Theories of Foreign Language LEARNING<br />Dr.Shamim Ali<br />
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION<br />Second language acquisition or second language learning is the process by which people learn a second language in addition to their native languages<br />
THEORIES OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION<br />1-The Monitor Model<br />2- Inter-language Theories<br />3-Universal Grammar Theories<br />4- Cognitive Theories<br />5- Multidimensional Model<br />6-Acculturation/Pidginization Theory<br />
1-The Monitor Model<br />The Acquisition versus Learning Hypothesis. <br />b)The Monitor Hypothesis<br />c) The Natural Order Hypothesis<br />d) The Input Hypothesis<br />e) The Affective Filter Hypothesis<br />
2 -Inter-language Theories<br />The first time this term inter-language was used by Selinker (1969)<br />a) Overgeneralisation<br />b) Transfer of Training<br />c) Strategies of Second Language Learning<br />d) Strategies of Second Language Communication<br />e) Language Transfer.<br />
Second Approach <br />The second time this term inter-language was used by Adjemian in 1976<br />He differentiates between the learning strategies that learners employ and the linguistic rules that are “crucially concerned in the actual form of the language system <br /> The properties of the learner’s grammar should be the primary goal of linguistic research <br />
Third Approach<br />The third approach to the description of interlanguage was initiated by Tarone (1979, 1982). <br /> She describes interlanguage as a continuum of speech styles <br />
3 -Universal Grammar Theories<br />Universal Grammar (UG) theories are based on Chomsky’s ( 1969, 1980, 1986). claim that there are certain principles that form the basis on which knowledge of language develops. These principles are biologically determined and specialized for language learning.<br />
4-Cognitive Theories<br />McLaughlin, 1987 First introduced Cognitive theory <br />Sub-skills involved in the language learning process are applying grammatical rules, choosing the appropriate vocabulary, following the pragmatic conventions governing the use of a specific language <br />
4.1 Cognitive Theory<br />Posner & Snyder (1975) viewed cognitive theory,and they were in the opinion that these sub-skills become automatic with practice. During this process of automatisation, the learner organizes and restructures new information that is acquired. <br />
4.2-Cognitive theory<br />The cognitive theory by (Lightbown, Spada, & Wallace, 1980)showed that indicating a decline in performance as “more complex internal representations replace less complex ones” followed by an increase again as skill becomes expertise <br />
4.3 Cognitive Theory<br />Berman’s 1987,point of view language acquisition is dependent “in both content and developmental sequencing on prior cognitive abilities” and language is viewed as a function of “more general nonlinguistic abilities <br />
5 Multidimensional Model<br />In the Multidimensional Model, the learner's stage of acquisition of the target language is determined by two dimensions: the learner’s developmental stage and the learner’s social-psychological orientation. <br />Clahsen, Meisel & Pienemann, 1983 <br />Larsen-Freeman & Long, Ellis, 1994 viewed this model <br />
6- Acculturation/Pidginization Theory<br />According to Schumann (1978): “second language acquisition is just one aspect of acculturation and the degree to which a learner acculturates to the target-language group will control the degree to which he acquires the second language.” <br />
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