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Cells bio2


cell contents.

cell contents.

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  • 1. Cell Theory All living things are made up of cells. Cells are the smallest working units of all living things. All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.
  • 2. A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
  • 3. Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Bacteria Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell
  • 4. •Prokaryotic•Eukaryotic
  • 5. Prokaryotic Do not have structures surrounded by membranes Few internal structures One-celled organisms, Bacteria
  • 6. Eukaryotic Contain organelles surrounded by membranes Most living organisms Plant Animal
  • 7. “Typical” Animal Cell
  • 8.  A animal cell ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) Nuclear envelope Nucleolus NUCLEUS Rough ER Smooth ER Chromatin Flagelium Plasma membrane Centrosome CYTOSKELETON MicrofilamentsIntermediate filaments Microtubules Ribosomes Microvilli Golgi apparatus Peroxisome In animal cells but not plant cells: Lysosomes Lysosome Centrioles Mitochondrion Flagella (in some plant sperm)
  • 9. Nuclear envelope Rough Nucleolus endoplasmic NUCLEUS Chromatin reticulum Smooth A plant cell Centrosome endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes (small brwon dots) Central vacuole Tonoplast Golgi apparatus Microfilaments Intermediate CYTOSKELETON filaments Microtubules Mitochondrion Peroxisome Plasma membrane Chloroplast Cell wall Plasmodesmata In plant cells but not animal cells: Wall of adjacent cell Chloroplasts Central vacuole and tonoplast Cell wall Plasmodesmata
  • 10. Organelles
  • 11. Cell Membrane  Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell  Double layer
  • 12. Nucleus Directs cell activities Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane Contains genetic material - DNA
  • 13. Nuclear Membrane Surrounds nucleus Made of two layers Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus
  • 14.  The nuclear envelope  Encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleus 1 µm Nucleolus Chromatin Nuclear envelope: Inner membrane Outer membrane Nuclear pore Pore complex Rough ER Surface of nuclear envelope. Ribosome 1 µm 0.25 µm Close-up of nuclear envelope Pore complexes (TEM). Nuclear lamina (TEM).
  • 15. Chromosomes  In nucleus  Made of DNA  Contain instructions for traits & characteristics
  • 16. Nucleolus Inside nucleus Contains RNA to build proteins
  • 17. Cytoplasm Gel-like mixture Surrounded by cell membrane Contains hereditary material
  • 18. Endoplasmic Reticulum  Moves materials around in cell  Smooth type: lacks ribosomes  Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface
  • 19.  The ER membrane  Is continuous with the nuclear envelope Smooth ER Rough ER Nuclear envelope ER lumen Cisternae Ribosomes Transitional ER Transport vesicle 200 µm Smooth ER Rough ER
  • 20. Ribosomes Each cell contains thousands Make proteins Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell
  • 21. Mitochondria Produces energy through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydrates Controls level of water and other materials in cell Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
  • 22.  Mitochondria are enclosed by two membranes  A smooth outer membrane  An inner membrane folded into cristae Mitochondrion Intermembrane space Outer membrane Free ribosomes in the mitochondrial matrix Inner membrane Cristae Matrix Mitochondrial DNA 100 µm
  • 23. Golgi Bodies Protein packaging plant Move materials within the cell Move materials out of the cell
  • 24.  Functions of the Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus cis face (“receiving” side of Golgi apparatus) 1 Vesicles move 2 Vesicles coalesce to 0.1 0 µm 6 Vesicles also from ER to Golgi form new cis Golgi cisternae transport certain proteins back to ER Cisternae 3 Cisternal maturation: Golgi cisternae move in a cis- to-trans direction 4 Vesicles form and leave Golgi, carrying specific proteins to other locations or to the plasma mem- 5 Vesicles transport specific brane for secretion trans face proteins backward to newer (“shipping” side of TEM of Golgi apparatus Golgi cisternae Golgi apparatus)
  • 25. Lysosome Digestive plant for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes
  • 26.  Lysosomes carry out intracellular digestion by  Phagocytosis Nucleus 1 µm Lysosome Lysosome contains Food vacuole Hydrolytic active hydrolytic fuses with enzymes digest enzymes lysosome food particles Digestive enzymes Lysosome Plasma membrane Digestion Food vacuole (a) Phagocytosis: lysosome digesting food
  • 27. Chloroplast Usually found in plant cells Contains green chlorophyll Where photosynthesis takes place
  • 28.  The cytoskeleton  Is a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm Microtubule 0.25 µm Microfilaments
  • 29.  Contains a pair of centrioles Centrosome Microtubule Centrioles 0.25 µm Longitudinal section Microtubules Cross section of one centriole of the other centriole
  • 30. There are two major types of cells Prokaryotic  Found in Domains Bacteria and Archaea  Kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria Eukaryotic  Found in Domain Eukarya  Kingdoms  Plantae  Animalia
  • 31. Major Characteristics Prokaryotes  Small  Simple cells  Have cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA in form of “nucleoid”  Sometimes have cell wall, capsule, other projections from wall (bacterial cilia, pili)  DO NOT HAVE internal organelles or nucleus
  • 32. Major Characteristics Eukaryotes  Larger  Complex cells  Have cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA in form of “chromosomes”  Sometimes have cell wall (plants and fungi) and structures for movement (cilia and flagella)  HAVE internal organelles and nucleus