In the section A, you will be asked to watch a 4 – 5 minute clip of a TV drama. You’ll be asked to
create a textual analysis to discuss how it constructs a representation of one of the following;
.Class and status
This will be done by using;
.Camera shots, Angle, Movement and Composition
.Establishing shot: An establishing shot can go by the name of an extreme long shot. This shot is usually the first shot of a
new scene because it is designed to show the audience where the action will take place. This shot is also usually taken as
a very wide shot or an extreme wide shot.
.Master shot: A shot where the limit of action is shown.
.Over the shoulder shot: A over the shoulder shot is framed behind the persons shoulder, to over look it to the subject in
front. This shot is used to give the audience a feel of what the subjects reaction is. This shot is mostly used in
conversations as it can link in with the shot reverse shot to swap between subjects. The camera will always stay on the
same side of both subjects.
.Close up shot: A close up shot is a shot which is close up to the subjects face or object. Close up shots are used to show
details such as expressions on a subjects face but can also be used as a cut in. This shot tends to always follow 'over the
.Extreme close up shot: This shot will be based upon the object or Characters face, to show more detail after a lead up.
This would direct the audiences attention to create an emotional reaction. This shot will only be used for a few seconds.
.Medium close up shot: This shot will be based on the characters chest and upwards to the head.
.Medium shot: This shot is will be based on the characters waist and upwards to the head.
.Long shot: This shot will show the character from head to toe.
.Tracking shot: This shot is where the camera will follow the subject in their movement.
.Tilt shot: This shot is shown when the camera moves up and down on a vertical axis.
.Pan shot: This shot is shown when the camera moves left to right on the horizontal axis.
.High angle: The high angle shot is always above eye level, with the camera shooting down on
.Low angle: The low angle shot is when the camera is positioned below eye level, shooting up
at the subject.
.Canted angle: The canted angle is where the camera is placed on its horizontal plane to
produce a slightly unstable picture.
.Subjective angle: The subjective angle is where the camera is placed in front of the character,
to show the audience the characters point of view
Pan: The pan movement is when the camera moves left to right on the horizontal axis.
Tilt: The tilt movement is when the camera moves up and down on the vertical axis.
Track: The track movement is when the camera is moved sideways, parallel to the subject.
Dolly: The dolly movement is when the camera is moved towards or away from the subject.
Crane: The crane movement is when the camera is mounted upon a crane to give an establishing shot
at a high angle, it can also be used to on a dolly movement so the camera is able to move and sweep
across the scene.
Steadicam: The Steadicam movement is when the camera is attached to the cameraman himself, this
can keep the camera steady while the camera man would follow the subject but only show the subject
from the distance at an higher level.
Handheld: The handheld movement is when the cameraman would film the scene by using a handheld
camera. This is only used to give the audience a feel of reality.
Zoom: The zoom movement is when the camera will show the movement when the scene would
become closer to the audience.
Zoom out: The zoom out movement is when the camera will show the movement when the scene would
become further away from the audience.
Framing: The framing is the shot in which is placed to show the scene.
Rule of thirds: Rule of thirds is when the frame is divided into nine imaginary sections. This
creates reference points which act as guides from framing the image.
Depth of field – Deep focus: A deep depth of field focus, keeps everything in the scene in
focus including objects and people.
- Shallow focus: A shallow depth of field focus, only focuses on the individual
object or person and creates the rest of the background to go out of focus.
Focus Pulls: The focus pull is when the camera changes the focus between one object to the
other for the audience.
Transition of image and sound - Continuity: When each clip relates to each other to keep a
basic story flowing.
- Non – continuity: When two different clips do not relate with
each other to create a less mainstream shot. The story can then be shown later in film.
Cutting: shot/reverse shot, eye line match, graphic match, action match, jump
cut, crosscutting, parallel editing, cutaway; insert.
Other transitions, dissolve, fade-in, fade-out, wipe, superimposition, long take, short
take, slow motion, ellipsis and expansion of time, post-production, visual effects.
Diegetic sound: A sound which is played on or off screen which relates with the story.
Non-diegetic sound: A sound which is played on screen which does not occur with the story.
E.g. Narrator speaking or mood music.
Synchronous sound: A sound which occurs with the action on the screen.
Asynchronous sound: A sound which occurs off screen.
Other sounds used are sound effects; sound motif, sound bridge, dialogue, voiceover, mode
of address/direct address, sound mixing, sound perspective.
Also used are Soundtrack: score, incidental music, themes and stings, ambient sound.
Production design: location, studio, set design, costume and make-up, properties.
Lighting; colour design.