Xianhang Zhang
<ul><li>The biggest influence on the design process is whether the software you are building is social in nature or not. <...
<ul><li>The primary goal with non-social software is to  get something done </li></ul><ul><li>We are primarily concerned w...
<ul><li>The primary goal of social software is to  convince someone of something </li></ul>I’m a cool guy who does cool th...
<ul><li>The primary goal of social software is to  convince someone of something </li></ul>I want you to know I just gradu...
<ul><li>The primary goal of social software is to  convince someone of something </li></ul>? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
<ul><li>Traditional HCI is concerned with the relationship between the person and the computer: </li></ul>Interaction
<ul><li>Social software must view the machine as a conduit for communication </li></ul>Communication If you’re only focusi...
<ul><li>Social software is a conduit for conducting social relationships </li></ul><ul><li>But it is not the only conduit ...
<ul><li>Social software must be studied in the context of use </li></ul><ul><li>Testing Social Design early is very diffic...
<ul><li>There is a wide disparity in technical skills which makes interface design very tricky </li></ul><ul><li>Luckily, ...
<ul><li>Social Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of Mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Maxim of Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not say what you believe to be false. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not ...
<ul><li>We generally tend to follow these maxims </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving conflicts with implicatures </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Receiving a friend request from someone you don’t consider a friend can be highly awkward  </li></ul><ul><li>Rejec...
Click Add as Friend Reject Ignore
<ul><li>Rejecting a friend request is awkward because it requires an action </li></ul><ul><li>If I reject, I know that you...
Click Add as Friend Ignore Reject Click Add as Friend Click Add as Friend A friend request has been sent to John Fox.
<ul><li>I know that you can’t know whether I’ve rejected you </li></ul><ul><li>I know that if you try and find out, you ri...
<ul><li>We behave according to our Theory of Mind models </li></ul><ul><li>We can use Theory of Mind to predict the social...
<ul><li>Cognitive limits on size of social groupings </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from empirical correlations of neo-cortex s...
<ul><li>We behave differently at different scales </li></ul><ul><li>Social mechanisms are not scalable </li></ul><ul><li>D...
<ul><li>1920: Modernist Urban Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the elimination of disorder, congestion and the small scale...
<ul><li>What insights can we borrow? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spaces need to be watched and maintained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Project on rethinking privacy and access control </li></ul><ul><li>Access is granted based on the ability to answe...
<ul><li>We have multiple facets of our personality </li></ul><ul><li>Which facets are expressed depends on the audience an...
<ul><li>Origins in 1970’s Sociological theory </li></ul><ul><li>One of the major non-economic forms of capital </li></ul><...
Reputation Systems
<ul><li>Google’s social networking site. </li></ul><ul><li>Incredibly popular in Brazil and India </li></ul><ul><li>Why? <...
<ul><li>Social Capital can be an enormously powerful social tool </li></ul><ul><li>Not just reputation systems </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Social Design has been sadly ignored by the HCI community </li></ul><ul><li>We need to establish it as a separate ...
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A Notion of Social Taste

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  • Want to talk a bit about my work studying social software and how do we establish a design methedology for social software
  • A Notion of Social Taste

    1. 1. Xianhang Zhang
    2. 2. <ul><li>The biggest influence on the design process is whether the software you are building is social in nature or not. </li></ul><ul><li>And we as a design community have not yet come to realize this. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>The primary goal with non-social software is to get something done </li></ul><ul><li>We are primarily concerned with issues of usability and efficiency </li></ul>I want to make an attractive image I want to produce a good report
    4. 4. <ul><li>The primary goal of social software is to convince someone of something </li></ul>I’m a cool guy who does cool things with my cool friends
    5. 5. <ul><li>The primary goal of social software is to convince someone of something </li></ul>I want you to know I just graduated
    6. 6. <ul><li>The primary goal of social software is to convince someone of something </li></ul>? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
    7. 7. <ul><li>Traditional HCI is concerned with the relationship between the person and the computer: </li></ul>Interaction
    8. 8. <ul><li>Social software must view the machine as a conduit for communication </li></ul>Communication If you’re only focusing on the Interaction Design, you’re only solving a minor part of the problem Interaction Interaction
    9. 9. <ul><li>Social software is a conduit for conducting social relationships </li></ul><ul><li>But it is not the only conduit </li></ul><ul><li>Every conduit has a set of policies </li></ul><ul><li>For social software, the policies are enforced by code </li></ul><ul><li>But other policies exist as well, enforced in other ways </li></ul>
    10. 10.
    11. 11. <ul><li>Social software must be studied in the context of use </li></ul><ul><li>Testing Social Design early is very difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing users into a lab doesn’t work </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy policy can only come about through good design </li></ul><ul><li>Social software is “alive” </li></ul><ul><li>The slate can’t be wiped clean and restarted </li></ul><ul><li>If you make a mistake, you’ll have to live with it </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>There is a wide disparity in technical skills which makes interface design very tricky </li></ul><ul><li>Luckily, there is a much narrower disparity in social intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>There is potential for cognitively complex social tools if this intelligence is leveraged correctly </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Social Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of Mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure of Spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dunbar’s Number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Capital </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14.
    15. 15. <ul><li>Maxim of Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not say what you believe to be false. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maxim of Quantity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make your contribution as informative as is required for the current purposes of the exchange. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not make your contribution more informative than is required. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maxim of Relation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be relevant. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maxim of Manner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid obscurity of expression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid ambiguity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be brief. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be orderly. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>We generally tend to follow these maxims </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving conflicts with implicatures </li></ul><ul><li>“ She has a great personality” </li></ul><ul><li>What we could have said but didn’t is important to interpreting meaning </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Receiving a friend request from someone you don’t consider a friend can be highly awkward </li></ul><ul><li>Reject? Accept? Ignore? </li></ul><ul><li>Some solutions I’ve seen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore the request for over a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declare you’ve “forgotten your password” and create a brand new profile (MySpace) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is this a problem that can be fixed with design? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Click Add as Friend Reject Ignore
    19. 19. <ul><li>Rejecting a friend request is awkward because it requires an action </li></ul><ul><li>If I reject, I know that you can see that I rejected you </li></ul><ul><li>I know that you’ll try and figure out why I would reject you (implicature) </li></ul><ul><li>I know you know that I know a rejection is an implicature </li></ul>
    20. 20. Click Add as Friend Ignore Reject Click Add as Friend Click Add as Friend A friend request has been sent to John Fox.
    21. 21. <ul><li>I know that you can’t know whether I’ve rejected you </li></ul><ul><li>I know that if you try and find out, you risk sending me another friend request </li></ul><ul><li>I know getting another friend request would be an implicature </li></ul><ul><li>I know you know me getting a friend request would be an implicature </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, I feel safe rejecting the friend request </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>We behave according to our Theory of Mind models </li></ul><ul><li>We can use Theory of Mind to predict the social implications of our design </li></ul><ul><li>Social Design is not modular and decomposable </li></ul><ul><li>Features affect the implications of other features </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Cognitive limits on size of social groupings </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from empirical correlations of neo-cortex size in animals </li></ul><ul><li>Limit is ~12 people </li></ul><ul><li>Limit is ~150 people </li></ul><ul><li>Other limits exist at higher scales </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>We behave differently at different scales </li></ul><ul><li>Social mechanisms are not scalable </li></ul><ul><li>Different social mechanisms are most effective at different scales </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple scales can reside in the same software (cliques) </li></ul><ul><li>Designing for multiple scales is a difficult problem </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>1920: Modernist Urban Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the elimination of disorder, congestion and the small scale, replacing them instead with preplanned and widely spaced freeways and tower blocks set within gardens.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract, “ideal” notions of the usage of space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1960: New Urbanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction against the hubris of modernism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designers were studying how people actually use space </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26.
    27. 27.
    28. 28. <ul><li>What insights can we borrow? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spaces need to be watched and maintained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use signals & decorations to convey the purpose of a space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight, not hide pathological behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What techniques can we borrow? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study actual use, not imagined use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decompose complex structures into patterns </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29.
    30. 30. <ul><li>Project on rethinking privacy and access control </li></ul><ul><li>Access is granted based on the ability to answer a question </li></ul><ul><li>eg: “What is my favorite place to go rock climbing” </li></ul><ul><li>Previous privacy settings were always at a per user basis, but this is not how people behave </li></ul><ul><li>Currently in development, preliminary beta due Sept </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>We have multiple facets of our personality </li></ul><ul><li>Which facets are expressed depends on the audience and the context </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing facets causes tension and anxiety </li></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><li>Origins in 1970’s Sociological theory </li></ul><ul><li>One of the major non-economic forms of capital </li></ul><ul><li>Analogous to “reputation” in online communities </li></ul><ul><li>Largely tacit </li></ul>
    33. 33. Reputation Systems
    34. 34. <ul><li>Google’s social networking site. </li></ul><ul><li>Incredibly popular in Brazil and India </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>Social Capital can be an enormously powerful social tool </li></ul><ul><li>Not just reputation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Huge implications for Enterprise 2.0 </li></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>Social Design has been sadly ignored by the HCI community </li></ul><ul><li>We need to establish it as a separate discipline from Interaction Design </li></ul><ul><li>Social Design is hard in many ways </li></ul><ul><li>We can get a big head start by borrowing theories from other fields </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical validation will be tricky </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a field of Social Design is an urgent priority, this is too important to wait! </li></ul>

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