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Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
Knee complex
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Knee complex

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    • 1. KNEE COMPLEX
    • 2. -: Introduction :-
      • Tibiofemoral joint
      • Patellofemoral joint
      • Structure of the tibiofemoral joint.
      • Type – Double condyloid
      • Articulating surface
      • Femur
      • Tibia
    • 3. Tibio femoral alignment and weight-bearing forces
      • Mechanical Axis
      • Medial valgus angle
      • Anatomic axis
    • 4.
      • Genu Valgus
      • Genu Varus
    • 5. Menisci
      • Menisci Attachement
      • Role of the menisci
      • Menisci nutrition
      • Menisci innervation
    • 6. -: Joint capsule :-
      • Attachments
      • Synovial layer of the joint capsule
      • Fibrous layer of the joint capsule
    • 7. -: Ligaments of knee joint :-
      • Medial collateral ligament
      • Lateral collateral ligament
      • Ant. Cruciate ligament
      • Post. Cruciate ligament
    • 8. Medial collateral ligament
        • Superficial portion -> origin -: medial femoral epicondyle
      • Insertion -: med. Aspect of proximal tibia
      • Restrain to excessive abduction (valgus)&lat. Rotation stresses at knee
      • Deep portion->
      • Origin-: inf. Aspect of med. Femoral condyle
      • Insetion-:proximal aspect of med. Tibia
    • 9. -: Lateral collateral ligament :-
      • Lat. Side of tibiofemoral joint
      • Proximally from lat. Femoral condyle
      • Fibular head
      • where it joins with tendon of biceps femoris
      • Responsible for checking varus stresses
    • 10. -: Anterior Cruciate ligament :-
      • Attached to ant. Tibial spine
      • sup and post. attached to posteromedial aspect of lat. Femoral condyle
      • Anteromedial band
      • Posterolateral band
    • 11. -: Posterior cruciate ligament :-
      • Attached distally to the posterior tibial spine & Anteriorly attached to lat. Aspect of med. Femoral condyle
      • restrain post. Displacement
    • 12. 1. prevent Excessive knee extension -: Role of ligaments :- 3. prevent ant. &post. Displacement of tibia med.&lat. Rotation beneath the femur-both together called rotatery stabilization of tibia 2.Varus & valgus stresses at knee
    • 13. -: Iliotibial band :-
      • Proximally fascia investing TFL, gluteus maximus &medius muscle
      • Distally atteched intermuscular septum &inserted anterolateral tibia
      • Contraction of tfl &gluteus muscle attach to it band –produce minimal longitudinal excursion of band
      • Fibrous connection of it band -assisted ACL ------}checking posterior femoral translation –full extension
      • Increase the stability of lat. Side of joint
    • 14. -: Bursae :-
      • Set up potential for substantial frictional among muscular,bony structure,
      • numerous bursa
      • Three type
      • 1.Suprapatellar bursae
      • 2.Subpopliteal “
      • 3.gastrocnemius “
      • Infrapatellar bursae….It separated by synovial cavity of jt by infrapatellar fat pad
    • 15. -: TIBIOFEMORAL JOINT FUNCTION :-
      • JOINT KINEMATICS
      • Flexion / Extension
      • Medial / Lateral
      • Rotation
      • Varus / Valgus
      • Coupled Motions
    • 16. -: MUSCLES :-
      • Knee Flexor Group
      • Semimembranosus
      • Semitendinosus
      • Biceps Femoris (Long and short heads)
      • Sartorius
      • Gracilis
      • Popliteus
      • Gastrocnemius
    • 17.
      • Knee Extensor Group
      • Quadriceps Femoris
      • Rectus Femoris
      • Vastus Medialis
      • Vastus Intermedius
      • Vastus Lateralis
    • 18. -: STABILIZERS OF KNEE :-
      • A-P/hyperextension stabilizers
      • Varus / Valgus stabilizers
      • Internal / External rotational stabilizers
    • 19.
      • Largest sesamoid bone.
      • Its function is to increase leverage of quadriceps muscle.
      • Patella is triangular with apex directed downwards
      • Anterior surface of the patella is gently convex
      • The joint surfaces are not very congruent. Upper3/4th part of the posterior surface is articular
      • Articular surface has a convex medial facet and a concave lateral facet
      -: Anatomy of the patella :-
    • 20. Patellar articular surface area & joint congruency
      • In knee extension
      • At mid range of flexion
      • At 90 degree of flexion
      • Beyond 90 degree of flexion
    • 21. -: Motions of patella :- 1.Patellar flexion 2.Patellar extension 3.Medial patellar tilt 4.Lateral patellar tilt 5.Medial rotation 6.Lateral rotation 7.Patellar translation 8.Patellar shift
    • 22. -: Patellofemoral joint stress :-
      • Patellofemoral joint reaction
      • force in
      1.Knee flexion 2.Knee extension
      • Influence of amount of knee flexion and contact surface between patella and femur
      • Joint reaction forces in daily living activity
      • Patella as anatomical pulley
      • Contact forces in vertical position of patella
    • 23. Frontal plane patellofemoral joint stability 1.Longitudinal stabilizers 2.Transverse stabilizers
      • Quadriceps inhibition
      • Asymmetry of patellofemoral stabilization
      • stabilizers
    • 24.
      • No bony stabilization
      1.Longitudinal stabilizers Quadriceps and patellar tendon ( patellotibial tendon ) 2.Transverse stabilizers Superior portion of extensior retinaculum Vastus lateralis and medialis Medial and lateral patellofemoral ligament
      • Trochlear dysplasia
      Stabilizers
    • 25. Quadriceps inhibition
      • Patellar tendon injury
      • Quadriceps atrophy
      • VMO weakness
      • Limiting motion of patella
    • 26. Asymmetry of patellofemoral stabilization Q- angle
      • Defination
      • In male and female
      • Problem with Q-angle
      • Another abnormalities
    • 27. -: Weight bearing versus Non-weight bearing exercises with Patellofemoral pain :-
    • 28. Effects of injury and disease
      • Tibiofemoral joint injury
      • Patellofemoral joint injury
      • Injury to menisci
      • Injury to Ligament
      • Injury to Bone
      • Patellar dislocaltion
      • Causes of patellar dislocation

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