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Vedic Culture
 

Vedic Culture

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Information about vedic culture from Sudarshan Jadhav

Information about vedic culture from Sudarshan Jadhav

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    Vedic Culture Vedic Culture Presentation Transcript

    • Vedic Culture Kunal . M Rahul . T Ayush. M Sumeet . R Sudar shan. J Sour abh. G Pr at hamesh. G Vi vek. K Nayan. M Deepak. D Tushar . W
    • Introduction to vedic culture Dur i ng t he l ast phase of I ndus. Ci vi l i zat i on Ar yan l anguage ar r i ved i n I ndi a i n t r i bes f r omnor t h west of I ndi a. Vedi c cul t ur e ar e set by t hese Tr i bl es. The f i r st Phase of Vedic period is “Rug- veda”. These phase i n bet ween 1500 BC t o 1000 BC. And The second phase i n bet ween 1000 BC t o 600 BC. The peopl e who l i ve i n Vedi c cul t ur e ar e known as t he Ar yans. The Vedi c l i t er at ur e i s Anci ent and i t has Var i t i es. Thi s Li t er at ur e Ri veal s t he l i f e of Ar yan…
    • Aryans Settlement The Ar yans came t o I ndi a i n sever al waves. The ear l i est wave i s r epr esent ed by t he Ri g Vedi c peopl e who appear ed i n t he subcont i nent i n about 1500 BC. They came i nt o conf l i ct wi t h t he i ndi genous i nhabi t ant s cal l ed t he Dr avi di ans ment i oned as dasa or dasyus i n Ri g Veda. The Ri g Veda ment i ons t he def eat of Sambar a by Di vodasa, who bel onged t o t he Bhar at a cl an. Possi bl y t he dasyus i n t he Ri g Veda r epr esent t he or i gi nal i nhabi t ant s of t he count r y, and an Ar yan chi ef who over power ed t hemwas cal l ed Tr asadvasyu. The Ar yan chi ef was sof t t owar ds t he dasas, but st r ongl y host i l e t o t he dasyus. The t er mdasyuhat ya , sl aught er of t he dasyus, i s r epeat edl y ment i oned i n t he Ri g Veda.
    • I ndo-Aryan mi grat i on i s a t heor y based pr i mar i l y on l i ngui st i cs and t he Kur gan hypot hesi s whi ch suggest s t hat t he pr ot o- I ndo-Ar yanpeopl e of Sout h Asi a wer e set t l ers f r omCent r al Asi a who mi gr at ed t o nor t her n par t of t he I ndi an subcont i nent mor e t han t wo mi l l enni a ago. Model s of t hi s t heor y di scuss scenar i os of pr ehi st or i c mi gr at i ons of I ndo-Ar yans t o t hei r hi st or i cal l y at t est ed ar eas of set t l ement i n t he nor t hwest of t he I ndi an subcont i nent , post ul at ed t o have st ar t ed ar ound 1500 BC. Cl ai ms of mi gr at i on ar e dr awn pr i mar i l y f r oml i ngui st i c r esear ch. Accor di ng t o Shaf f er , ar chaeol ogi cal evi dence f or a mass popul at i on movement , or an i nvasi on of Sout h Asi a i n t he pr e- or pr ot o- hi st or i c per i ods, has not been f ound. At best , t her e i s evi dence of smal l -scal e mi gr at i ons appr oachi ng Sout h Asi a. Ar chaeol ogi cal evi dence suggest s t hat t he change f r omt he I ndus Val l ey ci vi l i zat i on t o Vedi c ci vi l i zat i on coul d have been a gr adual cul t ur al change. Kal pasut r a not es t hat Pur ur avas had t wo sons by Ur vasi , named Ayus and Amavasu, Ayus went east and Amavasu went west .
    • I t has been pr oposed by some schol ar s t hat t he I ndo- Ar yan l anguage der i ves f r oman ear l i er Pr ot o-I ndo- I r ani an st age, usual l y i dent i f i ed wi t h t he Br onze Age Si nt asht a and Andr onovo cul t ur e nor t heast of t he Caspi an Sea. Mi gr at i on of Pr ot o-I ndo-I r ani an speaker s t o and wi t hi n Nor t hwest er n par t s of Sout h Asi a i s consequent l y pr esumed t o have t aken pl ace i n t he Mi ddl e t o Lat e Br onze Age, cont empor ar y t o t he Lat e Har appan phase 1700 t o 1300 BCE. Li ngui st i cs has been t he pr i mar y basi s of Ar yan I mmi gr at i on t heor i es; no evi dence of massi ve mi gr at i on has been f ound t hr ough exami nat i on of skel et al r emai ns. The anci ent Har appans wer e not mar kedl y di f f er ent f r om moder n popul at i ons i n Nor t hwest er n I ndi a and pr esent -day Paki st an. Cr ani omet r i c dat a showed si mi l ar i t y wi t h pr ehi st or i c peopl es of t he I r ani an pl at eau and West er n Asi a, al t hough Mohenj odar o was di st i nct f r omt he ot her ar eas of t he I ndus Val l ey.
    • • The Ri gveda, cont ai ni ng hymns t o be r eci t ed by t he hot ar , or pr esi di ng pr i est ; • The Yaj ur veda, cont ai ni ng f or mul as t o be r eci t ed by t he adhvar yu or of f i ci at i ng pr i est ; • The Samaveda, cont ai ni ng f or mul as t o be sung by t he udgat ar or pr i est t hat chant s; • The f our t h i s t he At har vaveda, a col l ect i on of spel l s and i ncant at i ons, apot r opai c char ms and specul at i ve hymns.
    • Rug Veda
    • The Rig veda has a collection of 10472 riks (mantras)with valakhilya sookta comprising of 80 mantras.this is the oldest form of knowledge in the world today.The Riks are the collection of lyrics in praise of different Gods ,recited by the priests known as HOTA.Special exphasis is laid on soul’s awakening,It has universal appeal:” Let all men meet and think as with one mind.Let all hearts unite in Love.Let the goal be common.May all live in happiness with common purpose”SageRishi Paila has composed this veda under the instructions of Bhagavan Vyasa. Vedics who have mastered Rig veda tatva ,HOTAS can perform yagas and homas. Rig veda comprises of the following divisions. Brahmana Aranyaka Samhita With two shakas one in Bhaskala and another in Bhaskala shaka.
    • I n or der t o gi ve a pr act i cal shape t o t he mat r as and hyms appear i ng i n t he Ri g vedas ,i n t he f or mof yagna wor shi p and pr ocedur al det ai l s ar e pr escr i bed f or t he per f or mance of di f f er ent yagnas wi t h i t s many br anches.The mai n component s ar e kr i shna yaj ur veda and shukl a yaj ur veda. Gl or y of yaj ur veda l i es i n t he good pr esent at i on of vedi c kar mas and r i t ual s. Yagnas l i ke Dar sapoor namasa,somayaga,vaaj apeya,asvamedha et c, ar e per f omed wi t h r el i gi ous i nt ensi t y and pur i t y. The Sage Vai shampayana i s be;i eved t o have compl i ed t hi s veda under t he gui dance of Bhagawan veda vyasa.The pr i est who per f or ms t hese yagas ar e known as ADVARU. Vedi cs who have mast er ed yaj ur vedas, Bhr amhat at va ,ADVARU can per f or myagas and homas.
    • Yajur Veda
    • I n or der t o gi ve a pr act i cal shape t o t he mat r as and hyms appear i ng i n t he Ri g vedas, i n t he f or mof yagna wor shi p and pr ocedur al det ai l s ar e pr escr i bed f or t he per f or mance of di f f er ent yagnas wi t h i t s many br anches. The mai n component s ar e kr i shna yaj ur veda and shukl a yaj ur veda. Gl or y of yaj ur veda l i es i n t he good pr esent at i on of vedi c kar mas and r i t ual s.Yagnas l i ke Dar sapoor namasa, somayaga, vaaj apeya, asvamedha et c, ar e per f omed wi t h r el i gi ous i nt ensi t y and pur i t y. The Sage Vai shampayana i s be;i eved t o have compl i ed t hi s veda under t he gui dance of Bhagawan veda vyasa.The pr i est who per f or ms t hese yagas ar e known as Advar u. Vedi cs who have mast er ed yaj ur vedas, Bhr amhat at va, ADVARU can per f or myagas and homas.
    • Sam Veda
    • Sama br i ngs peace of mi nd t o t he human bei ngs, To sear ch f or happi ness i s t he et er nal goal f or manki ng.Thi s veda i s pr eachi ng mant r as f r omr i g veda They ar e set t o musi c maki ng i t ver y conduci ve t o spi r i t ual devel opment and pr ogr essi ve el ovl ut i on of t he sel f and t he gr ace of gods. Lor d kr i shna i n Bhagawadgeet a had decl ar ed t hat Samma veda i s t he f or emost among vedas. Saama Gaana can be sai d t o be t he f or most and basi s cumsour ce f or t he seven swar asor not es whi ch ar e t he f undament al pi l l ar st one f or t he i ndi an musi c. Ri shi j ai mi ni was t he achar ya i mpar i ng t he essence of Sama veda .Pr i est s who si ng t hese mant r as dur i ng homas ar e cal l ed as UDGHATAS. Vedi cs who have mast er ed samaveda UDGHATAS can per f or m yagas and homas.
    • Atharva Veda
    • The Ri shi s At har vas had bl ossomed t he mant r as i n t he At har va vedas. Thi s veda cont ai ns many t ypes of mant r as whi ch war d of f evi l deeds, har dshi ps and dest r oys enemi es.Ther e ar e cer t ai n ver ses i n At har va vedas whi ch do not f i nd a pl ace i n any ot her vedas. The Achar ya Sumant hu deci pl e of Bhagawan Vyasa had mast er ed t hi s veda.Al l t he vedas have t he common goal ;t o ensur e t he wel l bei ng of t hi s uni ver se and t o hel p ever y one t owar ds spi r i t ual pr ogr ess i n l i f e. Vedi cs who have mast er ed At har vana vedas, Bhr amhat at va can per f or myagas and homas.
    • Aryans Rule Administration The ar yans l i ve i n t r i bes. They l ef t i n t r i bl e t hey set t l ed t hemsel ves i n t he f er t i l e val l eys of sapt asi ndhu, ganga, yamuna wi t h abudant wat er t he ot her suppl i ment ar y means f or cat l e br eedi ng and f ar mi ng at t r act ed t owar ds St abi l i t y i n l i f e. At t he begi nni ng t he ar yans had t o f i ght wi t h t he non ar yans and al so t he anot her t r i bes of ar yans f or t he l i f e st ock.
    • The ar yan i nst i t ut i on of f ami l y gave bi r t h t o monar chy. Many Fami l i es gave came t ogeat her t o f or m A vi l l age. ‘Vi sh’ Was a gr oup of many vi l l ages. Var i ous ‘Vi sh’ f or mt he ‘Jan’ means st at e ; The chi ef of t he st at e was cal l ed as r aj an or ki ng. The peopl e used t o sel ect mi ght y or depl omat i on per son as t hei r ki ng. The ki ng had t o t ake an oat h of hi s l oyal i t y f or t he st at e. Hi s f i r st dut y was t o pr ot ect hi s peopl e f r omt he out si de t r i bes. The unf ai t hf ul ki ng was det hr oned or ki l l ed. Ther e wer e t wo i nst i t ut i ons ‘Sabha’ and ‘Sami t i ’. These I nst i t ut i ons became i nsi gni f i ci ant i n l at er vedi c per i od and t he ki ng shi p became her edi at er y.
    • Aryans Economical Life The Ar yans i n t he l at er Vedi c per i od had pr ogr essed and pr osper ed economi cal l y. Agr i cul t ur e was t he chi ef means of l i vel i hood of t he l at er Vedi c peopl e. The Ar yans had come t o know about i r on but ver y f ew agr i cul t ur al t ool s made of i r on have been f ound. Heavy pl oughs wer e made f r omi t . Vedi c t ext s r ef er t hat 24 oxen wer e used t o dr ag heavy and l ar ge pl oughs. Dur i ng t hi s t i me r i ce and wheat became t hei r chi ef cr ops. Ot her agr i cul t ur al pr oduct s wer e bar l ey, cot t on and var i ous pul ses. I n Vedi c t ext s r i ce i s al so cal l ed as Vr i hi . Cat t l e r ear i ng was second i mpor t ant occupat i on of t he Ar yans. They domest i cat ed camel , cow, ox, el ephant , sheep, hor se, goat , donkey and dog. The number of ani mal s r epr esent ed t he Dur i ng t hi s per i od cow-wor shi p i ncr eased and sl aught er of cow was pr ohi bi t ed.
    • Var i ous ar t s and cr af t devel oped dur i ng t hi s per i od. Weavi ng was done by women onl y but on a wi de scal e. The peopl e wer e acquai nt ed wi t h f our t ypes of pot t er y -bl ack and r ed war e, bl ack sl i pped war e, pai nt ed gr ey war e and r ed war e. Ot her occupat i ons of t he Ar yans wer e t he gol dsmi t h, l eat her wor k, t he car pent er , bl acksmi t h et c. Bot h i nt er nal and f or ei gn t r ade had pr ogr essed. The Vedi c t ext s r ef er t o sea and sea voyages. Thi s shows t hat now sea-bor ne t r ade was car r i ed on by t he Ar yans. Money l endi ng was a f l our i shi ng busi ness. The r ef er ences t o t he wor d Sr esht hi n i ndi cat es t hat t her e wer e r i ch t r ader s and pr obabl y t hey wer e or gani zed i nt o gui l ds. The Ar yans di d not use coi ns but speci f i c wei ght s of gol d wer e used f or pur poses of a gol d cur r ency- Sat amana, Ni shka, Kosambhi , Hast i napur , Kashi and Vi deha wer e r egar ded as r enowned t r ade cent r es. Bul l ock car t s wer e used t o car r y goods on l and. For f or ei gn t r ade boat s and shi ps wer e used. They st ar t ed usi ng coi ns – ni shka as cur r ency f or exchange.
    • Aryans Social Iife Fami l y ---- Fami l y was t he nucl eus of t he soci al l i f e of Vedi c Ar yans. The Ar yans wander i ng i n sear ch of habi t at and gr een past ur es f i nal l y set t l ed down t o t he houses t hey bui l t . The f ami l y was pat r i ar chal , t he f at her or t he el dest mal e member bei ng t he head of t he f ami l y. He was known as ‘Kul apa', 'Kul apat i ‘, or 'Gr ahapat i '.
    • House --- The Ar yans bui l t houses made of cl ay, bamboo and wood- .Each house was cover ed wi t h a t hat ched r oof . Each house had a ki t chen, meant f or r i t ual s, wor shi p and cooki ng. A dr awi ng r oom, dr essi ng r oomf or l adi es and r oomf or t he head of t he f ami l y wer e bui l t i nt o ever y house. Each f ami l y had i t s own house. Each vi l l age housed ni nny f ami l i es. The Vedi c cul t ur e was t he epi t ome, of anci ent r ur al cul t ur e.
    • Food and Dr i nk --- The Ar yans had si mpl e f ood- habi t s. They l i ved on cakes made of wheat and mai ze. Var i ous f r ui t s, mi l k and mi l k pr oduct s l i ke cur d, cheese and ghee wer e t hei r mai n f ood. They al so at e t he meat t hose cal f , goat and l amb whi ch wer e sacr i f i ced at t he Hanj a was st r i ct l y exempt ed f r omsl aught er . They dr ank wat er f r omr i ver , st r eam and wel l . They dr ank 'Samar as', t he i nt oxi cant j ui ce of soma t r ee. Thi s dr i nk was sacr ed. Thi s dr i nk was t aken af t er i t was of f er ed i n t he r i t ual s of Yaj na.
    • Educat i on --- The Ar yans of t he Ri g-Vedi c age at t ached a l ot of i mpor t ance t o educat i on. The di sci pl e woul d get educat i on i n t he Gur t i kul a af t er hi s sacr ed t hr ead cer emony. Educat i on was t he t eacher 's or al t eachi ng. The t eacher (Zachar y) woul d r eci t e t he Vedi c hymns. The pupi l s woul d r emember i t t hr ough r e- r eci t at i on. The f i f t h 'Si t ka' of Ri g-Veda r esembl es t he Gur u Kul a wi t h t he cr oaki ng f r ogs. The Vedi c educat i on ai med t o shar pen t he knowl edge of t he st udent s and bui l d up t hei r char act er . Educat i on of t he ' days was basi cal l y r el i gi ous. The pupi l s wer e al so t aught about Et hi cs, ar t of war f ar e, ar t of met al s, t he concept of Br ahma and phi l osophy, as wel l as about basi c sci ences l i ke agr i cul t ur e, ani mal husbandr y and handi cr af t s. Thi s educat i on was i n hi gh publ i c est eemas i t had a speci al r ol e t o pl ay i n consol i dat i ng t he soci al syst em.
    • The Functions of Chaturvarna Thi s ar t i cl e i s not wr i t t en t o suppor t any f or mof cast e syst embut t o pr esent t he t r ut h behi nd i t i n f r ont of t he peopl e. Upon compl et i on of r eadi ng t hi s ar t i cl e, I assur e you t hat you wi l l have an i n-dept h knowl edge of t he cast e syst emand you wi l l come t o know t hat t hese ar e not Hi ndus act ual l y who ar e r esponsi bl e f or t he cur r ent f or mof cast e syst em, but i t i s t he l ack of t hat sci ent i f i c knowl edge whi ch have l ed t o t hi s st age.
    • Introduction to caste system: Cast e syst emi s a syst em, whi ch deci des a per son’s soci al st at us and t r ade by hi s/her bi r t h. I t i s i mpor t ant t o not e t hat Hi ndui smadvocat es Var nashr ama and not moder n cast e syst em, whi ch i s based upon t he cast e of t he f ami l y i n whi ch a par t i cul ar per son i s bor n.
    • The caste system is broadly divided into four categories: 1. Br ahmi n – Br ahmi n i s t he hi ghest -r ever ed soci et y i n Hi ndui smwho by bi r t h r i ght s can per f or mal l t he r i t ual s and become pr i est of a t empl e or do t eachi ng or schol ar l y j obs. 2. Kshat r i ya – The mai n j ob of Kshat r i aya i s t o pr ot ect t he soci et y f r omext er nal aggr essi ons and t o keep l aw and or der . Kshat r i ya i s t he second hi ghest -r ever ed communi t y but t hei r st at us i s t hat of bel ow Br hami ns.
    • 3. Vai shya – Vai shya i s t he t r adi ng communi t y. Thei r j ob i s t o t r ade. Thei r st at us i s t hat of bel ow Kshat r i ya. 4. Shudr a – Shudr as ar e consi der ed t o enj oy t he l owest st at us i n t he hi er ar chy of cast e. Thei r mai n j ob i nvol ves physi cal l abor such as cl eani ng, pot t er y, car pent r y, et c.
    • Ancient caste system i.e. Varnashrama or Chaturvarnya System: Var nashr ama was t he syst emwhi ch used t o r ecogni ze t he cer t ai n i ncl i nat i on of a per son t owar ds a par t i cul ar occupat i on and hel p hi mt o do t he j ob whi ch he wi l l be best sui t ed f or . I t was of no si gni f i cance i n whi ch f ami l y he was bor n. Ther e wer e no r est r i ct i ons on mar r i age bet ween t he per sons of t wo di f f er ent cast es.
    • Cast system during medieval period: The medi eval per i od was t he wor st per i od f or Hi ndui sm. I t was t hi s per i od onl y when t he cast es wer e di vi ded i nt o many subcast es. Mor eover , t he r egi onal i sm added new aspect s t o t he cast es. The above-ment i oned f our cat egor i es ar e f ur t her di vi ded i nt o subcat egor i es. For exampl e, I n Br ahmi ns, t her e ar e subcast es l i ke Chi t pavana Br ahmi ns, Deshast ha Br ahmi n, Kayast ha Br ahmi n, Vai shnava Br ahmi ns, Kokanast ha Br ahmi ns, and a l ot . When a baby i s bor n i n a Hi ndu f ami l y, he/she i s not onl y a Hi ndu but i s al so at t ached t o a par t i cul ar cast e and subcast e, whi ch hi s/her f ami l y i s f r om.
    • Aryans cultural life The wer e usi ng t he cot t on and wool en cl ot hes. They desi gned embr oi der y on t hei r cl ot hes. The women had deep f asci nat i on of or nament s and cosmet i cs. They wor e t he j ewel l r y made f r omgol d, si l ver , i vor y, neckl ace, gar l ands, et c The man al so wor e j ewel l r y. The neckl ace cal l ed ‘Ni shaka’ was ver y popul ar . Bot h man and women wer e al er t of t hei r hai r st yl e. They used t o beaut i f y t hemsel ves wi t h sent ed cosmet i c, sandal powder s, kaj al , mehandi , et c. The ar yans wer e i nt r est i ng i n danci ng, si ngi ng, pl ayi ng, games l i ke di ce, et c. Samveda means si ngi ng cont i nuousl y. The veena,mr udung,f l ut e,A conch and cymbal s Wer e t he chi ef musi cal i nst r ument s of t he ar yans. The vedi c ar yans par t i ci pat ed i n t he spor t s l i ke at hl et i cs.
    • Vedic religion The ear l y Ar yan wer e t he wor kshi pper s of t he nat ur e. And nat ur al f or ces. I n r ugveda t he uni ver se has been di vi ded i nt o t hr ee f or ces. Those ar e Ear t h, Space and Or pi t . Ther e wer e el even dei t es i n each gr oup 1) Dei t i es on ear t h : The ear t h, Fi r e, Br ahaspat i and somet c. 2) Dei t i es i n space : I ndr a, Rudr a, Var un (Rai n), Ai r (Mar ut ) et c. 3) Dei t i es i n t he or bi t : Sun, Usha, Vi shnu , Moon, et c
    • The chi ef Dei t i es Of t he ar yans ar e t he sun i ndr a, var un, usha (Femal e God) Rudr a. Thus var i ous nat ur al f or ces wer e wor shi pped by t he ar yans. The ar yans never wor shi pped t he i dol . They bel i eved i n r ul es of nat ur e and i t s cont r ol over t he uni ver se. The mor al or der of t he nat ur e was cal l ed ‘Rut a’. ‘Ekamsat ’ Was t he r el i gi ous pr i nci pl e of t he ar yan. I t empl i es t hat t he uni ver se i s not hi ng but a mani f est at i ons of t he one god who i s t he cr eat or of t he uni ver se. The di f f er ent ways of wor shi ppi ng t he dei t i es f i nal l y l ead t o t he one god. (Al mi ght y) t hese was t he chi ef pr i nci pl e of t he vedi c r el i gi on. The ar yans i deas r el i gi on devel oped t he r el i gi ous har mony i n t he soci et y.
    • Al mi ght y god i s a cr eat or of t he uni ver se. The Ar yans gave i mpor t ance t o r i t ual i n or der t o pl ease t he nat ur al f or ces and t o have t he bl essi ng of t he god. Ass t he f l ames of f i r e go up i n t he sky and di sappear , t he f i r e became t he god of obl at i on. The Ar yans of f er ed mi l k, but t er , f ood gr ai ns t o t he f i r e i n r i t ual s. They bel i eve t hat t he of f er i ngs woul d br i ng happi ness pr osper i t y good heal t h and pr ot ect i on f r omt he enemi es.
    • The Ri t es and r i t ual got an upper hand i n t he l et t er Vedi c per i od t he col ossus of t he Br ahmans who per f omed t he r i t ual was i ncr eased. The t r adi t i ons of sacr i f i ce of ani mal s began. Rel i gi ous act i vi t i es of r i t es and r i t ual s i ncr ease. Ther e was a r evol t agai nst al l t hi s. The cast syst empr oduce soci al i n equal i t y. The peopl es mor al i t y and good conduct di sappear ed. The gr eat phi l osopher l i ke char vack, kapi l advocat ed r at i onal i smand set f oundat i on of i deol ogy of soci al phi l osophy.