Cuba only as a series of Snapshot images. The few Cubans in America mostly lived in Florida 100,000 of Cubans sought and gained admittance to this country as exiles from the new communist regime. Between 1959 and 1970 70,000 refugees entered the US mostly arriving and staying in Miami area many minorities, especially African Americans say Cubans were elbowing into the system and taking jobs away from them In 1980 a second large wave app.. 150,000 (boat people) made the 90 mile trip to Florida coast. They were generally poorer and less educated than the first wave and many more were black.
Among the boat people were a large subgroup who had been given permission to go by Fidel Castro, unlike the people who fled from Cuba prior It's rumored, Castro saw his chance to rid the country of criminals and mentally retarded people among the Marielitos. They were not given the same refugees status as their country men The were deported or detained whenever they violated the law It took 20 years to regularize their reputation of the vast majority who came from Mariel In January 2005 the Supreme Court handed down the ruling that the Open ended policy was illegal. In recent decades Cuban and other refugees and other immigrants from Latin America have succeeded in making Miami one of the cultural bilingual cities in the US. This reality, coupled with fears expressed by Anglos about the "Mexican Invasion" in the SW, especially California, is already the subject of debate about the future American society by the rights of groups and individuals and the long dominant majority culture.