Sustainable City Design: Developing Conceptual Planning Proposal for Eastern Fringe of Dhaka City


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Sustainable City Design: Developing Conceptual Planning Proposal for Eastern Fringe of Dhaka City

  1. 1. Conceptual Planning Proposal for Eastern Fringe Conceptual Planning Proposal for Eastern Fringe Nushrat Jahan, Research Assistant, Climate Change Study Cell, BUET Department of Development Studies, University of Dhaka Sanjana Islam, Shahadat Hossain Shakil, Mohammed Hamidul Hasan Nabin, Afia Sultana Shanta, Arif Hasan, Prof. Dr. Ishrat Islam and Prof. Dr. Shakil Akhter (DURP, BUET)
  2. 2. Eastern Fringe Eastern part of fringe area of Dhaka Bounded by Tongi Khal at North, Balu river at East, Demra road at South, and Pragati Sharani at West Basically a low lying area, According to FAP-8A 12% of the eastern fringe should be reserved as retention pond (JICA, 1992) Still under developed  Developments projects by various private land developers Population after projected time period 2020 will be around 2.6 million Location:Beraid Location: Shatarkul Location: Herbaid
  3. 3. Strength Free from development Sufficient amount of water retention area and water bodies Natural beauty Extensive canal network SWOT Analysis Weakness Low lying area Vast area is flooded annually Large amount of earthwork (e.g.; Landfill) is needed for new development Opportunity Place for new development Retention pond is can be used for recreation Capability to provide housing for 2.65 million people Threat For new development the navigability of the existing river and the canal network may be interrupted Unplanned development by the private land developers Encroachment of canals Under the earthquake threat I N T E R N A L E X T E R N A L
  4. 4. Objectives Planning a sustainable city environment for eastern fringe for projected population (2.6 million) of 2020 Conservation of retention pond areas.
  5. 5. Land Use Planning Process Following plan making process was followed to prepare land use design for each type of land use. deriving spatial requirement for specific land use sector Mapping suitability of land for particular use Estimate space requirements for land use Analyze carrying capacity of suitable land supply Design land use pattern (Lynch, 1995)
  6. 6. Site Selection Reconnaissance Survey Formulation of Objectives Population Projection Formulating Planning Philosophy Design Process Policy Recommendation Methodology Preparation of plan Road Network Design Land Use Fixation Zone Subdivision Classification of Income Group Detailed Neighborhood Final Layout Preparation
  7. 7. Planning Philosophy Preservation of retention areas and existing water bodies --15% of total area (4478 acre) Major land use – Residential (for all income groups) Maximum Open Space towards the eastern side ( City within a garden like Putrajaya). Urban Kitchen (CAI et al, 2011). Transportation – Public Transit Based Poly Centric Satellite Town following Draft Delhi Master Plan, 2021 Facilities to serve the city as a whole
  8. 8.  4 Zones – Northern, Middle 1, Middle 2, & Southern  One Major CBD & three Zonal CBDs  Major CBD – around 600 acre  Zonal CBDs are 1.5% of their respective zones  Zonal facilities placed around the CBDs  Administrative & Cultural Centers are placed in Major CBD  Facilities like Hotel, Hospital, University, Shopping Mall are provided Zone wise Distribution
  9. 9. Residential Land Use  4 types of neighborhoods for different income groups in each zone Considering ---- Neighborhood center --- Some facilities that require larger population like Colleges, Health Complexes are grouped for a cluster of 4 neighborhoods Income Group Total Population Total No. of Neighborhoods Total No. of Buildings per Neighborhood Lower 2, 95,355 (11.1%) 28 54 Lower middle 13,03,554 (48.99%) 147 74 Middle 7,87,348 (29.59%) 70 95 High income 2,71,940 (10.22%) 28 58 Total 2660858 273 20664 Maximum walking distance to school Minimum Roads Maximum Open Space Neighborhood facilities provided within walking distance Safety and vigilance ensured
  10. 10. Incom e Grou p Total Populati on No. of Househo ld Flat Size No. of Store y No. of Dwelli ng Unit per Floor Requir ed no. of Buildin g Plot Size (kath a) Requir ed Area (acre) Lower 2, 95,355 (11.1%) 59071 200sq.ft (communal kitchen, toilet) 5 8 1477 5 122.1 Lower middl e 13,03,55 4 (48.99%) 2,60,710 (500,600, 700)sq. ft 5 6 8691 9 1292.9 Middl e 7,87,348 (29.59%) 1,57,470 (800,1000,1200,1 500) sq. ft 6 4 6562 11 976.2 High incom e 2,71,940 (10.22%) 54,388 (1600,2000,2500 ,3000)sq. ft 10 4 1511 21.5 604.4 Total 2658197 531639 20413 2995.6 Calculation of Space and facility for residential land use
  11. 11. Affordable housing through relatively higher density , Density falls as affordability increases  Low and lower income neighbourhoods are placed adjacently and these are mostly placed near Badda and Tongi to ensure easy accessibility to workplace  Priority to pedestrian movement, for zero car occupancy rate (except high income neighbourhood)  Scope for both Active and Passive recreation Residential Land Use (cont.)
  12. 12. Roads & Transportation Policy  Major arterial connected with proposed Purbachal Road at North and Dhaka-Demra Road at South  Uninterrupted traffic flow  Major Traffic mode - BRT  Road Hierarchy maintained  Roads aligned along the canals Type of Roads Width (feet) Major Arterial 100 Major Distributor 60 Minor Distributor 40 Access Roads 20 & 25
  13. 13. Open Space and Recreational Facilities  Neighborhood Parks to serve the local need Linear Parks to protect canals from encroachment  Metro park adjacent to Major CBD and Pragati Sharani Zoo is located in a natural setting with canal network  Regional park near Retention Ponds  Play lot and Play Ground for active recreation Recreational Facility Area(Acre) Play lot and Play Ground Minimum 1.78 (per neighborhood) Metro Scale Linear Park 747 Zoo 550 Metro park 643 Regional Scale Regional Park 2240
  14. 14. Agricultural Land use and Land for Future Expansion Agricultural Land  Total area of 3067 acre (60 times of existing area)  To fulfill daily demand of fresh vegetable and food grain  Located near the housing of low and lower middle income group and in the conservation area Land for Future Expansion  Total area of 4059.17 acre  To serve the future demand of developable land  Land kept for future expansion of CBD  Some part of Agricultural land might be used for future expansion Location: Harbaid Location: Bagarpur
  15. 15. University, Light Industrial Zone & Waste Management Plant University  Total area of 400 acre  Location in close proximity to Pragati Sharani to avoid congestion and near metro park Light Industrial Zone  Located at the north, near to Tongi industrial zone on high land  Total area of 338 acre with plantation buffer Waste Management Plant  Total area of 350 acre including a buffer of plantation  Location in close proximity to major roads  Segregation of waste and production of organic compost fertilizer
  16. 16. Overall Land Use Distribution Residential --10483.23 (36%) -- Major Land Use Administrative & Commercial -- 1286.5 (4%) -- To Create Employment Light Industry & WMP -- 538 (2%) -- Provided at Metro Scale Agricultural -- 3067 (10%) -- To Serve the Whole City Educational – 400 (1%) -- Provided at Regional Scale Water Bodies & Retention Area – 4478 (15%) -- To Conserve the environment Recreational Purpose -- 4855 (17%) -- To Serve the Town & City Arterial & Distributor Road --364.1 (1%) -- To Ensure Easy Accessibility Area for future Expansion -- 4059.17 (14%) -- For future Development
  17. 17. References BBS, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. (2005). Statistical Year Book 2005. Government of Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. CAI, Z., DU, S., Guo, H. (2011). Enhancing Food Security by Urban & Peri-urban Agriculture in China: Best Practices and Up-scaling . International Conference on Asian Food Security 2011( ICAFS),Singapore. CIDCO. (1973). Navi Mumbai Development Plan . retrieved from on 2012. DMDP Project, RAJUK (MOHPW), and People’s Republic of Bangladesh. (1997). Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan (1995-2015), Volume-I: Dhaka Structure Plan (1995-2015). (First Edition), Dhaka. Delhi Development Authority (DDA). (2005). Draft Master Plan for Delhi, 2021. New Delhi. JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency. (June 1992). “Feasibility Study on Greater Dhaka Protection Project (Study in Dhaka Metropolitan Area) of Bangladesh Flood Action Plan No.8A” John, D. (n.d.). Creating the Essence of Cities: The planning and development of Malaysia’s new federal administrative capital Putrajaya. retrieved from download_file.php?fileId=152 Lynch, K. (1995). City sense and City Designs: Writings and Projects of Kevin Lynch. MIT press. Nabi, A.S.M. (2008). Major Land use & Components of a Town. Lecture conducted from DURP, BUET. Dhaka. T. oyinkansola, Odude. (2012). A sustainable city. It's concept, characteristics and barriers. World Urban Forum.
  18. 18. Bibliography Bushra, J., Ara, S., Shams, R., Nasrin, N. (2007). “A Conceptual Planning Approach to Urban Community Development: Case Study Uttara 3rd Phase”. Department of Urban and regional Planning, BUET, Dhaka. Chiara, J. D., Koppelman, L. E. (1984) .“Time Saver Standard for Site Planning”. Published by McGraw Hillbook Company. DMDP Project, RAJUK (MOHPW), and People’s Republic of Bangladesh; (1997) “Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan (1995-2015), Volume-I: Dhaka Structure Plan (1995-2015); (First Edition), Dhaka. DMDP Project, RAJUK (MOHPW), and People’s Republic of Bangladesh; (1997) “Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan (1995-2015), Volume-II: Urban Area Plan (1995-2015); (First Edition), Dhaka.
  19. 19. Thank You All………… Finally………. Our cherished hope for a modern sustainable town…..