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Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection
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Dessler ch 08-employee testing and selection

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  • 1. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama 1 Human Resource Management ELEVENTH EDITION G A R Y D E S S L E R www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Training and Developing Employees Chapter 8 Part 3 | Training and Development
  • 2. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–2 After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe the basic training process. 2. Describe and illustrate how you would go about identifying training requirements. 3. Explain how to distinguish between problems you can fix with training and those you can’t. 4. Explain how to use five training techniques.
  • 3. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–3 Purpose of Orientation Feel Welcome and At Ease Begin the Socialization Process Understand the Organization Know What Is Expected in Work and Behavior Orientation Helps New Employees
  • 4. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–4 The Orientation Process Company Organization and Operations Safety Measures and Regulations Facilities Tour Employee Orientation Employee Benefit Information Personnel Policies Daily Routine
  • 5. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–5 FIGURE 8–1 New Employee Departmental Orientation Checklist Source: UCSDHealthcare. Used with permission.
  • 6. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–6 The Training Process • Training  The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. • Training’s Strategic Context  The firm’s training programs must make sense in terms of the company’s strategic goals. • Performance Management  Taking an integrated, goal-oriented approach to assigning, training, assessing, and rewarding employees’ performance.
  • 7. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–7 The Training Process (cont’d) 1 2 3 4 5 The Five-Step Training and Development Process Instructional design Needs analysis Validation Implement the program Evaluation
  • 8. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–8 Training, Learning, and Motivation • Make the Learning Meaningful 1. At the start of training, provide a bird’s-eye view of the material to be presented to facilitate learning. 2. Use a variety of familiar examples. 3. Organize the information so you can present it logically, and in meaningful units. 4. Use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees. 5. Use as many visual aids as possible.
  • 9. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–9 Training, Learning, and Motivation (cont’d) • Make Skills Transfer Easy 1. Maximize the similarity between the training situation and the work situation. 2. Provide adequate practice. 3. Label or identify each feature of the machine and/or step in the process. 4. Direct the trainees’ attention to important aspects of the job. 5. Provide “heads-up,” preparatory information that lets trainees know what might happen back on the job.
  • 10. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–10 Motivation Principles for Trainers • People learn best by doing—provide as much realistic practice as possible. • Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately reinforce correct responses. • Trainees learn best at their own pace. • Create a perceived training need in the trainees’ minds. • The schedule is important—the learning curve goes down late in the day; less than full day training is most effective.
  • 11. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–11 Analyzing Training Needs Task Analysis: Assessing New Employees’ Training Needs Performance Analysis: Assessing Current Employees’ Training Needs Training Needs Analysis
  • 12. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–12 TABLE 8–1 Task Analysis Record Form Note: Task analysis record form showing some of the tasks and subtasks performed by a printing press operator.
  • 13. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–13 Assessing Current Employees’ Training Needs Performance Appraisals Job-Related Performance Data Observations Interviews Assessment Center Results Individual Diaries Attitude Surveys Tests Methods for Identifying Training Needs
  • 14. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–14 Training Methods • On-the-Job Training • Apprenticeship Training • Informal Learning • Job Instruction Training • Lectures • Programmed Learning • Audiovisual Training • Simulated Training (also Vestibule Training) • Computer-Based Training (CBT) • Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) • Distance and Internet-Based Training
  • 15. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–15 Training Methods (cont’d) • On-the-Job Training (OJT)  Having a person learn a job by actually doing the job. • Types of On-the-Job Training  Coaching or understudy  Job rotation  Special assignments • Advantages  Inexpensive  Learn by doing  Immediate feedback
  • 16. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–16 On-the-Job Training 1 Follow Up Present the Operation Steps to Help Ensure OJT Success Prepare the Learner Do a Tryout 2 3 4
  • 17. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–17 FIGURE 8–2 The 25 Most Popular Apprenticeships* According to the U.S. Department of Labor apprenticeship database, the occupations listed below had the highest numbers of apprentices in 2001. These findings are approximate because the database includes only about 70% of registered apprenticeship programs—and none of the unregistered ones. • Boilermaker • Bricklayer (construction) • Carpenter • Construction craft laborer • Cook (any industry) • Cook (hotel and restaurant) • Correction officer • Electrician • Electrician (aircraft) • Electrician (maintenance) • Electronics mechanic • Firefighter • Machinist • Maintenance mechanic (any industry) • Millwright • Operating engineer • Painter (construction) • Pipefitter (construction) • Plumber • Power plant operator • Roofer • Sheet-metal worker • Structural-steel worker • Telecommunications technician • Tool and die maker * Listed alphabetically Source: Olivia Crosby, “Apprenticeships,” Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 46, no. 2 (Summer 2002), p. 5.
  • 18. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–18 Training Methods (cont’d) • Effective Lectures  Don’t start out on the wrong foot.  Give listeners signals.  Be alert to your audience.  Maintain eye contact with audience.  Make sure everyone in the room can hear.  Control your hands.  Talk from notes rather than from a script.  Break a long talk into a series of five-minute talks.  Practice and rehearse your presentation.
  • 19. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–19 Programmed Learning • Advantages  Reduced training time  Self-paced learning  Immediate feedback  Reduced risk of error for learner Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner Allowing the person to respond Providing feedback on the accuracy of answers
  • 20. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–20 TABLE 8–2 Names of Various Computer-Based Training Techniques PI Computer-based programmed instruction CBT Computer-based training CMI Computer-managed instruction ICAI Intelligent computer-assisted instruction ITS Intelligent tutoring systems Simulation Computer simulation Virtual Reality Advanced form of computer simulation Source: P. Nick Blanchard and James Thacker, Effective Training: Systems, Strategies, and Practices (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2003), p. 144.
  • 21. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–21 Computer-Based Training (CBT) • Advantages  Reduced learning time  Cost-effectiveness  Instructional consistency • Types of CBT  Interactive multimedia training  Virtual reality training
  • 22. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–22 Distance and Internet-Based Training Teletraining Videoconferencing Internet-Based Training E-Learning and Learning Portals Distance Learning Methods
  • 23. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–23 FIGURE 8–3 IM Learning Incident Source: Joshua Bronstein and Amy Newman, “IM 4 Learning,” Training and Development, February 2006, p. 48.
  • 24. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–24 Literacy Training Techniques Testing job candidates for basic skills Instituting basic skills and literacy programs Employer Responses to Functional Illiteracy
  • 25. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–25 Management Development Assessing the company’s strategic needs Developing the managers and future managers Long-Term Focus of Management Development Appraising managers’ current performance
  • 26. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–26 Succession Planning 1 Begin management development Review firm’s management skills inventory Steps in the Succession Planning Process Anticipate management needs Create replacement charts 2 3 4
  • 27. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–27 Management Development (cont’d) Job Rotation Action Learning Managerial On-the-Job Training Coaching/ Understudy Approach
  • 28. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–28 Management Development (cont’d) University-Related Programs Management Games Off-the-Job Management Training and Development Techniques The Case Study Method Outside Seminars Executive Coaches Behavior Modeling Role Playing Corporate Universities
  • 29. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–29 Managing Organizational Change and Development Strategy TechnologiesCulture What to Change Structure Employees
  • 30. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–30 Managing Organizational Change and Development (cont’d) Overcoming resistance to change Effectively using organizational development practices The Human Resource Manager’s Role Organizing and leading organizational change
  • 31. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–31 Managing Organizational Change and Development (cont’d) 1 Moving Overcoming Resistance to Change: Lewin’s Change Process Unfreezing Refreezing 2 3
  • 32. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–32 How to Lead the Change • Unfreezing Phase  Establish a sense of urgency (need for change).  Mobilize commitment to solving problems. • Moving Phase  Create a guiding coalition.  Develop and communicate a shared vision.  Help employees to make the change.  Consolidate gains and produce more change. • Refreezing Phase  Reinforce new ways of doing things.  Monitor and assess progress.
  • 33. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–33 FIGURE 8–4 Typical Role in a Role-Playing Exercise Source: Normal R. F. Maier and Gertrude Casselman Verser, Psychology in Industrial Organizations, 5th ed., p. 190. © 1982 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Used by permission of the publishers. Walt Marshall—Supervisor of Repair Crew You are the head of a crew of telephone maintenance workers, each of whom drives a small service truck to and from the various jobs. Every so often you get a new truck to exchange for an old one, and you have the problem of deciding which of your crew members you should give the new truck. Often there are hard feelings, since each seems to feel entitled to the new truck, so you have a tough time being fair. As a matter of fact, it usually turns out that whatever you decide is considered wrong by most of the crew. You now have to face the issue again because a new truck, a Chevrolet, has just been allocated to you for assignment. In order to handle this problem you have decided to put the decision up to the crew. You will tell them about the new truck and will put the problem in terms of what would be the fairest way to assign the truck. Do not take a position yourself, because you want to do what they think is most fair.
  • 34. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–34 Using Organizational Development 1 Applies behavioral science knowledge. Organizational Development (OD) Usually involves action research. Changes the organization in a particular direction. 2 3
  • 35. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–35 TABLE 8–3 Examples of OD Interventions Human Process Applications T-groups (Sensitivity Training) Process consultation Third-party intervention Team building Organizational confrontation meeting Survey research Technostructural Interventions Formal structural change Differentiation and integration Cooperative union–management projects Quality circles Total quality management Work design HRM Applications Goal setting Performance appraisal Reward systems Career planning and development Managing workforce diversity Employee wellness Strategic OD Applications Integrated strategic management Culture change Strategic change Self-designing organizations
  • 36. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–36 Evaluating the Training Effort • Designing the Study  Time series design  Controlled experimentation • Training Effects to Measure  Reaction of trainees to the program  Learning that actually took place  Behavior that changed on the job  Results achieved as a result of the training
  • 37. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–37 FIGURE 8–5 Using a Time Series Graph to Assess a Training Program’s Effects
  • 38. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–38 FIGURE 8–6 A Sample Training Evaluation Form Source: www.opm.gov/employment_and_benefits/worklife/.
  • 39. www.ahmedtiger.weebly.com© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–39 K E Y T E R M S employee orientation training performance management negligent training task analysis performance analysis on-the-job training apprenticeship training job instruction training (JIT) programmed learning simulated training electronic performance support systems (EPSS) job aid management development succession planning job rotation action learning case study method management game role playing outsourced learning behavior modeling in-house development center organizational development controlled experimentation

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