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Cell Theory
 All living things are made up of cells.
 Cells are the smallest working units of all living things.
 All c...
A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of
performing life functions.
Examples of Cells
Amoeba Proteus
Plant Stem
Red Blood Cell
Nerve Cell
Bacteria
•Prokaryotic
•Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic
 Do not have structures
surrounded by
membranes
 Few internal structures
 One-celled organisms,
Bacteria
Eukaryotic
 Contain organelles surrounded by membranes
 Most living organisms
Plant Animal
“Typical” Animal Cell
 A animal cell
Rough ER Smooth ER
Centrosome
CYTOSKELETON
Microfilaments
Microtubules
Microvilli
Peroxisome
Lysosome
Golg...
 A plant cell
In plant cells but not animal cells:
Chloroplasts
Central vacuole and tonoplast
Cell wall
Plasmodesmata
CYT...
Organelles
Cell Membrane
 Outer membrane of cell
that controls movement
in and out of the cell
 Double layer
Nucleus
 Directs cell activities
 Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane
 Contains genetic material - DNA
Nuclear Membrane
 Surrounds nucleus
 Made of two layers
 Openings allow
material to enter and
leave nucleus
 The nuclear envelope
 Encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the
cytoplasm Nucleus
Nucleus
Nucleolus
Chroma...
Chromosomes
 In nucleus
 Made of DNA
 Contain instructions
for traits &
characteristics
Nucleolus
 Inside nucleus
 Contains RNA to build
proteins
Cytoplasm
 Gel-like mixture
 Surrounded by cell membrane
 Contains hereditary material
Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Moves materials around in
cell
 Smooth type: lacks
ribosomes
 Rough type (pictured):
ribosomes e...
 The ER membrane
 Is continuous with the nuclear envelope
Smooth ER
Rough ER
ER lumen
Cisternae
Ribosomes
Transport vesi...
Ribosomes
 Each cell contains
thousands
 Make proteins
 Found on ribosomes &
floating throughout
the cell
Mitochondria
 Produces energy through
chemical reactions –
breaking down fats &
carbohydrates
 Controls level of water a...
 Mitochondria are enclosed by two membranes
 A smooth outer membrane
 An inner membrane folded into cristae
Mitochondri...
Golgi Bodies
 Protein 'packaging
plant'
 Move materials within
the cell
 Move materials out of
the cell
Golgi
apparatus
TEM of Golgi apparatus
cis face
)“receiving” side of
Golgi apparatus)
Vesicles move
from ER to GolgiVesicl...
Lysosome
 Digestive 'plant' for
proteins, fats, and
carbohydrates
 Transports undigested
material to cell
membrane for r...
 Lysosomes carry out intracellular digestion by
 Phagocytosis (‫بلعم‬( )‫قووتدان‬)
(a) Phagocytosis: lysosome digesting ...
Chloroplast
 Usually found in plant
cells
 Contains green
chlorophyll
 Where photosynthesis
takes place
 The cytoskeleton
 Is a network of fibers extending throughout the
cytoplasm Microtubule
0.25 µm Microfilaments
 Contains a pair of centrioles
Centrosome
Microtubule
Centrioles
0.25 µm
Longitudinal section
of one centriole
Microtubul...
There are two major types of cells
 Prokaryotic
 Found in Domains Bacteria and Archaea
 Kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaeb...
Major Characteristics
 Prokaryotes
 Small
 Simple cells
 Have cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA in
form of “nuc...
Major Characteristics
 Eukaryotes
 Larger
 Complex cells
 Have cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA in
form of “ch...
Cells bio2
Cells bio2
Cells bio2
Cells bio2
Cells bio2
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Cells bio2

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Transcript of "Cells bio2"

  1. 1. Cell Theory  All living things are made up of cells.  Cells are the smallest working units of all living things.  All cells come from preexisting (‫قبلي‬ ‫وجود‬) cells through cell division.
  2. 2. A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
  3. 3. Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell Bacteria
  4. 4. •Prokaryotic •Eukaryotic
  5. 5. Prokaryotic  Do not have structures surrounded by membranes  Few internal structures  One-celled organisms, Bacteria
  6. 6. Eukaryotic  Contain organelles surrounded by membranes  Most living organisms Plant Animal
  7. 7. “Typical” Animal Cell
  8. 8.  A animal cell Rough ER Smooth ER Centrosome CYTOSKELETON Microfilaments Microtubules Microvilli Peroxisome Lysosome Golgi apparatus Ribosomes In animal cells but not plant cells: Lysosomes Centrioles Flagella (in some plant sperm) Nucleolus Chromatin NUCLEUS Flagelium Intermediate filaments ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) Mitochondrion Nuclear envelope Plasma membrane
  9. 9.  A plant cell In plant cells but not animal cells: Chloroplasts Central vacuole and tonoplast Cell wall Plasmodesmata CYTOSKELETON Ribosomes (small brwon dots) Central vacuole Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Chromatin NUCLEUS Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chloroplast Plasmodesmata Wall of adjacent cell Cell wall Golgi apparatus Peroxisome Tonoplast Centrosome Plasma membrane Mitochondrion
  10. 10. Organelles
  11. 11. Cell Membrane  Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell  Double layer
  12. 12. Nucleus  Directs cell activities  Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane  Contains genetic material - DNA
  13. 13. Nuclear Membrane  Surrounds nucleus  Made of two layers  Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus
  14. 14.  The nuclear envelope  Encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleus Nucleolus Chromatin Nuclear envelope: Inner membrane Outer membrane Nuclear pore Rough ER Pore complex Surface of nuclear envelope. Pore complexes (TEM). Nuclear lamina (TEM). Close-up of nuclear envelope Ribosome 1 µm 1 µm 0.25 µm
  15. 15. Chromosomes  In nucleus  Made of DNA  Contain instructions for traits & characteristics
  16. 16. Nucleolus  Inside nucleus  Contains RNA to build proteins
  17. 17. Cytoplasm  Gel-like mixture  Surrounded by cell membrane  Contains hereditary material
  18. 18. Endoplasmic Reticulum  Moves materials around in cell  Smooth type: lacks ribosomes  Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded (‫يجعله‬ ‫جزءا‬) in surface
  19. 19.  The ER membrane  Is continuous with the nuclear envelope Smooth ER Rough ER ER lumen Cisternae Ribosomes Transport vesicle Smooth ER Transitional ER Rough ER 200 µm Nuclear envelope
  20. 20. Ribosomes  Each cell contains thousands  Make proteins  Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell
  21. 21. Mitochondria  Produces energy through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydrates  Controls level of water and other materials in cell  Recycles and decomposes (‫يحلل‬) proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
  22. 22.  Mitochondria are enclosed by two membranes  A smooth outer membrane  An inner membrane folded into cristae Mitochondrion Intermembrane space Outer membrane Free ribosomes in the mitochondrial matrix Mitochondrial DNA Inner membrane Cristae Matrix 100 µm
  23. 23. Golgi Bodies  Protein 'packaging plant'  Move materials within the cell  Move materials out of the cell
  24. 24. Golgi apparatus TEM of Golgi apparatus cis face )“receiving” side of Golgi apparatus) Vesicles move from ER to GolgiVesicles also transport certain proteins back to ER Vesicles coalesce to form new cis Golgi cisternae Cisternal maturation: Golgi cisternae move in a cis- to-trans direction Vesicles form and leave Golgi, carrying specific proteins to other locations or to the plasma mem- brane for secretion Vesicles transport specific proteins backward to newer Golgi cisternae Cisternae trans face )“shipping” side of Golgi apparatus) 0.1 0 µm1 6 5 2 3 4  Functions of the Golgi apparatus
  25. 25. Lysosome  Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates  Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal  Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes
  26. 26.  Lysosomes carry out intracellular digestion by  Phagocytosis (‫بلعم‬( )‫قووتدان‬) (a) Phagocytosis: lysosome digesting food 1 µm Lysosome contains active hydrolytic enzymes Food vacuole fuses with lysosome Hydrolytic enzymes digest food particles Digestion Food vacuole Plasma membrane Lysosome Digestive enzymes Lysosome Nucleus
  27. 27. Chloroplast  Usually found in plant cells  Contains green chlorophyll  Where photosynthesis takes place
  28. 28.  The cytoskeleton  Is a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm Microtubule 0.25 µm Microfilaments
  29. 29.  Contains a pair of centrioles Centrosome Microtubule Centrioles 0.25 µm Longitudinal section of one centriole Microtubules Cross section of the other centriole
  30. 30. There are two major types of cells  Prokaryotic  Found in Domains Bacteria and Archaea  Kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria  Eukaryotic  Found in Domain Eukarya  Kingdoms  Plantae  Animalia
  31. 31. Major Characteristics  Prokaryotes  Small  Simple cells  Have cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA in form of “nucleoid”  Sometimes have cell wall, capsule, other projections from wall (bacterial cilia, pili)  DO NOT HAVE internal organelles or nucleus
  32. 32. Major Characteristics  Eukaryotes  Larger  Complex cells  Have cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA in form of “chromosomes”  Sometimes have cell wall (plants and fungi) and structures for movement (cilia and flagella)  HAVE internal organelles and nucleus
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