INFLUENCES AND THEORY OF THE 60’s AND 70’s Presented by:Shannon Tang, Alice Maryniuk, & Sophia Koo
“S OONER OR LATER , A PERSONGETS THE URGE TO CHANGETHINGS OR MAKE A BETTERWORLD . T HIS IS A CHANCE TO DOJUST THAT." -P RIME M INISTER L ESTER B. P EARSON
TABLE OF CONTENTS Influences of the 1960s-1970s Technology Theory and Practice Building a Theory Base of Adult Education Canadian Association for Adult Education 1972: Year of Affirmation for Adult Education References
I NFLUENCES OF THE 1960 S - 1970 S Economic Influences Political Influences Social Influences Sociocultural Influences Influential Events External Events Ideas and Concepts
E CONOMIC I NFLUENCES Low rate of employment in the 1960s. -Government spent a lot of money on housing grants, public works, regional aid, and vocational training. -Feb 1960- 500,000 Canadians looking for work but 800,000 collecting unemployment insurance. 8% of the population is unemployed. 1960’s inflation was controlled; industrial production was booming. From June 1961, the value of the Canadian dollar ($0.96) was dropping. In May, it declined to $0.92. -10% of population unemployed. This rate increased since 1960. -the value of money is unstable. Recession in 1970s.
P OLITICAL I NFLUENCES 1960s was characterized by a political shift to the left. -this refers to supporting social change in order to create a society with an egalitarian structure. -“individuals thought like Europeans and acted like Americans.” -partially influenced by Marxism. -Example of New Left groups: Student Union for Peace Action (SUPA) and Company of Young Canadians (CYC).
S OCIAL I NFLUENCES 1 1960s consisted of resentment about class struggles. -Ex. In Quebec (1964) women voiced their anger on how the status quo had confined them to specific areas of their female domain. Since 1976, the number of women in the paid labour force has risen. In 1976, 42% of women were employed. Young people had also rebelled about their job conditions. -Ex. Many workers engaged in protests where they walked off their jobs. Wildcat strikes were also popular and spontaneous and were more likely to be about working class grievances.
S OCIAL I NFLUENCES 2 1960s: Majority of working class youth had an ‘us vs. them’ mentality about ‘their generation.’ -they resented adults. -they had resentments about authority, the domestic, and workplaces. The state had difficulty trying to maintain these struggles. -their generation focused on music, drugs, sex, and fashion.
S OCIAL I NFLUENCES 3 From 1961-1975, the numbers of youth participating in wage labour rose dramatically. -more youth in working class. -larger percentage of entire workforce. -males more likely to enter workforce. Only 11% of Canadians aged 18 to 24 were enrolled in University in 1965. Since the 1970s, the number of women earning university degrees has increased.
S OCIOCULTURAL I NFLUENCES 1 1960s-1980s: Sexual revolution/liberation -more acceptance of sex and homosexuality -since 1975, attitudes towards non-marital sex has become more liberal -introduction of female controlled contraceptives (ex. the pill). -changes in fashion (ex. mini-skirts). -altered ideas, norms, behaviours of Canadians.
S OCIOCULTURAL I NFLUENCES 2 1960s commercialization of the teenager: -growth of new sectors of mass consumption such as entertainment, leisure, fashion, and education. -due to prolonged baby boom (1946-1964). -showed that the youth were an important part of capitalist production. -not everyone approved of this. -youths discovered their identity through juvenile delinquency and aggression. This shows the ‘immorality’ of teens. - the rate of youth crimes was not properly documented. This is due to inadequate recording of data and how the exact definition of crime was undefined.
I NFLUENTIAL E VENTS 1960s Quiet Revolution: the government established control over education and social services and promoted more Francophone control over the Anglophone-dominated economy. -Promoted ultra-nationalism in Quebec 1970s Quebec: the kidnapping of Pierre Laporte (Quebec Minister) and James Cross and the invoking of the War Measures Act were important events. -the kidnappings were used to address the struggles for national liberation. -After Laporte was found dead, this incident further intensified the tensions between Canada and Quebec. This influenced how the Quebeckers had perceived the CYC in their province.
E XTERNAL E VENTS The Civil Rights Movement in the United States -1960s: Young Americans also rebelled against the state, universities, and the US armed forces during the Vietnam War. -Supreme Court begins to make rulings regarding the desegregation of black Americans -1960: John F. Kennedy’s speeches refer to the dawning of a new era. His idea of the Peace Corps inspired the creation of the CYC during the Pearson regime. -Civil Rights Bill: Allowed the federal government to cut off federal funding to any program that practiced discrimination.
I DEAS AND C ONCEPTS Humans are both autonomous and interdependent -individuals are interested in their own welfare and they must adapt to situations to the best of their ability. -decisions that individuals make in coping with their circumstances affects the welfare of themselves and others
T ECHNOLOGY Automobile - dramatic effect on youth culture. - provided a means for suburban and rural youth to travel to central cities. -created a kind of portable "private space" that enhanced courtship, sex, drinking, and listening to the radio.
T ECHNOLOGY Television -introduced in the 1950s. -T.V.s became more common in the 60’s -brought events such as the American civil rights movement home to Canada. -influenced young radicals -The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and smaller, private television stations flourished.
D ISCIPLINES AFFECTING L EARNING T HEORY AND P RACTICE Strong impact of Scholarly Disciplines and university graduate instruction on Learning Theory and Practice in the 1960s. - “System of community colleges and other post-secondary institutions was created, expanding educational opportunities at the local and regional level ( Habdas, n.d.).” -In 1970: 130 colleges and institutions across Alberta, BC, Ontario, and Quebec. -technical and vocational training is funded by the federal government. Prior to the 1960’s Adult Education was heavily influenced by the social sciences of sociology, anthropology, history, and psychology. However, more research has been made since the 1960’s about Adult Education as a discipline.
B UILDING A T HEORY B ASE OF A DULT E DUCATION Information, research data, and theory during the 1960s and 1970s was strongly related to adult learning and psychology. usable survey instruments and prediction scales for studying the adult education student were developed. group and individual differences in participants were examined. -Researchers studied the variables that led to the participation and dropping out of adult education.
I NDIVIDUALS WHO PARTICIPATE IN A DULT E DUCATION ARE : Younger. Higher educated and highly motivated to learn. Members of more organizations. Positive in their attitudes toward education and the educational agency. Middle class. Urban residents with easy access to education. Involved with broad and diverse leisure activities. Highly skilled in social relationships. Oriented in terms of a personal role of service to others.
O BSTACLES TO PARTICIPATION I N A DULT E DUCATION Not wanting to go out in the evening. Not enough time. Financial limitations. Home and job responsibilities. Lack of energy or health problems. Perception of being too old to learn. Transportation limitations. Child care problems.
I NDIVIDUALS WHO DROP OUT OF A DULT E DUCATION ARE : Less intelligent and have lower reading abilities. Experienced less success in past learning efforts and in adult education Less educated. Had less success in work experiences. Been out of school longer. To rely on public transportation to attend adult education activities. Enrolled because of an educational or vocational deficiency. A lower status job and lower income. Been fairly inactive in community affairs. Been less permanent in a community and at a residence. Been more dissatisfied with the class and the teacher.
These sources of information revealed several things about the field of adult education: The barriers to participation can be decreased by offering formal adult education classes in neighbourhood schools or community college buildings or even homes. These barriers can also be decreased by providing independent study opportunities, financial assistance, and daytime courses.
T HE C ANADIAN A SSOCIATION FOR A DULT E DUCATION During the 1960’s, the extent of illiteracy and under education in Canada was realized through the 1961 census. -Adult basic education was federally funded in 1960. -The federal government’s share of the cost of post secondary education rose from 23% in 1960 to 46% by 1969 (Selman, 1995).
In the 1960’s, community development had also brought social change and the quality of individual and community life was also improved. Alan Thomas differentiates ‘adult learning’ from ‘adult education.’ -Learning occurs everywhere, not just in institutions. -Education facilitates learning.
1972: Y EAR OF A FFIRMATION FOR A DULT E DUCATION There were 3 major reports: -A Choice of Futures (Ontario) -The Learning Society (Alberta) -United Nations Educational Scientific Cultural Organization (UNESCO) published its report on the International Commission of the Development of Education.
All three of the reports promoted the concept of lifelong learning. -education is life wide. -replaces the traditional view that education should be termed in educational institutions. -education includes the social and cultural aspects of society.
R EFERENCES Die. (n.d.). International Adult Education as a Discipline of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.diezeitschrift.de/299/bron99_01.htm Dominique Clément. (n.d.). The Sixties. Retrieved from http://www.historyofrights.com/sixties.html Habdas, M. (n.d.). Canadian Adult Education History in a Nutshell. Retrieved from http://www.digitalschool.net/edu/ucfv/360_history.html Hiemstra, R. (n.d.). Lifelong Learning Chapter Seven. Retrieved from http://www-distance.syr.edu/lllch7.html Kidd, J. R. (1979). Some Preliminary Notes Concerning an Enquiry into the Heritage of Canadian Adult Education. Vancouver: Centre for Continuing Education.
R EFERENCES Palmer, B. (2009). Canada’s 1960s: The Ironies of Identity in a Rebellious Era. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Roberts, L. W., Clifton, R.A., Ferguson, B., Kampen, K., et al. (2005). Recent Social Trends in Canada 1960-2000. Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Selman, G. (1995). Adult Education in Canada: Historical Essays. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. The Gale Group, Inc. (2008). Youth Culture- Youth Culture Before the Modern Period- Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood. Retrieved from http://www.faqs.org/childhood/Wh-Z-and-other- topics/Youth-Culture.html