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Cells bio2


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cell contents.

cell contents.

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  • 1. Cell Theory  All living things are made up of cells.  Cells are the smallest working units of all living things.  All cells come from preexisting (‫قبلي‬ ‫وجود‬) cells through cell division.
  • 2. A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
  • 3. Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell Bacteria
  • 4. •Prokaryotic •Eukaryotic
  • 5. Prokaryotic  Do not have structures surrounded by membranes  Few internal structures  One-celled organisms, Bacteria
  • 6. Eukaryotic  Contain organelles surrounded by membranes  Most living organisms Plant Animal
  • 7. “Typical” Animal Cell
  • 8.  A animal cell Rough ER Smooth ER Centrosome CYTOSKELETON Microfilaments Microtubules Microvilli Peroxisome Lysosome Golgi apparatus Ribosomes In animal cells but not plant cells: Lysosomes Centrioles Flagella (in some plant sperm) Nucleolus Chromatin NUCLEUS Flagelium Intermediate filaments ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) Mitochondrion Nuclear envelope Plasma membrane
  • 9.  A plant cell In plant cells but not animal cells: Chloroplasts Central vacuole and tonoplast Cell wall Plasmodesmata CYTOSKELETON Ribosomes (small brwon dots) Central vacuole Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Chromatin NUCLEUS Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chloroplast Plasmodesmata Wall of adjacent cell Cell wall Golgi apparatus Peroxisome Tonoplast Centrosome Plasma membrane Mitochondrion
  • 10. Organelles
  • 11. Cell Membrane  Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell  Double layer
  • 12. Nucleus  Directs cell activities  Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane  Contains genetic material - DNA
  • 13. Nuclear Membrane  Surrounds nucleus  Made of two layers  Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus
  • 14.  The nuclear envelope  Encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleus Nucleolus Chromatin Nuclear envelope: Inner membrane Outer membrane Nuclear pore Rough ER Pore complex Surface of nuclear envelope. Pore complexes (TEM). Nuclear lamina (TEM). Close-up of nuclear envelope Ribosome 1 µm 1 µm 0.25 µm
  • 15. Chromosomes  In nucleus  Made of DNA  Contain instructions for traits & characteristics
  • 16. Nucleolus  Inside nucleus  Contains RNA to build proteins
  • 17. Cytoplasm  Gel-like mixture  Surrounded by cell membrane  Contains hereditary material
  • 18. Endoplasmic Reticulum  Moves materials around in cell  Smooth type: lacks ribosomes  Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded (‫يجعله‬ ‫جزءا‬) in surface
  • 19.  The ER membrane  Is continuous with the nuclear envelope Smooth ER Rough ER ER lumen Cisternae Ribosomes Transport vesicle Smooth ER Transitional ER Rough ER 200 µm Nuclear envelope
  • 20. Ribosomes  Each cell contains thousands  Make proteins  Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell
  • 21. Mitochondria  Produces energy through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydrates  Controls level of water and other materials in cell  Recycles and decomposes (‫يحلل‬) proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
  • 22.  Mitochondria are enclosed by two membranes  A smooth outer membrane  An inner membrane folded into cristae Mitochondrion Intermembrane space Outer membrane Free ribosomes in the mitochondrial matrix Mitochondrial DNA Inner membrane Cristae Matrix 100 µm
  • 23. Golgi Bodies  Protein 'packaging plant'  Move materials within the cell  Move materials out of the cell
  • 24. Golgi apparatus TEM of Golgi apparatus cis face )“receiving” side of Golgi apparatus) Vesicles move from ER to GolgiVesicles also transport certain proteins back to ER Vesicles coalesce to form new cis Golgi cisternae Cisternal maturation: Golgi cisternae move in a cis- to-trans direction Vesicles form and leave Golgi, carrying specific proteins to other locations or to the plasma mem- brane for secretion Vesicles transport specific proteins backward to newer Golgi cisternae Cisternae trans face )“shipping” side of Golgi apparatus) 0.1 0 µm1 6 5 2 3 4  Functions of the Golgi apparatus
  • 25. Lysosome  Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates  Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal  Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes
  • 26.  Lysosomes carry out intracellular digestion by  Phagocytosis (‫بلعم‬( )‫قووتدان‬) (a) Phagocytosis: lysosome digesting food 1 µm Lysosome contains active hydrolytic enzymes Food vacuole fuses with lysosome Hydrolytic enzymes digest food particles Digestion Food vacuole Plasma membrane Lysosome Digestive enzymes Lysosome Nucleus
  • 27. Chloroplast  Usually found in plant cells  Contains green chlorophyll  Where photosynthesis takes place
  • 28.  The cytoskeleton  Is a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm Microtubule 0.25 µm Microfilaments
  • 29.  Contains a pair of centrioles Centrosome Microtubule Centrioles 0.25 µm Longitudinal section of one centriole Microtubules Cross section of the other centriole
  • 30. There are two major types of cells  Prokaryotic  Found in Domains Bacteria and Archaea  Kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria  Eukaryotic  Found in Domain Eukarya  Kingdoms  Plantae  Animalia
  • 31. Major Characteristics  Prokaryotes  Small  Simple cells  Have cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA in form of “nucleoid”  Sometimes have cell wall, capsule, other projections from wall (bacterial cilia, pili)  DO NOT HAVE internal organelles or nucleus
  • 32. Major Characteristics  Eukaryotes  Larger  Complex cells  Have cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA in form of “chromosomes”  Sometimes have cell wall (plants and fungi) and structures for movement (cilia and flagella)  HAVE internal organelles and nucleus