1Social Cognitive Theory Documented By: Shallon Hylton
2 Table of ContentsContent PageDefinition of Social Cognitive theory 1Brief history on the originator of the Social Cognitive Theory 2Basic Principles of Social Cognitive Theory 3Conceptual diagram of the Social Cognitive Theory 5How can the principles of Social Cognitive help you to become a better learner? 6Graphics conveying the Social Cognitive Theory 7Overview 11References 14 Definition of the Social Cognitive Theory
3In the words of McNeil C (2008), “Albert Bandura’s social cognitive learning theory suggeststhat humans can learn through observation without imitating the observed behavior”. He furtherstated that, “humans can learn from behaviors indirectly or directly by observing behaviors andthe consequence of those behaviors, also that a combination of behavioral, cognitive, andenvironmental factors influence behavior”. According to the Institute of Dynamic Advancement (2006), “Social Cognitive Theorydescribes learning in terms of the interrelationship between behavior, environmental factors, andpersonal factors.”Bandura. A, (1997) stated that, the social cognitive theory explicates how people obtain andexert certain behavioral patterns while providing the basis for new strategies. ”. Brief history on the originator of the Social Cognitive Theory
4 Albert Bandura. Born December 4, 1925. Canadian/ American According to Stone A, “The Social Learning Theory has ample historic background to the late1800’s. Albert Bandura obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa in 1952”.“Later, in 1953 he was offered a position at the Stanford University. Bandura began publishinghis work on the Social Learning Theory (SLT) in the early 1960’s. In 1986 he formally launchedthe Social Cognitive Theory along with his book Social Foundations of Thought and Action: ASocial Cognitive Theory. Hence, The Social Cognitive Theory is said to have roots in the SocialLearning Theory”. Basic Principles of Social Cognitive Theory
5According to Bandura. A, (1997) the Social Cognitive theory constitutes of four (4) basicprinciples. These include: Attention Retention Production MotivationAttention refers to an individual being cognizant of a stimulus in their environment which he/she perceives to be popular, desirous or of interest and there becomes attentive towards it. This isalso a transitional stage where one learns about interactions. These interactions are based uponhis/her environment, and the behaviors of people surrounding him. He learns about differentbehavioral patterns after observing others especially from people whom one associates mainlywith. An individual is then shaped by the environment and then chooses which ever behavioralpattern he wants to relates himself with, after analyzing vicarious reinforcements of the modelsbehaviour whether negatively or positively.Retention deals with remembering the individual performance that you observed. This is veryimportant when trying to adopt or model that of an individual’s behavior after seeing thevicarious reinforcement being enforced whether negatively or positively. An example of thiswould be watching your mommy cooking seeing the pot burning her immediately reacts on thesenses telling you that the pot is hot and that if you touch it you will get burn therefore you willtry to avoid reoccurrence of this act.
6Production speaks to performing what was observed or tries to imitate of what was observedfrom the model. The individual observing the act should physically and intellectually fit toreproduce the act. For an example if the individual is watching a Circus Juggler it is not easy foran individual to go home and reproduce the act therefore it takes time and physical and mentalability to reproduce the act.Motivation an individual receive motivation through praises rewards and gifts , even throughself. This also can refer to environment changes which can affect ones behavior whetherpositively or negatively.
7Conceptual diagram of the Social Cognitive Theory
8 How can the principles of Social Cognitive help you to become a better learner?Based on our research we observed some ways in which this theory can help you to be a betterlearner:These are:(1) It aids the learner to be more able to process complex information based on their variousobservations.(2) It helps the learner to develop sociologically, that includes how they interact with each otherand also how they communicate.(3) The learner will be able to apply what is observed to real life situations by recalling latentideas.(4) It aids in how the learner respond and interpret stimulus in their environment.(5) Develops their analytical skills.(6) Be more aware of implications based on a particular situation.(7) It helps the learner to be self directed.(8) Aids the learner to set realistic goals.
9 Graphics conveying the Social Cognitive TheoryThe research leads us to various visual representations our theory on Google images. Among them are: A group of boys reading together.
10A mother teaching her children to walk around a circle.
11Gathering around to learn from an individual.
13 OverviewAccording to social cognitive theory people learn by watching or observing what others do andthat human thought processes are central to understanding personality. It promotes learning in asocial atmosphere through various means of social interaction, experience, observation, leisureand a host of other activities. The theory emphasizes three important factors (Environment,Behaviour and Cognitive) that influences learning development, each play their specific role inthe life of the learner. The basic principles that constitutes this theory are; attention, retention,production and motivation/reinforcement. This theory exposes the learner to a number ofadvantages, among them are; becoming self regulatory, sociological development, high selfefficacy and to respond and interpret stimuli. The basis of this theory indicates that learning is aninternal process that may or may result in a change in behaviour and that change is solelydependent of the individual.
14 ReferenceRetrieved on Jan 24, 2011, from:http://www.utwente.nl/cw/Visualization theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Health%20Comm unication/Social_cognitive_theory.docRetrieved on Jan 24, 2011 from : http://www2.yk.psu.edu/~jlg18/506/SocialCognitiveTheory.pdfRetrieved on Jan 24, 2011 from :http://socialmarketing.wetpaint.com/page/Social+Cognitive+Theory+Definition: http://sites.wRetrieved on Jan 24, 2011 from : iki.ubc.ca/etec510/Albert_Bandura-Social_Cognitive_TheoryRetrieved on Jan 24,2011, from :http://www.google.com.jm/images?hl=en&q=social%20cognitive%20images&um=1&ie=UTF-8&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&biw=1280&bih=69924Wolters.C, Denler.H, & Benzon. M.,(2006). Social Cognitive theory. Retrieved on Jan 24,2011,from : http://www.education.com/reference/article/social-cognitive-theoryInstitute of Dynamic Advancement (2006), Social Cognitive theory. Retrieved on Feb 2,2011,from: http://www.idea.org/blog/2006/06/01/social-cognitive-theory-sct/