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Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road
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Impact of Different Types of Land Use on Transportation System of Dhaka City : A Case Study of Mirpur Road

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Land use distribution and transportation both are very important issue for Dhaka city in recent period. To relate these two issues with each other is also a very effective job but a difficult one …

Land use distribution and transportation both are very important issue for Dhaka city in recent period. To relate these two issues with each other is also a very effective job but a difficult one indeed. This study intends to find out the impact of different land use changes on the transportation system of Dhaka city. One of the most important roads of Dhaka city, Mirpur Road has been taken to understand and to analyze for this study. This study will help to take significant decisions and generate proper policies in transportation sector. It will also contribute to the attempts of combining land use planning and transportation planning. By assessing the land use change impact on transportation system, traffic management, congestion control and improvement of road network will be possible to make.

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  1. Course No: Plan 446 Course Title: Transportation Planning Studio A Report on “Impact of Different Types of Land Uses on Transportation System of Dhaka City: A Case Study of Mirpur Road and Its Adjacent Land Uses.” Submitted by: “Shancharpath” (0615005, 0615009, 0615020, 0615030) Department of Urban and Regional Planning Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
  2. “Impact of Different Types of Land Uses on Transportation System of Dhaka City: A Case Study of Mirpur Road and Its Adjacent Land Uses” Course No: Plan 446 Course Title: Transportation Planning Studio Submitted to: Suman Kumar Mitra, Assistant Professor, Dept. of URP Rezwana Rafiq, Lecturer, Dept. of URP Submitted by: “Shancharpath” Rifat Rahman (0615005) Nabila Nur Kuhu (0615009) Shahadat Hossain Shakil (0615020) Khalid Bin Abdul Quadir (0615030) Level-4, Term-1 Date of Submission: 24th April, 2011 Department of Urban and Regional Planning Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
  3. Acknowledgement At the outset of the report, we would like to thank The Almighty. Then we would like to thank our parents without whom we would not be able to see the light of the world. Without the proper guidance of our Course Teachers Suman Kumar Mitra, Assistant Professor, Dept. of URP and Rezwana Rafiq, Lecturer, Dept. of URP, we would not be able to make the report. We would like to thank Mr. Saniul Islam from DTCB (Dhaka Transport Co-Ordination Board) and Sheltech (Pvt.) Limited (Consultancy Division) for assisting us with valuable data. We would not forget thanking the inhabitants of Mirpur Road for their cordial support.
  4. Abstract Land use distribution and transportation both are very important issue for Dhaka city in recent period. To relate these two issues with each other is also a very effective job but a difficult one indeed. This study intends to find out the impact of different land use changes on the transportation system of Dhaka city. One of the most important roads of Dhaka city, Mirpur Road has been taken to understand and to analyze for this study. This study will help to take significant decisions and generate proper policies in transportation sector. It will also contribute to the attempts of combining land use planning and transportation planning. By assessing the land use change impact on transportation system, traffic management, congestion control and improvement of road network will be possible to make.
  5. Table of Contents Contents Page No Cover Page Title Page Abstract Acknowledgement Chapter 01: Introduction (Page 1-7) 1.1 Background of the Study 1 1.2 Literature Review ` 1.2.1 Study Area Profile 1 1.2.2 Land Use Traffic Interaction 3 1.2.3 Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA) 5 1.2.4 Level of Service(LOS) 6 1.3 Objectives of the Study 7 1.4 Scope of the Study 7 1.5 Limitations of the Study 7 Chapter 02: Methodology (Page 8-12) 2 2.1 Methodology 8 2.2 Study Design 10 Chapter 03: Present Land Use Pattern and Traffic Condition (Page 13-20) 3.1Present Land Use Pattern 13 3.1.1 Present Land Use Pattern in the Adjacent Plot of Mirpur Road (Azimpur to Technical) 13
  6. 3.1.2 Change of Land Use in the Whole Mirpur Road 13 3.1.3 Road Side Updated Land Use Map : In Selected Study Area 14 3.1.4 Present Land Use Pattern In the Study Area 14 3.1.5 Change of Land Use in Selected Study Area (Kallyanpur to Technical) 15 3.2Traffic Condition 15 3.2.1 Overall View About the Geometric Features of the Mirpur Road 15 3.2.2 General Scenario About the Basic Road Characteristics of the Mirpur Road 17 3.2.3 Modal Share Distribution of the Traffic Volume of Mirpur Road 18 3.2.4 Comparative Scenario Regarding Speed Over the Time Period 2003-2011 19 3.2.5 LOS Comparison for Journey Speed in Mirpur Road 20 Chapter 04: Trip Rate Calculation and Forecasting Future Traffic (Page 21-27) 4.1 Trip Rate Calculation Procedure 21 4.2 Trip Rate for Different Types of Land Use 22 4.3 Finding the “Land Use Change Traffic” (In Mirpur Road) from the Present Traffic Volume and Trip Rate. 22 4.4 Derivation of the Growth Rate of Traffic Volume 24 4.5 Forecasting Traffic for the Year 2013 (In Section-7: BRTC Market-Technical) 25 4.5.1 Forecasting of Natural Growth Traffic 25
  7. 4.5.2 Forecasting of Development Traffic Chapter 05: Impact on Traffic for Land Use Change 26 (Page 28-33) 5.1 Impact on LOS of Mirpur Road for Land Use Change 28 5.2 Impact on LOS for Land Use Change in the Selected Study Area (BRTC Market-Technical) 29 5.3 Impact on LOS in Future (2013) for New Construction in the Selected Study Area (BRTC Market-Technical) 31 5.4 Comparison of Vehicle Capacity Ratio for the Selected Study Area (BRTC Market-Technical) for Average and Off-Pick Hourly Flow 32 5.5 Major Findings 34 5.6 Recommendations 34 5.7 Conclusion 35 Appendices
  8. List of Illustration List of Figures Page No Figure 01: The 'Land-Use Transport Feedback Cycle' 4 Figure 02: Methodological Framework of the Study 9 Figure 03: Land Use Pattern in Mirpur Road 13 Figure 04: Land Use Change in Mirpur Road 14 Figure 05: Land Use Pattern in Study Area (BRTC Market-Technical) 14 Figure 06: Land Use Change in Study Area (BRTC Market-Technical) 15 Figure 07: Modal Share Distribution in Mirpur Road 18 Figure 08: Journey Speed Comparison in Mirpur Road 19 Figure 09: Spot Speed Comparison in Mirpur Road 20 Figure 10: Comparison of Peak, Off-Peak and Average Hourly Volume in the Study Area 24 Figure 11: Comparison of Highest Hourly PCUs in Section-7(BRTC Market-Technical) 25 Figure 12: Change in V/C Ratio at Northbound Direction (BRTC market to Technical Intersection) 32 Figure 13: Change in V/C Ratio at Southbound Direction (BRTC market to Technical Intersection) 33
  9. List of Tables Table 01: Performance Measures and Corresponding Level of Service Page No 7 Table 02: At a Glance Basic Geometric Features 15 Table 03: At a Glance Basic Road Characteristics: Volume, Capacity and Speed 17 Table 04: Roadway Capacity at Different Section of Mirpur road 18 Table 05: LOS Comparison for Journey Speed in Mirpur Road 20 Table 06: Average and Highest Hourly Trip Rate for Different Types of Land Use 22 Table 07: Finding the “Land Use Change Traffic” (In Mirpur Road) 23 Table 08: Derivation of the Annual Growth Rate 25 Table 09: Forecasting of Traffic Volume in 2013 26 Table 10: Peak Hourly Trip Rate Generation 26 Table 11: Total PCU Generated from the Under Construction Commercial Complex in 2013 27 Table12: Average and Off Peak Hourly Flow(Northbound): BRTC-Technical Intersection 32 32 Table13: Average and Off Peak Hourly Flow(Southbound): BRTC-Technical Intersection
  10. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Chapter 01: Introduction 1.1 Background of the Study The transport system of Dhaka city is a vital issue now-a-days. A large number of problems are associated with this issue. To make Dhaka an efficient city and to reduce problems related to transportation, the study of transportation system is necessary. A major term having huge impact on transportation system is Land Use. Different types of land use in Dhaka city mostly determine the shape of transportation system. The role of transportation professionals is evolving and more frequently requires them to understand how transportation investments can be consistent with the principles and practices of land use planning and development. At a minimum, the co-ordination of land use and transportation requires that those concerned with the well-being of a community (or region, state or nation) assess and evaluate how land use decisions effect the transportation system and can increase viable options for people to access opportunities, goods, services and other resources. In a developing country like Bangladesh, efficiency of road network acts as a catalyst to solve the overall transportation problem. Efficiency of road network can be achieved through proper transportation planning and impact assessment of particular land uses indicates the possibilities of transportation planning. Dhaka city is facing radical changes in land uses every day in each and every area. The previous land uses used to generate a certain types of traffic. The changed land uses have significant changes in the pattern of generation of traffic and in most of the cases, the new impacts are harmful. This study aims at finding out the impacts of different types of land uses on transportation system of Dhaka city. Mirpur road is a very important arterial road of Dhaka city which have been facing significant changes in its adjacent land uses. The case study of Mirpur road will give a meaningful overview about the impact of land use changes on transportation system of Dhaka city. 1.2 Literature Review To make the study informational and authentic, it is important to gather the information and knowledge about past studies on similar topic. This helps the study to fulfill the objective by providing clear perceptions about the overall scenario. 1|P age
  11. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio 1.2.1 Study Area Profile Mirpur road plays a vital role in transportation network of Dhaka city. Its length is 8.05 km from Azimpur to Gabtoli. In this study the study area was taken from Azimpur to Mirpur Technical which is around 7.4 km long. It attracts people from different parts of Dhaka city. People forced to choose Mirpur road from the transportation network due to its high degree of accessibility to different zones of Dhaka city. Nilkhet intersection of Mirpur road plays a significant role on transportation system of Dhaka city. The trips designated to BUET, Dhaka University, Dhaka Medical College use this intersection. Dhanmondi residential area is located beside this road. So it is obvious that Mirpur road has a very significant role in transportation system of Dhaka city. Basic Characteristics of Mirpur Road  One of the busiest roads of the city with frequent intersections and high traffic congestion in the peak period. Dual carriageway having average width of 411 feet in each portion.  Almost linear in shape and provision of channelized devices to regulate conflicting traffic. There are 71 over bridges and provision of footpath throughout the road for pedestrian safety.  Only motorized traffics are allowed in the road but in some places non-motorized traffics are allowed with a separate trace passing road (NMT Lanes).  Inadequate on street parking and frequent Bus stoppages of many bus services.  Frequent access roads giving access to the road side mix development zones.  Commercial land uses (Educational Institutions, Hospitals, Shopping Malls and Restaurants) are dominant in case of getting direct access from Mirpur road.  There are Total 621 intersections throughout the road. Among them 43 1 are T intersection, 71 are Y intersection and 121 are 41- leg intersection.  Among the intersections 181 are signalized and others are Un-signalized.(1Field Survey,2011) Source: 1. Performance Impact of Transportation Policy Shift on Mirpur Road – A Comparative Analysis; (2006), Report of Group-(01,04), Transportation Planning Studio (PLAN 342), DURP Library, BUET, Dhaka. 2. Impacts of Policy Measures on Urban Transportation System: A Case Study of Mirpur Road; (2003), Report of Group-“Motion”, Transportation Planning Studio (PLAN 342), DURP Library, BUET, Dhaka.) 2|P age
  12. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio 1.2.2 Land-Use Transport Interaction According to Wegener and Furst (1999), theories on the two-way interaction between urban land use and transport address the location and mobility responses of private actors (households and firms, traveler) to changes in the urban land use and transport system at the urban-regional level. That urban land use and transport are closely inter-linked is common wisdom among planners and the public. That the spatial separation of human activities creates the need for travel and goods transport is the underlying principle of transport analysis and forecasting. Following this principle, it is easily understood that the suburbanization of cities is connected with increasing spatial division of labor, and hence with ever increasing mobility. However, the reverse impact from transport to land use is less well known. There is some vague understanding that the evolution from the dense urban fabric of medieval cities, where almost all daily mobility was on foot, to the vast expansion of modern metropolitan areas with their massive volumes of intraregional traffic would not have been possible without the development of first the railway and in particular the private automobile, which has made every corner of the metropolitan area almost equally suitable as a place to live or work. However, exactly how the development of the transport system influences the location decisions of landlords, investors, firms and households is not clearly understood even by many urban planners. The recognition that trip and location decisions co-determine each other and that therefore transport and land-use planning needed to be co-ordinate led to the notion of the 'Land-use Transport Feedback Cycle'. The set of relationships implied by this term can be briefly summarized as follows. (See the diagram of the 'Land-Use Transport Feedback Cycle’ in the next page) 3|P age
  13. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Figure 01: The 'Land-Use Transport Feedback Cycle'  The distribution of land uses, such as residential, industrial or commercial, over the urban area determines the locations of human activities such as living, working, shopping, education or leisure.  The distribution of human activities in space requires spatial interactions or trips in the transport system to overcome the distance between the locations of activities.  The distribution of infrastructure in the transport system creates opportunities for spatial interactions and can be measured as accessibility.  The distribution of accessibility in space co-determines location decisions and so results in changes of the land-use system. The major theoretical approaches to explain this two-way interaction of land use and transport in metropolitan areas include technical theories (urban mobility systems), economic theories (cities as markets) and social theories (society and urban space). (Wegener and, Furst, 1999) (Source: Sharmin N. Rupom N. J. and Sadat K. (2011); Developing a Generic Methodology for Traffic Impact Assessment of a Mixed land Use in Dhaka City; Chapter (1-8), BURP Thesis, DURP, BUET, Dhaka.) 4|P age
  14. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio 1.2.3 Traffic Impact Analysis (TIA) A traffic impact analysis is a study which assesses the effects that a particular development’s traffic will have on the transportation network in the community. These studies vary in their range of detail and complexity depending on the type, size and location of the development. Traffic impact studies should accompany developments which have the potential to impact the transportation network. They are important in assisting public agencies in making land use decisions. These studies can be used to help evaluate whether the development is appropriate for a site and what type of transportation improvements may be necessary. Traffic impact studies help communities to:  Forecast additional traffic associated with new development, based on accepted practices.  Determine the improvements that are necessary to accommodate the new development.  Assist communities in land use decision making.  Assist in allocating scarce resources to areas which need improvements.  Identify potential problems with the proposed development which may influence the developer’s decision to pursue it.  Allow the community to assess the impacts that a proposed development may have.  Reduce the negative impacts created by developments by helping to ensure that the transportation network can accommodate the development.  Provide direction to community decision makers and developers of expected impacts.  Protect the substantial community investment in the street system. Traffic impact analysis is only one component of the larger transportation puzzle. In addition, large communities in particular will need to determine appropriate mixes of transportation modes, including public transit options. Community growth patterns and characteristics can be substantially affected by highway expansion or re-alignment decisions made at state or federal levels. Traffic impact analysis is focused on the effects of a particular set of developments, but may provide information relevant to these broader plans and decisions. Traffic impact studies should be used as one piece of several kinds of information to judge the suitability of development from a transportation standpoint. Source: Traffic Impact Analysis; URL: http://www.lic.wisc.edu/shapingdane/facilitation/all_resources/impacts/analysis_traffic.htm (Accessed on March 2nd, 2011) 5|P age
  15. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio 1.2.4 Level of Service When a road is carrying a traffic equal in volume to its capacity under ideal roadway and traffic conditions, the operating conditions become poor. Speed drops down and delay and frequency of stops mount up. The service which a roadway offers to the road user can vary under different volumes of traffic. The Highway Capacity Manual has introduced the concept of “Level of Service to denote the level of facility one can drive from a road under different operating characteristics and traffic volumes. The concept of level of service is defined as a qualitative measure describing the operational conditions within a traffic stream, and their perception by motorists and/or passengers. The following are the factors which might be considered in evaluating the level of service: 1. Speed and travel time, including the operating speed and overall travel time consumed in travelling over a section of roadway. 2. Traffic interruptions or restrictions, with due consideration to the number of stops per mile, delays involved and the speed changes necessary to maintain pace in the traffic stream. 3. Freedom to maneuver to maintain the desired operating speeds. 4. Driving comfort and convenience reflecting the roadway and traffic conditions in-so-far as they affect driving comfort and convenience of the driver. 5. Economy, with due consideration operating cost of the vehicle. Even though it is desirable to consider all the above factors in identifying a particular level of service, it is difficult to incorporate all these in the absence of accurate data. The HCM (Highway Capacity Manual), therefore, utilizes travel speed and the ratio of the service volume to capacity, depending upon the particular problem. The latter is often referred to as v/c ratio in Manual. As regards the travel speed, the Manual recommends the use of operating speeds on those types of highway carrying generally uninterrupted flow, such as in rural area. For urban location, the Manual recommends the use of average overall travel speed. There are operating conditions for the six levels of service selected by the Manual, Level A representing the highest and Level F representing the lowest .(Classification of LOS: Appendix) 6|P age
  16. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Table 01: Performance Measures and Corresponding Level of Service Level of Service Volume to Capacity Ratio Speed (Kph) Arterial street Downtown Street Arterial street Downtown Street A ≤0.60 - ≥80 ≥40 B ≤0.70 - ≥40 ≥30 C ≤0.80 - ≥30 ≥25 D ≤0.90 - ≥25 ≥15 E ≤1 - ≥15 <15 F >1 - <15 →0 Source: Kadiyali L.R. (2003), “Traffic Engineering and Transport Planning” Sixth Edition, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi.(page: 823-828) 1.3 Objectives of the Study 1. To explore the current pattern of land use distribution and traffic condition. 2. To identify the trip rate for different types of land use. 3. Identifying the impact of land use change on transportation system. 1.4 Scope of the Study This study aims at finding out the impact of land use changes on transportation system. Researchers, planners, transportation engineers, policy makers would get a vision about the rate of land use change along one of the most important road of Dhaka city, Mirpur road and thus the effects on the efficiency of the road. It will help to know about the natural growth rate of traffic and also about the development traffic. This can be an overview for further land-use-transportation interaction study. Both land use planning views and transportation planning views can be combined from this study. 1.5 Limitation of the Study Only the adjacent buildings (road side plot) have considered during assessing the impacts of land uses on Mirpur road. Again the volume survey was conducted only for one day, which may be able to give a biased result depending upon the condition of weather, type of day (working or holiday). Trip rate calculation for land use is based on a very small sample size; thus producing a large margin of error. Present trip rate is considered constant for past and future land use which is not accurate. In calculating the capacity of the road the “Effective Road Width” (excluding encroachment) data is not available for all the sections of the Mirpur road and for this LOS calculation is biased. 7|P age
  17. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Chapter 02: Methodology and Study Design In this chapter the methodological strategy of this study to achieve the objectives has been clearly stated. The total study design/procedure has been described step by step in this segment of report. 2.1 Methodology The project was assigned with a specific study area (Mirpur Road) for case study. Afterwards literature review was carried out to have a clear understanding about the project and related works. Then objectives of the project are determined. Data has been collected from two sources. Secondary data (Land Use, Traffic Volume, Speed etc.) and related standards (i.e. PCE Values, LOS Standards) for analysis has been collected from project related various Articles, Journals, and Reports. Primary data has been collected from various types of field surveys i.e. Land Use Survey, Volume Survey, Trip Rate Analysis Survey etc. The degree of land use change has been determined by comparing with the previous datasets. The impact of such changes on the transport system has been identified in terms of Roadway Capacity and Level of Service. The future traffic condition will be predicted based on the current dataset for further planning purpose. (See the schematic diagram of the methodological procedure in the next page) 8|P age
  18. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Project Identification and Selection of Study Area Literature Review Fixation of the Objectives Data Collection Primary Data Secondary Data Geometric Feature Survey of the Road Base Map Collection Roadside Land Use Survey Cross-Sectional Element Data of Road Trip Rate Analysis & Modal Share Survey Previous Land Use Distribution Data ^Survey Traffic Volume Survey Previous Traffic Volume Data Journey and Spot Speed Survey Previous Speed Data Data Compilation Exploring the Current Land Use Pattern and Traffic Condition Trip Rate Calculation for different types of Land Use Impact Analysis for Land Use Change Major Findings and Recommendations Preparation of the Final Report Figure 02: Methodological Framework of the Study 9|P age
  19. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio 2.2 Study Design Project Identification and Selection of Study Area At first, the students were asked to propose some projects regarding transportation by the Course Teacher. The whole class worked together and proposed several number of project. The Course Teacher checked the feasibility of each project. This project covers a very important issue, land use impact on traffic which is needed to be studied. The study area, Mirpur Road is also one of the most important roads inside Dhaka city. This was also convenient for the student to carry on the study in this area. After considering these, the Course Teacher identified this project and selected this study area for us. There were 29 students in the class. Seven groups were formed consisting four members in each group. The whole Mirpur road is divided into seven sections. Each group was assigned a particular site (section) of 1km+ length by lottery. Literature Review The previous studies related to the identified project and selected study area were tried to be explored by the students. Terms which are important for the study were determined. The standards of the necessary terms e.g. level of service were collected. Objective Fixation By keeping the scope and limitation in mind three objectives were formulated regarding the study. Primary Data Collection Geometric Feature Survey Geometric feature survey was the first survey taken place for this study. It was done at the very first at each group’s selected site. The width of the road was the most important measurement as it eventually leads to finding out the capacity of the road. The features of the road covered in this survey were foot path width, presence of shoulder, median width, no. of marked lane, lane width, and signal characteristics (marked or unmarked) etc. (Format of Geometric Feature Survey: Appendix) Roadside Land Use Survey In the selected study area (specific section) the road side adjacent plot were surveyed. Information about height, frontage, no. of stories, and total floor area and floor wise use of every building were collected. 10 | P a g e
  20. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Trip rate Analysis and Modal Share Survey To find out the trip rate from different categories of land use, 8 hour survey has been conducted in some selected structures adjacent to Mirpur road.(structure selection procedure according to land use has explained in detail in chapter 4). Total no. of person entering in that structure/land use and total no. of persons going out is tallied out over the period of 8 hour. Then it is converted into maximum and average hourly trip (total in and out in one hour at peak time and in average). Then the total floor area of that structure/land use has been identified to convert the trip rate into per 1000 sq.ft per hourly trip. The mode choice behavior of the users of any land use has been identified through asking them their arrival mode (primary mode before entering the structure) and their probable departure mode (primary mode after leaving the structure). The modal share percentage then calculated from the survey data. (Format of Trip Rate Analysis and Modal Share Survey: Appendix) Volume Survey The first formed seven groups were again put together for volume survey at 7*2=14 section wise points covering the whole study area. Both northbound direction and southbound direction was surveyed. The points were selected keeping the traffic add and subtraction in mind. Total 8 hour survey has been conducted considering 3 peaks (7:30 AM-10:30 AM; 1:00 PM-2:00 PM; 5:00 PM– 7:00 PM) and 2 off-peak (11:00 AM-12:00 PM; 3:00 PM- 4:00 PM) hours. After counting all the vehicles of different types of different times, the total number of the vehicle was converted into PCU/Hr (Hourly Traffic Flow). Section wise PCU in Peak, Average and Off-Peak Hour is then calculated from survey data. (Format of Volume Survey and PCE Values: Appendix) Speed Survey The speed survey was done using the moving observer method. 7 groups traveled the road (twice) in seven different times and vehicle used for the journey is Car. The journey time, running time, intersection delay, overtaking, over taken vehicle was counted. (Format of Speed Survey: Appendix) Secondary Data Collection Base Map Collection The base map for the study area was collected from Sheltech (Pvt.) Ltd. (Consultancy Division) Cross sectional Element Data of Mirpur Road 11 | P a g e
  21. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio The previous geometric feature data of Mirpur road were collected from the earlier studies from the library of Department Urban and Regional Planning for comparison and analysis purpose. Previous Road Side Land Use Data The previous data for the adjacent plot land uses for the whole Mirpur road was collected from the GIS (Geographical Information System) database of Sheltech (Pvt.) Ltd. From that database the former land use of any adjacent plot, total no. of stories and base area (then multiplied by the no. of floor to get the total floor area) are collected to assess the land use change. Previous Volume and Speed Data Previous volume data for different road sections of 2003 and 2006 was collected from the library of Department of Urban and Regional Planning, data for 2009 was collected from DTCB (Dhaka Transport Co-Ordination Board). Data of Section Wise PCU in Peak, Average and Off-Peak Hour was found out. Journey and Spot Speed data for 2003, 2006 and 2009 was collected from the library of Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Land Use Change Comparison The land use in previous years and the land use at present were then compared. The changes in floor area (increase or decrease) in every specific category were denoted. Finding the Trip Rate To find the trip rate, the floor area for each land use category and total person trip of corresponding land use were needed. These data were collected from field survey and then the trip rate was found in per thousand square feet per hour unit. Impact Analysis for Land Use Change The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of the traffic resulted from the change in land use. The difficult job has been to separate the development traffic from the total increased traffic. The change amount of land use (area in sq.ft.) is multiplied with the corresponding trip rate of that use which is determined earlier. So the total number of person trip from the change amount of land use can be determined. After that the impact has been analyzed basically in terms of Level of Service with and without this land use change traffic. 12 | P a g e
  22. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Chapter 03: Present Land Use Pattern and Traffic Condition The first objective of this study is to have a clear concept about the existing land use pattern and overall traffic condition of the Mirpur Road. To achieve this objective extensive land use survey and various transport related surveys were conducted which mentioned in earlier chapter. In this chapter a general idea about the land use pattern and traffic condition of the Mirpur Road and the selected study area BRTC Market-Technical is given 3.1Land Use Pattern 3.1.1 Present Land Use Pattern in the Adjacent Plot of Mirpur Road (Azimpur to Technical) To fulfill the objectives of the report, the study of land use pattern of Mirpur Road becomes the most essential one. The present land use pattern in the adjacent plots of Mirpur Road is compared with land use pattern at the same plots in 2007. (Land Use Pattern Table: Appendix) The current land use distribution is shown schematically below. Land Use Pattern:2011(Mirpur Road) Commercial Education & Research 15% Garments 0% 27% Hospital Mixed 10% Office 5% 3% Others Residential Under construction 13% 1% 26% Figure 03: Land Use Pattern in Mirpur Road 3.1.2 Change of Land Use Over the Period 2007-2011(Azimpur to Technical) Significant amount of changes have come over the years 2007 and 2011. In the chart below, the changes are shown. It can be seen from the chart that in most of the cases, the area has increased in 2011. However, there is a negative change in residential area. Residential areas have decreased in 2011. (Land Use Change Table: Appendix) 13 | P a g e
  23. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Land Use Change:2007-2011(Mirpur Road) Under construction Residential Others Office Mixed Hospital Garments Education & Research Commercial -2000000.000 0.000 2000000.000 Changed Area(sft) Area-2011(sft) 4000000.000 Area-2007(sft) Figure 04: Land Use Change in Mirpur Road 3.1.3 Updated Land Use Map of Adjacent Plot for Selected Study Area (BRTC Market-Technical) The land use map/database for 2007 was collected from Sheltech. During road side land use survey, the stories of the buildings and the floor wise use at those plots were surveyed. By updating the previous map/database the land use map for 2011 was prepared. (Previous and Updated Land Use Map: Appendix) 3.1.4 Present Land Use Pattern in the Selected Study Area (BRTC Market-Technical) In the selected study area (BRTC Market to Technical) for this group (Shancharpath) the land use distribution is given below. (Land Use Pattern Table: Appendix) Land Use Pattern:2011(BRTC Market-Technical) Commercial Activity 4% 0% 12% 11% Residential 27% Education & Research Hospital Office 21% 25% Garments Others Figure 05: Land Use Pattern in Study Area (BRTC Market-Technical) 14 | P a g e
  24. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio 3.1.5 Change of Land Use Over the Period 2007-2011 in the Selected Study Area (BRTC Market-Technical) The change in specific land uses in the selected site is shown schematically below. Here, it can be seen that, almost every type of land use have a positive change. It means the area for those specific land uses has increased in 2011. The office use has no change at all and there is another land use denoted as “other” and that has a negative change. (Land Use Change Table: Appendix) Land Use Change:2007-2011(BRTC Market-Technical) Area-2007 (sq.ft.) Area-2011 (sq.ft.) Change Area(sq.ft.) 2000000.000 1500000.000 1000000.000 500000.000 0.000 -500000.000 Commercial Activity Residential Education & Research Hospital Office Garments Others Figure 06: Land Use Change in Study Area (BRTC Market-Technical) 3.2 Traffic Condition 3.2.1 Overall View about the Geometric Features of the Mirpur Road Table 02: At a Glance Basic Geometric Features Elements Average(ft) Maximum(ft) Minimum(ft) Right of way 101.45 130.1 61.5 Carriage way 41.2 52 23.5 Lane width 11.26 23 9 Median 4.6 11.3 2.1 Foot path 7.78 15.75 2.5 NMT lane 24.58 54 16 Source: Field Survey, 2011 Right of Way: In most of the sections of the Mirpur Road where the geometric feature survey was conducted, Right of Way is within the limit 90-110 ft. Average Right of Way is 101.45 ft. The 15 | P a g e
  25. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio maximum Right of Way is 130.1 ft at New Market No. 1 gate and the minimum Right of Way is 61.5 which is located at Dhanmondi 2. Carriageway: Mirpur road is a major arterial street which is running with dual carriage way divided by a median of varying width. Average carriage way width is 41.2 feet. It reaches maximum up to 52 feet and minimum 23.5 feet. Traffic Lane: In most of the section the carriage way is divided into 3 or 4 traffic lanes with the help of lane marking. No. of traffic lanes depends on the width of the carriageway. In some of the narrow sections there are 2 lanes and there are maximum 5 lanes at the wider sections. The average width of one traffic lane is 11.26 ft. NMT Lane: Though NMT’s (Non Motorized Traffic) are banned throughout the Mirpur Road there are some NMT lanes at several sections of Mirpur Road based on the need of that area. These NMT lanes are located at New Market No.1 gate (16 ft), Islami bank (18 ft), Khan plaza (18 ft), Dhanmondi 1 (18 ft), Dhanmondi 2 (54 ft) and Shamoli Ring Road (23.5 ft). Foot Path: The average width of Footpath of Mirpur road is 7.8 ft at left side and 7.75 ft at right side. The maximum width of footpath on this road is 15.75 ft which is located on the opposite side of Metro shopping mall. Median: There is median throughout the whole Mirpur road to separate the dual carriage way. The average width of median is 4.6 ft. In maximum section the median is covered with trees. Shoulder: Shoulder is used to give a provision for accommodation of stopped vehicles. But there is no shoulder provided at Mirpur road. 3.2.2 General Scenario about the Basic Road Characteristics of the Mirpur Road Table 03: At a Glance Basic Road Characteristic: Volume, Capacity and Speed 16 | P a g e
  26. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Peak Off-Peak Average Volume-Both Direction(PCU/Hr) Journey Speed(K.P.H) Speed Journey Time(Min) Delay Time(Min) Spot Speed(K.P.H) Capacity(PCU/Hr) Northbound Southbound Average Northbound Southbound Average Northbound Southbound Average Bus Car Northbound Southbound Both Direction 5351.53 3399.99 4621.97 15.94 18.4 17.17 27.78 24.28 26.03 8.70 9.29 8.99 27.08 27.25 4895.12 4928.01 9823.14 Source: Field Survey, 2011 Volume Throughout the Mirpur Road the maximum traffic flow occurs at some specific time periods which are called peak hour. And at some specific time period the volume becomes low which are called off peak. According to the Survey Data there are peaks at 7:30am -10:30am and 5:00 pm-7:00 pm for most of the sections. And off peaks are at 11:00am -12:00 am, 1:00 pm-2:00 pm and 3:00p- 4:00 pm for different sections. The maximum (peak) hourly volume for Mirpur road in both direction is 5351.53 PCU/Hr. This volume is important any kind of calculation and decision making regarding this road because this volume represent the highest level of pressure on this road. (Peak, Off-Peak and Average Volume of Mirpur Road at Different Sections: Appendix) Capacity Road way capacity is measured by using the average carriage way width of a road. For this calculation the standard capacities for the sections are calculated with 1400 PCU/hour/lane as recommended in DITS (1994) and the standard width of a single lane is considered12’.The average Roadway capacity of Mirpur road is 4911.56. Capacity is measured at different section of Mirpur road which is shown below in a tabular form. Table 04: Roadway Capacity at different Section of Mirpur Road Section Capacity(PCU/hour) 17 | P a g e
  27. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio (S-N) 4214 4938.5 4454.399 5485.764 4929.633 5335.4 4908.17 4895.124 Azimpur to Globe Shopping Center Globe Shopping Center to Capital market Capital market to Shobahanbag Shobahanbag to Care Hospital Care Hospital to Hanif Counter Hanif Counter to BRTC market BRTC Market to Technical Average (N-S) 4228 4783.256 4731.483 5367.474 5339.717 5408.66 4637.5 4928.013 Source: Field Survey, 2011 3.2.3 Modal Share Distribution of the Traffic Volume of Mirpur Road Modal Share Distribution 1% 1% Bus 1% 7% Car/Microbus/Jeep/Pickup 12% Minibus 16% Truck 1% CNG/Auto Rickshaw Human Hauler / Tempo 61% Motorcycle Rickshaw/Van Push Cart Bicycle Figure 07: Modal Share Distribution of Mirpur Road During the traffic volume survey in Mirpur road the modal share distribution for both bound of traffic has been obtained (by counting all the vehicle types separately). Among the volume survey data of 7 groups, 4 group’s data has been compiled in both directions to get an overall modal share scenario of the Mirpur road. From the above illustration we can see that Car is in the dominating position. Second position is for the CNG Auto Rickshaw and Bus is in the third position. (Modal Share Compiled Data of 4 Groups: Appendix) 3.2.4 Comparative Scenario Regarding Speed Over the Time Period 2003-2011 18 | P a g e
  28. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Journey Speed Comparision 27.86 30 25 21 20 14.45 15 17.20 15.94 18.4 10 5 0 Journey Speed2003(K.P.H) Journey Speed2006(K.P.H) Northbound Journey Speed2011(K.P.H) Southbound Figure 08: Journey Speed Comparison in Mirpur Road Both the Journey and Spot Speed has been decreased over the time period 2003-2011. The value of Car has been taken as the “Test Vehicle Value” for the comparison of Journey Speed. Journey Speed seems to be in an increasing trend during the year 2006 but it again falls down in 2011. Spot Speed is compared in terms of two test vehicle value Bus and Car. Though the Spot Speed of the Bus is increased but the Spot Speed of the Car decreased a slight portion. (Journey Speed Calculation, Journey and Spot Speed Value: Appendix) Spot Speed Comparision 50 40 30 38.25 32.5 27.685 25.575 20 10 0 Bus Speed-2003(K.P.H) Car Speed-2011(K.P.H) Figure 09: Spot Speed Comparison in Mirpur Road 19 | P a g e
  29. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio 3.2.5 LOS Comparison for Journey Speed in Mirpur Road Direction(Northbound) Year 2003 2006 2011 Speed 14.45 27.86 15.94 Level of Service F D E Direction(Southbound) Year 2003 2006 2011 Speed 17.20 21 18.4 Level of Service E E E The Level of Service of Mirpur road in terms of Speed is deteriorating day by day and at present in a very bad condition (E). In this chapter a general concept about the land use pattern and overall traffic condition has been tried to develop. The land use composition and various factors affecting the road have been sorted out. In the next chapter the impact of land use change on the traffic condition will be examined. 20 | P a g e
  30. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Chapter 04: Trip Rate Calculation and Forecasting Future Traffic Different types of land uses both attract and generates trip depending upon the time of the day when the trip occurs and trip purpose. In this chapter the survey procedure for different types land uses for determining the trip rate of the respective land uses is discussed. Traffic volume forecasting procedure through growth rate is also explained 4.1 Trip Rate Calculation Procedure The course teacher divided the land uses into these categories: Residential, Commercial, Educational, Hospital, Office, and Garments. These categories were done by keeping the actual adjacent land uses of Mirpur road in mind. Basically the adjacent plots of Mirpur road consist of these major land uses. The whole Mirpur road (Azimpur to technical) had been subdivided into seven segments for the convenience of survey by 7 groups of our class. Within these segments 5 Commercial buildings, 4 Residential buildings, 3 Educational institutions, 3 Hospitals, 3 Office buildings and 2 Garments were selected for conducting survey on, because of limited number of survey groups at our class and limited time and also considering the percentage distribution of different types of land uses in the adjacent plot of Mirpur road. There are 29 students at our class sufficient for forming 10 survey groups. There were only 2 days allotted for conducting survey for trip rate of different land-uses. In that case 20 buildings or structures can be surveyed. Specific buildings for different types of land uses along Mirpur road have been selected based upon some criteria such as, maximum floor space of the buildings and distance between the selected buildings of same land-use type to ensure precision and authenticity of the collected data. After completing the trip rate analysis survey the trip rate of one building from each use has been checked. For example among the selected five commercial buildings, weighted average of trip rate of four buildings has been calculated and the trip rate of 5 th building calculated through survey has been used to check the average trip rate i.e. to identify the percentage of error in collected trip rate data. Same procedure has been adopted for selecting the buildings and measuring the percentage of error in collected trip rate data for other land-use types. (Trip Rate Data Compilation Table: Appendix) 21 | P a g e
  31. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio 4.2 Trip Rate for Different Types of Land Use The following table shows the average and highest hourly trip rate for different types of land use. Table 06: Average and Highest Hourly Trip Rate for Different Types of Land Use Average Hourly Trip Rate Highest Hourly Trip Rate (Per 1000 sq.ft.) (Per 1000 sq.ft.) Residential 0.72 1.11 Commercial 7.63. 10.69 Educational 4.34/1000 Student 6.10/1000 Student Hospital 6.33 13.31 Office 4.75. 8.66 Garments 11.13 37.77 Land use Source: Field Survey, 2011 From the above table it is found that trip rate (average and highest) is maximum for Garments and minimum for Residential land use in terms of per 1000 sq.ft. hourly trip rate. This is because in the Garments a large no. workers working in a small area or we can say the density of person per 1000 sq.ft is very high in comparison with any kind of land use. Commercial land use trip rate conquers the second highest trip rate. Educational trip rate is also significant in terms of per 1000 students. 4.3 Finding the “Land Use Change Traffic” (In Mirpur Road) from the Present Traffic Volume and Trip Rate. The trip rate for different categories of land use has been found out. The land use change from the comparison of present land use data and past land use data has been calculated. In this section the contribution of the changed land use area in the peak hourly traffic volume of the Mirpur road has been tried to find out. The present traffic volume of Mirpur road in peak hour is 5351.53 PCU/Hr (Field Survey, 2011). In this section the aim is to find out the “Land Use Change Traffic” and the “Natural Growth Traffic” in this 5351.53 PCU/Hr. 22 | P a g e
  32. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Table 07: Finding the Land Use Change Traffic Land Use Area(sft) Area(sft) Changed Trip Rate-In Peak Total Increased/Decreased 2011 2007 Area(sft) (Per sq.ft/Per Hr. Person Trip PCU/Hr (2007-11) ) (Per Hr.) 0.0061 5209.79 1445.45 0.0378 2950.11 -251.94 Commercial 3613318.60 2758202.30 855116.30 Garments 82639.26 4529.00 Hospital 1688313.60 1456900.99 231412.62 0.0133 3079.91 869.68 Office 678309.82 0.0087 2059.05 50.14 Residential 1989843.83 2892512.46 -902668.63 0.0011 -999.10 514.72 440542.11 78110.26 237767.71 (Percentage of Modal Share from Different Land Uses, Occupancy Rate of Vehicle: Appendix) (Calculation Table: Appendix) Firstly, the changed land use area throughout the Mirpur road has been calculated. During this process the land use type such as “Educational” and “Others” has been ignored because there is no trip rate available in this study for the “Others” type of land uses and the survey of the “Educational” institution is conducted per 1000 student basis; but it has been quite tough to collect the total number of student data of all the educational institution along the Mirpur road for the calculation process. So these two types of land uses have been excluded from the calculation process. Secondly, the respective changed land use area has been multiplied by the respective peak hourly trip rate (per sq.ft per hour) to find out the total Person Trip generated by that type of land use in a peak hour. Thirdly, from the Person Trip the no. of Vehicular Trip has been calculated by multiplying with the respective uses modal share percentages. Fourthly, the Vehicular Trip is then converted into No. of Vehicles by dividing them with the respective vehicular occupancy rate. Finally, the No. of Vehicles is then converted into PCU (Passenger Car Unit) value by multiplying with the respective PCE (Passenger Car Equivalent) values. From the calculation it is found that total 2955.71 PCU/Hr is currently contributed by the changed land used area in the peak hourly traffic flow. So the Land Use Change Traffic is 2955.71 PCU/Hr. From the table it can be seen that there is negative PCU (-251.94) for residential land use for the decreasement area in respect of the past land use. So the net increasement in peak hourly PCU for the changed land use area in Mirpur road is 2703.77 PCU/Hr. 23 | P a g e
  33. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio 4.4 Derivation of the Growth Rate of Traffic Volume (In Section-7: BRTC Market-Technical) Traffic volume will be forecasted for the year 2013 considering the fact that all the under construction development will be completed within 2013. The forecasted traffic volume is needed to judge the LOS of the road in terms of vehicle capacity ratio for the development traffic which will be generated from the present under construction area of Section-7. For forecasting of traffic it is needed to determine the growth rate of traffic. The volume data of 2006, 2009 and 2011 has been collected for the selected study area (BRTC Market-Technical). Only the volume data of 2006 and 2011 are taken into account for determining the growth rate of traffic .To calculate the growth rate traffic volume of year 2006 and 2011 has been converted into PCU/Hr. For calculating the growth rate of traffic volume total PCU of a particular hour of both directions has been summed up for each year data. Traffic Volume(PCU/Hr) 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2006 2009 2011 Peak Hourly Volume(PCU/Hr) 5021 4826.5 5226.7 Off-Peak Hourly Volume(PCU/Hr) 4103 4075.1 3338.3 Average Hourly Volume(PCU/Hr) 4632.8 4460 3997.4 Figure 10: Comparison of Peak, Off-Peak and Average Hourly Volume in the Study Area Highest hourly PCUs from two year dataset (2006, 2011) has been taken for determining or calculating the growth rate of annual traffic in our study area(Section-7) because the peak hourly traffic has been reduced in 2009 in comparison with 2006. 24 | P a g e
  34. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio (PCU/Hr) 5300 5200 5100 5226.7 5000 5021 4900 Year 2006 Year 2011 Figure 11: Comparison of Highest Hourly PCUs in Section-7(BRTC Market-Technical) Highest hourly PCU for 2006 is 5021 (during 9:00 AM to 10 AM) and for 2011, highest hourly PCU is 5226.7 (during 1 PM to 2 PM). Using these highest PCU values of two years, growth rate have been calculated. Table 08: Derivation of the Annual Growth Rate Peak Hourly Volume in 2006 Peak Hourly Volume in 2011 Increase in 5 Years Annual Growth Growth Rate (%) 5021 5226.7 205.7 41.14 0.82 4.5 Forecasting Traffic for the Year 2013 (In Section-7: BRTC Market-Technical) There are 2 categories of forecasted traffic volume. One is Natural Growth Traffic and the other is Development Traffic. Natural Growth Traffic is derived from annual growth rate and Development Traffic is found from the traffic produced from new constructed land use 4.5.1 Forecasting of Natural Growth Traffic Natural growth traffic is derived from annual growth rate. For forecasting traffic volume for the year 2013, the traffic volume data of 2011 is used. Only peak hour volume data have taken into account for forecasting future traffic volume. This highest data have been found during 1:00PM to 2:00 PM. As the yearly growth rate is 0.82% it has been multiplied by two for conversion of traffic volume from year 2011 to 2013. This is then multiplied by the volume (PCU) of different vehicles. Then, the increased number of traffic volume is added with the previous volume to get the total resultant traffic volume in the year 2013. 25 | P a g e
  35. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Table 09: Forecasting of Traffic Volume in 2013 Car Microbus Office Vehicle Taxi CNG Bus School Bus Human Hauler Annual Growth Rate for 2 years Forecasted Increased Volume (from growth rate) for 2013 Forecasted Volume for 2013 1 Mode Present Volume-2011 (PCU/Hr) 2 3=(2*1) 4=(1+3) 1104.14 93.55 11.91 59.13 386.66 2121.72 0.73 18.093 1.53 0.19 0.96 6.33 34.76 0.01 (0.82*2)/100 = 0.016 1122.23 95.083 12.10 60.10 393 2156.49 0.74 Motorcycle Rickshaw Bicycle 45.27 166.91 1153.10 83.54 0.74 2.73 18.89 1.36 46.01 169.64 1172 84.91 Total 5226.7 85.65 5312.35 From the above table we have found that the traffic increased 85.65 PCUs in 2 years and total forecasted traffic for 2013 is 5312.35 PCU/Hr. 4.5.2 Forecasting of Development Traffic In Section-7(BRTC Market-Technical) there is an under construction area. It will be developed as a Commercial Complex of 20 stories which will be completed at 2013, by the “Destiny Developers”. The total floor space of this Commercial Complex will be 195866.43 sq.ft. To get the person trip in per hour and per 1000 square feet from this development, the peak hourly commercial trip rate found from the field survey has been multiplied by 195866.432. Then the total person trip per hour that will be generated from this land use is derived. Table 10: Peak Hourly Trip Rate Generation Area (sq.ft.) 195866.432 Trip Rate-In Peak (Per 1000 sq.ft/Per Hr. ) 6.09 Trip Rate-In Peak (Per 1 sq.ft/Per Hr. ) 0.00609 Total Person Trip(Per Hr.) 1193.314712 The total trips are then divided into present commercial modal share. Thus the vehicular trip is 26 | P a g e
  36. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio derived. After that the vehicular trips are divided by the occupancy rate of vehicles for deriving the no. of vehicles. Then the vehicular trip is converted into PCU. After adding all PCU values, total PCUs per hour will be produced from this new development is found. The calculation for Car is given as an example. Table 11: Total PCU Generated from the Under Construction Commercial Complex in 2013 Mode Car Total Person Trip =1193.32 Vehicular Trip No. of Vehicles PCU/Hr (Person Trip Multipiled (Vehicular Trip (No. of Vehicles by Modal Share Divided by Multiplied by PCU Percentage of Occupancy Rate of Value of that Vehicle) Commercial Land Use ) the Vehicles) (1193.32*26.25)/100 (313.31/2) = 156.34 (156.65*1) = 156.34 = 313.31 Microbus 7.74 0.25 0.25 Office Vehicle 2.22 0.074 0.074 Taxi 92.41 11.20 11.20 CNG 94.21 47.11 23.55 Bus 292.64 9.75 24.38 Motorcycle 21.88 21.88 6.56 Rickshaw 268.11 134.05 107.24 Bicycle 4.17 4.17 0.83 Human Hauler 1.72 0.57 0.28 School bus 0.38 0.012 0.025 Total 331.08 In this chapter trip rate calculation procedure for different types of land uses is described and using that trip rate land use change traffic of present (2011) and the development traffic in future (2013) has been calculated. In the next chapter using this calculated land use change traffic volume several analysis about the impact on traffic will be carried out. Chapter 05: Impact on Traffic for Land Use Change 27 | P a g e
  37. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio In this chapter the impact of land use change on traffic condition are aimed to be assessed. In previous chapter the amount of land use change over the period 2007-2011 has been determined. The change of traffic can be broadly divided into two categories. Natural Growth of Traffic and Development Traffic for land use change. This study intends to analyze the impact of Development Traffic on Mirpur Road in terms of Level of Service (LOS). 5.1 Impact on LOS of Mirpur Road for Land Use Change During geometric feature survey the carriageway width after certain distances has been measured at both directions. Then the average carriageway width has been identified thus the total capacity of the road has been determined in PCU unit. Capacity of the Mirpur Road (Azimpur – Technical) Direction Average No. of lanes Standard Total Capacity Carriageway (Assuming 12’ as Per Capacity/Lane (PCU/Hr) Width(feet) Lane Width) (PCU/Hr) 82.41 Bothway 1 2 14002 6.867 6.867*1400 = 9613.33 Source: Field Survey 2011 Design Capacity of Urban Arterial Road is 1400 PCU/lane/hour According to DITS (1994) Comparison of LOS for Land Use Change (for Peak Hourly Traffic Flow) Traffic Estimated Volume Capacity (PCU/hr) (PCU/hr) Year 2006 4995.353 Year 2011 -2703.775) Change Traffic) = 2647.76 (Traffic volume/Capacity) Level of Service (LOS) (5351.534 (without Landuse V/C ratio 0.52 A 0.28 A 0.54 A 9613.33 Year 2011 ( with Landuse 5351.534 Change Traffic) (3Traffic Volume of Mirpur Road in 2006 ;4Traffic Volume of Mirpur Road in 2011: Appendix) (5Land Use Change Traffic of Mirpur Road(Net Volume);Calculated in Chapter-04) 28 | P a g e
  38. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio The comparison of Level of Service has been made between two years, 2006 and 2011. The reason is the previous land use data was for the year 2007 and the present data is for 2011. The volume data for the year 2007 was not available. It is to be assumed that the volume data for 2006 would be applicable for 2007. To assess the impact of land use change two stages of Level of Services have been used for the analysis. One includes the land use change traffic and the other excludes the land use change traffic. From the table, it can be seen that the Level of Service has remain constant over the period of 2006 to 2011. However, the volume-capacity ratio faces huge change. This is because total land use change throughout the Mirpur Road produces a large amount of traffic. If this amount is excluded from the present traffic volume to identify the land use change impact it will not present the real situation. This will not express the actual change in the condition of the road. The level of service of Mirpur Road is determined as “A” in two study period (2006, 2011). This does not represent the real scenario. Reason behind this is using “Carriageway Width” instead of “Effective Carriageway Width” (excluding encroachment) in capacity calculation. However the impact of land use change has increased the volume-capacity ratio although the Level of Service is unchanged. 5.2 Impact on LOS for Land Use Change in the Selected Study Area (BRTC Market-Technical) The road capacity of the selected study area has been determined following the previously stated procedure. Capacity of the Selected Study Area (BRTC Market – Technical) Direction Average No. of lanes Standard Total Capacity Carriageway (Assuming 12’ as Per Capacity/Lane (PCU/Hr) Width(feet) Lane Width) (PCU/Hr) 1 Bothway 1 81.82 6.818 1400 6.818*1400 = 9545.67 Source: Field Survey 2011 Comparison of LOS for Land Use Change (for Peak Hourly Traffic Flow) 29 | P a g e
  39. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Traffic Estimated Volume Capacity (PCU/hr) (PCU/hr) Year 2006 50211 Year 2011 V/C ratio (Traffic volume/Capacity) Level of Service (LOS) (5226.72- (without Landuse = 4632 A 0.485 594.73) Change Traffic) 0.53 A 0.55 A 9545.67 Year 2011 ( with Landuse 5226.72 Change Traffic) (1Traffic Volume of 2006 and 2Traffic Volume of 2011 for BRTC-Technical Section: Appendix) (3 Land Use Change Traffic in Section-7(BRTC Market-Technical Intersection); Calculation: Appendix) Level of service comparison has been made according to previously stated procedure to identify the impact of land use change in the selected study area BRTC Market to Technical Intersection. The level of service condition of the study area remain constant but the vehicle-capacity ratio faces a slight change for the extra traffic generated because of land use change besides natural growth of traffic. 5.3 Impact on LOS in Future (2013) for New Construction in the Selected Study Area (BRTC Market-Technical) 30 | P a g e
  40. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Impact on LOS in Future (2013) for New Construction Traffic Volume Capacity (PCU/hr) Year 2011 Estimated (PCU/hr) V/C ratio (Traffic volume/Capacity) Level of Service (LOS) 5226.7 0.55 A 5312.31 0.56 A 0.59 A Year 2013 (without Development 9545.67 Traffic) Year 2013 ( with Development (5312.31+331.12) =5643.4 Traffic) In the selected study area section a large amount of land (195866 sq.ft.) exist as “Under Construction” situation under the authority of Destiny Developers for the development of a multistoried commercial complex. The completion period is assumed to be 2013. To assess the impact for the newly generated traffic from this commercial establishment in 2013, the traffic volume is forecasted with the help of growth rate which is described in the earlier chapter. Afterwards the development traffic is being calculated from the trip rate of commercial establishment and total floor area of that commercial complex in chapter 4. Two level of service has been determined; one including the development traffic and other without it. From the above table it can be seen that the development traffic from the new establishment deteriorates the condition of the road by increasing the vehicle capacity ratio though the level of service of the road remain unchanged. 5.4 Comparison of Vehicle Capacity Ratio for the Selected Study Area (BRTC MarketTechnical) for Average and Off-Pick Hourly Flow 31 | P a g e
  41. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Average and Off-Pick Hourly Traffic Flow in separate directions (Northbound and Southbound) in the selected study area and Capacity of that respective direction is determined to develop a comparative scenario of vehicle-capacity ratio over the period 2006-11. Table12- Average and Off Peak Hourly Flow(Northbound): BRTC-Technical Intersection Year Off-Peak Hourly Volume(PCU/Hr) Average Hourly Volume(PCU/Hr) 2006 1937.8 2302.28 2009 2138.6 2360.16 2011 1967.8 2248.00 Source: 2006 - Course Report of Plan 342: Library; DURP; 2009-DTCB; 2011(Field Survey) Capacity of the Study Area (Northbound) Direction Average No. of lanes Standard Total Capacity Carriageway (Assuming 12’ as Per Capacity/Lane (PCU/Hr) Width(feet) Lane Width) (PCU/Hr) 42.071 Northbound 42.07/12= 3.506 1400 3.506*1400= 4908.17 (BRTC Market – Technical Intersection) 1 Source: Field Survey 2011 Type of Traffic Flow Change in Vehicle - Capacity Ratio (Northbound) 0.46 0.48 0.47 V/C-Average Hourly Volume 2011 2009 2006 0.40 0.44 0.39 V/C-Off Peak Hourly Volume 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 Vehicle/Capacity Figure 12: Change in V/C Ratio at Northbound Direction (BRTC market to Technical Intersection) From the above illustration it can be seen that v/c is lowest in 2011 and highest in 2009 for both type of traffic flow. A higher value of v/c indicates a lower traffic condition according to the standard of Level of Service. Table 13- Average and Off Peak Hourly Flow(Southbound): BRTC-Technical Intersection 32 | P a g e
  42. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio Year Off-Peak Hourly Volume(PCU/Hr) Average Hourly Volume(PCU/Hr) 2006 2161.8 2330.52 2009 1936.5 2099.88 2011 1371 1749.38 Source: 2006 - Course Report of Plan 342: Library; DURP; 2009-DTCB; 2011(Field Survey) Capacity of the Study Area (Southbound) Direction Average No. of lanes Standard Total Capacity Carriageway (Assuming 12’ as Per Capacity/Lane (PCU/Hr) Width(feet) Lane Width) (PCU/Hr) 39.751 Southbound 39.75/12= 3.313 1400 3.313*1400= 4637.50 (BRTC Market – Technical Intersection) 1 Source: Field Survey 2011 Type of Traffic Flow Change in Vehicle - Capacity Ratio (Southbound) 0.38 V/C- Average Hourly Volume 0.45 2011 0.50 2009 2006 0.30 V/C-Off Peak Hourly Volume 0.42 0.47 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 Vehicle/Capacity Figure 13: Change in V/C Ratio at Southbound Direction (BRTC market to Technical Intersection) Vehicle –Capacity ratio is decreasing in southbound direction of the selected study area over the period which indicates better traffic condition. This is because in one direction the volume of traffic is low with respect to the capacity of the road. So v/c ratio eventually can give better result. 5.5 Major Findings  The average carriage way width of the road is 82.4 feet in both directions combined which is quite satisfactory but the peak hourly traffic volume 5351.53 PCU is quite high. (Source: Chapter-03)  Journey Speed and Spot Speed is deteriorating over the period. (Source: Chapter-03) 33 | P a g e
  43. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio  Commercial and Educational land use change is in the dominating position and Residential land use change is in a negative trend. So more and more adjacent plots are being commercialized. (Source: Chapter-03)  Though the trip rate producing rate is higher for Garments(0.03 per sq.ft./per hour) but the contribution in the peak hourly traffic volume from the land use is dominated by the Commercial land uses(1445.45 PCU/Hr).(Source: Chapter-04)  The vehicle capacity ratio (v/c) is increasing over the time which indicates deterioration of the road condition according to the standards of the level of services. (Source: Chapter-05) 5.6 Recommendations  Commercial land uses act as the major point of traffic generation and attraction for this road, there should be strong restrictions, regulations and guidelines for establishing any kind of new commercial land use along this road.  Garments and Educational land use generate and attract a huge amount of traffic at a specific time which creates a huge pressure on the road in a certain time period. The establishment of any new Garments and Educational institution should be strictly prohibited on this road to reduce the peak hourly traffic flow. 5.7 Conclusion To improve and maintain the transportation system in Dhaka city is very necessary now. People have to do loss huge time on road because of traffic congestion. It is high time to find out the actual reasons behind this poor condition of transportation system. There is no doubt that improper distribution of land use is a major issue of Dhaka’s transportation problem. By finding the actual 34 | P a g e
  44. PLAN 446 Transportation Planning Studio impact of land use change on the transportation, proper planning steps are likely to be taken. Drastic changes are being made in the land use of Dhaka city now-a-days. These changes need to be scrutinized first by proper authority to check whether these have any adverse effect on transportation system or not. By proper maintenance and effective measures, a harmonized relationship between Land Use and Transportation System can be made. 35 | P a g e
  45. References 1. Litman T. A. & Steele R. (2010), Land Use Impacts on Transport: How Land Use Factors Affect Travel Behavior; Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Canada. URL: www.vtpi.org/landtravel.pdf (Accessed on 27th February,2011) 2. Litman T. A. (2005), Evaluating Transportation Land Use Impacts; Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Canada. URL: http://www.cipra.org/alpknowhow/publications/Landuse/landuse (Accessed on 27th February, 2011) 3. Litman T. A. (1995), Land use impact costs of transportation: Describes a framework for incorporating land use impacts into transportation planning and policy decisions; Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Canada. URl:www.seit.ee/agenda21/english/transport/landuse_costs_extern.pdf (Accessed on 27th February, 2011) 4. Sharmin N. Rupom N. J. and Sadat K.(2011) Developing a Generic Methodology for Traffic Impact Assessment of a Mixed land Use in Dhaka City, (2011), Chapter (1-8), BURP Thesis of Group-02, DURP, BUET, Dhaka. 5. Performance Impact of Transportation Policy Shift on Mirpur Road – A Comparative Analysis; (2006), Report of Group-(01,04), Transportation Planning Studio (PLAN 342), DURP Library, BUET, Dhaka. 6. Impacts of Policy Measures on Urban Transportation System: A Case Study of Mirpur Road; (2003), Report of Group-“Motion”, Transportation Planning Studio (PLAN 342), DURP Library, BUET, Dhaka. 7. Mitra, R. (2004), Land Use- Transportation Cycle Reexamined: A Case Study of Land Use Changes in Dhanmondi R/A and its Impacts on Mirpur Road, World Habitat Day 2004 Souvenir, Centre for Urban Studies (CUS) and Bangladesh Institute of Planners (BIP), Dhaka, Bangladesh. 8. Rahman M. M. (2006), “Study of parking Facility for the New Market Shopping Zone in Dhaka City ” Unpublished MURP Thesis, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka. 9. Kadiyali L.R. (2003), “Traffic Engineering and Transport Planning” Sixth Edition, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi.(page: 823-828) 10. Traffic Impact Analysis; URL: http://www.lic.wisc.edu/shapingdane/facilitation/all_resources/impacts/analysis_traffic.htm (Accessed on March 2nd, 2011)
  46. Appendix Classification of Level of Service Level of Service (LOS) Description A This is a condition of free flow accompanied by low volume and high speed. Traffic density will be low with uninterrupted flow speed controlled by driver’s desires, speed limit and physical roadway condition. There is little or no restriction in maneuverability due to the presence of other vehicles and drivers can maintain their desired speed with little or no delay. B This occurs in the zone of stable flow with operating speeds beginning to be restricted by traffic conditions. Drivers will have reasonable freedom to select their speed and lane of operations. Reduction in speed is reasonable with a low probability of traffic flow being restricted. C This is the zone of stable flow but speeds and maneuverability are more closely controlled by higher volumes. Moist of the drivers are restricted in their freedom to select their own speed, lane changing or overtaking maneuvers. A relatively satisfactory operating speed is still obtained if service volumes are suitable for urban design. D This level of service approaches unstable flow with tolerable operating speeds being maintained, though considerably affected by changing in operating condition. Drivers have little freedom to maneuver, and comfort and convenience are low. These conditions can be tolerated for short periods of time. E This stage cannot be described by speed alone, but represents operations at lower operating speeds with volumes at or near the capacity of the road. Flow is unstable and there may be stoppage of momentary duration. F In this stage, forced flow condition prevails with low speeds, where volumes are below capacity. Speeds are reduced substantially and stoppages may occur for short or long periods of time due to downstream congestion. In the extreme, both speed and volume can drop to zero.
  47. Appendix Geometric Feature Survey Data Sheet (Northward) No. Section Name Footpath Width Type Left Shoulder Width Curb Right Left Right Carriageway Width Left Right Median Width No. of Lanes Left Lane Width (From Left) Right Left Right 2 3 4 5 Survey Data Sheet for Trip Rate Analysis Land Use: No. of Person Trips In Address: Time Left Right M  UM M  UM M  UM M  UM M  UM Yes  No Yes  No Yes  No Yes  No Yes  No 1 Lane Marking NMT RightLane of-way Width M  UM M  UM M  UM M  UM M  UM Signal Yes  No Yes  No Yes  No Yes  No Yes  No Over Bridge Yes  No Yes  No Yes  No Yes  No Yes  No Out Survey Data Sheet for Modal Share Address: Land Use: Mode Time Car Microbus Office Vehicle Taxi CNG Bus School Bus Human Hauler Motorcycle Rickshaw Bicycle Walking
  48. Appendix Location: Traffic Volume Survey Date: Mode Direction: Time & Name of the Surveyor Car/Microbus /Jeep/Pickup Bus Minibus Truck Weather: CNG Auto Rickshaw Human Hauler /Tempo Motorcycle Rickshaw / Van Push Cart Speed Survey (Moving Observer Method) Format Overtaken Vehicles Overtaking Vehicles NMT Route: Azimpur to Technical (Northbound) Recorder: Observer: Same Direction Traffic Motorcycl e Human Hauler Science Lab Science Lab - City College CNG 4 5 Truck New Market - Science Lab Bus 3 Opposing Traffic Car Azimpur - New Market New Market Stopped Time (min) 1 2 Journey Time (min) Section Type of Control Sl.No. Day: Data: Start Time: Bicycle
  49. Appendix PCE Values by Vehicle type for Dhaka City Mode PCE Bus 2.5 Mini bus 2 Micro bus 1 CNG/Auto 0.5 rickshaw Passenger car 1 Motor Cycle 0.3 Human Hauler 0.5 Bicycle 0.2 Rickshaw 0.8 Pushcart 4 Truck 2 Source: DITS, 1994 Occupancy Rate Microbus/Bus = 30 CNG/Car = 2 Rickshaw = 2 Human Hawler = 3 Motorcycle/Bicyle = 1
  50. Appendix Land Use Pattern (Mirpur Road) Present-2011 Past-2007 Land Use Total Area(sft) Percentage Total (sft) Percentage Commercial 3613318.602 0.273 2758202.302 0.237 Education & Research 3486389.678 0.264 2865060.006 0.246 Garments 82639.263 0.006 4529.000 0.000 Hospital 1688313.602 0.128 1456900.986 0.125 Mixed 372908.360 0.028 307314.890 0.026 Office 678309.820 0.051 440542.108 0.038 Others 1264823.484 0.096 900928.556 0.077 Residential 1989843.834 0.150 2892512.459 0.249 Under construction 49822.316 0.004 Total 13226368.957 100.00% 11625990.308 100.00% Source: Present - Field Survey, 2011; Past- GIS Database 2007,Sheltech (Pvt.) Limited Land Use Change( Mirpur Road) Present-2011 Past-2007 Change Land Use Total Area(sft) Total Area(sft) Area(sft) Percentage Commercial 3613318.602 2758202.302 855116.300 31.003 Education & Research 3486389.678 2865060.006 621329.672 21.686 Garments 82639.263 4529.000 78110.263 1724.669 Hospital 1688313.602 1456900.986 231412.615 15.884 Mixed 372908.360 307314.890 65593.470 21.344 Office 678309.820 440542.108 237767.712 53.972 Others 1264823.484 900928.556 363894.927 40.391 Residential 1989843.834 2892512.459 -902668.626 -31.207 Under construction 49822.316 49822.316 100.000 Total 13226368.957 1600378.649 13.766 11625990.308 Source: Present - Field Survey, 2011; Past- GIS Database 2007,Sheltech (Pvt.) Limited
  51. Appendix Land Use Pattern and Change of the Selected Study Area (BRTC Market-Technical) Land Use Area-2011 (sq.ft.) 1446444.468 Change Type Increase Change (sq.ft.) 72942.051 Percentage Change Commercial Activity Area-2007 (sq.ft.) 1373502.417 Residential 1010946.374 1338811.881 Increase 327865.508 32.432 Education & Research 1100334.027 1115401.892 Increase 15067.865 1.369 Hospital 561576.997 658717.378 Increase 97140.381 17.298 Office 35185.918 35185.918 Equal 0.000 0.000 Garments 183914.332 203037.735 Increase 19123.403 10.398 Others 597976.837 575419.846 Decrease -22556.991 -3.772 5.311 Source: Present - Field Survey, 2011; Past- GIS Database 2007,Sheltech (Pvt.) Limited Volume Survey Data Location: Shyamoly N-S Time Rate (PCUs/hour) Group 6 Peak 7:30-10:30 2584 Off-Peak 3:00-4:00 1607 Average 7:30 am-7:00 pm 2159 S-N Time Rate (PCUs/hour) Group 1 Peak Off-Peak Average 5.00-7.00 pm 11.00-12.00 pm 8.00 am - 6.00 pm 2211.50 1115.05 1749.38 S-N Time Rate (PCUs/hour) Peak 8.00-11.00 2652.28 Off-Peak 3.00-4.00 1340.00 Location: Ganobhobon N-S Time Rate (PCUs/hour) Average 8.00 am - 6 pm 2366.14 Group 2 Peak Off-Peak 7:30-10:30am 1:00 - 2:00 pm 7681.8 1529.8 Average 5:00-7:00pm 4273.6 Peak Off-Peak 7:30-10:30am 3:00 - 4:00 pm 5240.7 896.4 Average 11:00-12:00am 2322.9 S-N Time Rate (PCUs/hour) Location: Family World S-N Time Rate (PCUs/hour) Time Rate (PCUs/hour) Group 7 Peak 8:30 - 9:30 am 2122.4 Off-Peak 7:30 - 8:30 am 1333.7 Peak 3.00- 4.00 pm 2374 Off-Peak 7:30 - 8:30 am 1532.3 Average 1353.775 S-N Peak Off-Peak Average 1:00-2:00 pm 11:00-12:00 pm 7:30 am- 7:00 pm 2978 2019 2248 Location: Shishumela N-S Time Rate (PCUs/hour) Location: Science Lab N-S Time Rate (PCUs/hour) Location: New Market N-S Average 1662.8125 Group 5 Peak Time 5:00 - 7 pm Rate (PCUs/hour) 997.85 Location: Eden College S-N Peak Time 1.00- 2.00 pm Rate (PCUs/hour) 816.6 Off-Peak 11:00 - 12:00 pm 664.2 Average Off-Peak 5:00 - 7:00 pm 556.35 Average Location: Dhanmondi 27 Intersection to Manik Mia Avenue S-N Peak Off-Peak Time 3:00 - 4:00 pm 7.30-8.00 am Rate (PCUs/hour) 2978 1798.32 Location: Metro Shopping Mall N-S Peak Off-Peak Time 5:00 - 7 pm 3:00 - 4:00 pm Rate (PCUs/hour) 2128.15 1524.9 931.05 683.9625 Average 5.00 - 6.00 pm 2500.6 Group 4 Average 7:30 am - 7:00 pm 1845.19 Group 3 S-N Peak Off-Peak Average 5:00 - 6:45 pm 3:00 - 4:00 pm 7:45 am - 6:45 pm 2256.34 1641.4 2057.36 Time Rate (PCUs/hour) Peak 5.00- 7.00 pm 3641.35 Off-Peak 3:00 - 4:00 pm 2956.7 Average 7:30 am - 7:00 pm 3352.85 Source: Field Survey, 2011 A-1
  52. Appendix Modal Share Distribution (Compiled Data for 4 Groups: Volume Survey 2011 in Mirpur Road) Vehicle Type Group 3 Group 4 Group 6 GROUP 1 Total Bus 604 234 250 197 468 1092 259 293 284 777 590 190 229 160 489 673 195 1293 Car/Microbus/Jeep/Pickup Minibus Truck 3264 1200 1027 877 2152 6724 2218 2128 1983 4709 3300 1157 1334 1060 2754 166 47 116 41 126 7 3 1 3 4 5 3 5 1 8 5 13 0 1 8 15 5 0 2 6 9 0 0 0 2 3286 1179 4636 46 8 110 16 1 49 527 156 247 249 311 784 191 182 82 296 2211 807 1156 654 1024 3655 1064 698 770 1325 27 8 10 9 22 31 19 1 60 18 2 0 3 23 10 10 1 6 17 6 11302.28 58351.82 904.24 210 Bus Percentage(%) 11.787782 Car/Microbus/Jeep/Pickup 60.858385 Minibus Human Toatl No. of Hauler / Motorcycle Rickshaw/Van Push Cart Bicycle Vehicles Tempo 5581.1 706 0 277 33 0 13 2149.7 356 0 193 11 0 0 2109.4 362 0 140 3 0 0 1641.4 283 0 152 1 0 0 3948.6 545 0 271 6 0 0 10240.7 994 0 563 65 3 64 3194.2 443 0 206 23 2 15 3148.7 406 0 156 32 1 34 2956.7 343 0 156 32 1 29 7282.5 780 0 548 49 2 47 5200.2 524 0 302 19 1 127 1737.2 158 0 50 3 0 14 2042.9 184 0 78 1 1 31 1524.9 91 0 48 2 0 7 4256.3 396 0 152 8 1 29 977 281 222 94 7 61 5663 476 71 119 11 3 20 2083 2369 477 648 200 17 131 9930 692 150 102 80 1 25 3817.005 372 60 100 12 4 18 1536.31 610 122 187 29 0 22 2386 380 83 122 27 1 12 1560 464 88 152 28 0 10 2109 1138 42 1051 23 0 50 6784 425 24 46 2 0 7 1779 394 31 100 13 0 1 1426 362 18 65 1 0 4 1379 451 0 137 14 0 4 2251 15681.1 1447 6343 821.875 45 775 95881.315 Human CNG/Auto Hauler / Motorcycle Rickshaw/Van Push Cart Bicycle Total Rickshaw Tempo 16.354699 1.509157 6.615470 0.857180 0.046933 0.808291 100 CNG/Auto Rickshaw Truck 0.943083 0.219021 Journey Speed Comparision in Overall Mirpur Road Test Vehicle: Car Direction Journey Speed-2003(K.P.H) Journey Speed-2006(K.P.H) Journey Speed-2011(K.P.H) Northbound 14.45 27.86 15.94 Southbound 17.20 21 18.4 Source: 2003 & 2006(Course Report of Plan 342: Library;DURP) ; 2011(Field Survey) Spot Speed Comparision in Overall Mirpur Road Test Vehicle: Bus and Car Vehicle Speed-2003(K.P.H) Speed-2011(K.P.H) Bus 32.5 27.685 Car 38.25 25.575 Source: 2003 & 2006(Course Report of Plan 342: Library;DURP) ; 2011(Field Survey) A-2
  53. Appendix Journey Speed: Moving Observer Method(Compiled Data of 7 Run) in Mirpur Road 2011 0 57 52 25 2 Overtak en Vehicles 103 72 103 64 126 133 NMT 0 48 50 21 0 9 Overtaki ng Vehicles 0 Motorcy cle 227 207 43 212 470 292 1037 Human Hauler 6 7 1 9 0 273 187 36 93 144 92 114 187 102 210 182 105 64 108 60.91 7523.00 1849.00 23.00 2488.00 128.00 601.00 136.00 939.00 958.00 8.701 1074.714 264.1429 3.285714 355.4286 18.28571 85.85714 19.42857 134.1429 136.8571 PCU 1969.8 239 372 253 375 312 154 369 2 1 6 3 0 6 0 173 176 85 298 417 189 998 Motorcy cle 1206 1370 674 898 1184 661 1166 Human Hauler CNG 19.95 11.82 5 5.85 7.83 0.78 13.78 Truck Stopped Time (min) 20.40 30.97 30 24.5 28.50 17.99 17.62 Bus Journey Time (min) 8:15 AM 9:41 AM 10:57 AM 12.20 PM 2:08 PM 4:05 PM 5.30 PM Car Start Time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Opposing Traffic 0 11 30 22 0 57 34 36 91 76 108 100 0 9 55 17 0 169.98 65.01 7159 2074 18 2336 120 445 81 24.28286 9.287143 1022.714 296.2857 2.571429 333.7143 17.14286 63.57143 11.57143 PCU 1972.329 Overtak en Vehicles Route: Technical to Azimpur (Southbound) Same Direction Traffic Data: 31.3.2010 Run No. Day: Thursday Overtaki ng Vehicles 194.47 27.78114 448 228 215 192 325 164 277 NMT Total Av. 1994 964 576 766 1265 654 1304 CNG 21.46 5.69 3.5 2.1 12.96 4.40 10.8 Truck Stopped Time (min) 31.70 34.50 27 24.45 36.44 21.30 19.08 Bus Journey Time (min) 7:30: AM 8:35 AM 10:30 AM 11.30 AM 1:30 PM 3:30 PM 5.00 PM Opposing Traffic Car Start Time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total Av. Route: Azimpur to Technical (Northbound) Same Direction Traffic Data: 31.3.2010 Run No. Day: Thursday 195 103 207 164 101 92 230 141 86 275 186 94 150 121 1092 1053 156 150.4286 A-3
  54. Appendix Journey Speed Calculation : Moving Observer Method Formula Qn= Where Qn = Flow in the north bound direction xs = Opposing traffic count of vehicles met when the test car was travelling south yn= Number of vehicles overtaking the test car minus the number overtaken by the test car, when the test car is travelling north. Also tn(m) = tn Where tn(m) = Mean journey time in the north bound direction tn = journey time when the test car travelled in the north bound direction Derivation Azimpur to Technical( Northbound) Qn= = = 37.83 PCU/min =2269.795 PCU/Hour
  55. Appendix Technical to Azimpur (Southbound) Qn= = = 37.94 PCU/min =2276 PCU/Hour Now, tn(m) = tn = 27.782 – = 27.853 min Mean Journey Speed in Northbound Direction = = 15.94 K.P.H Then ts(m) = ts = 24.283 – = 24.136 min Mean Journey Speed in Northbound Direction = = 18.396 K.P.H
  56. Appendix Trip Rate Data Compilation Land Use: Residential Group Structure Name 10,11,30 Suraya's Dream-31/2 Address: 68/1, Azimpur Govt. 21,17 Quarter 4 Anannya Apartment Complex Trip rate of Residential 8,15,18 Syhamoli Garden (check) Maximum Hourly Rate/1000 sft Total Floor Area (sft) Average Hourly Rate/1000 sft 82040 0.68 39102.7 0.888 0.743 0.715837937 1.24 1.959 0.784 1.106831211 1.89 Total Floor Area (sft) Average Hourly Rate/1000 sft 128000 3.379 38147.51 3.53 5.71 42453.29 51840 3.77 7.81009 4.346848417 9.049 5.65 10.6289 6.092492216 11.85 Margin of error (%) Maximum 4.516 27.99119611 48.5 Maximum trip per hour Margin of error (%) average 1.1 12250 30600 Average Trip per hour 43.28008881 42.28619358 74 41.5133935 Land Use: Commercial Group 4 10,11,30 1 6 8 Structure Name Sunrise Shopping Complex A.R.A Centre Orchard Point Arong Shopping Mall Trip rate of Commercial Metro shopping Mall (check) 93257.08 Maximum Hourly Rate/1000 sft Average Trip per hour 405.3743906 843 Maximum trip per hour Margin of error (%) average Margin of error (%) Maximum 568.1680339 51.91288368 48.62856836 1106 Land Use: Educational Group 8 6 5 Structure Name Eden Women’s College Dhanmondi Govt. Boys High School Trip rate of Educational Dhaka City College (check) Total Floor Area (sft) 32000 2671 11000 Average Hourly Rate/1000 students 28.28 140.16 36.89906146 64.136 Maximum Hourly Rate/1000 students 69.15 417.45 95.98249113 159.9 Average Trip per hour 405.8896761 724.6666667 Maximum trip per hour Margin of error (%) average Margin of error (%) Maximum 1055.807402 43.98946512 39.97683897 1759
  57. Appendix Land Use: Hospital Total Floor Area (sft) Average Hourly Rate/1000 sft LabAid Diagnostic Center 75434.44 Care Hospital 50665.72 201059.08 10.01034806 0.84 6.325798514 6.23 Total Floor Area (sft) Average Hourly Rate/1000 sft 19859.41 33390.62 11639 6.31 3.82 4.748636677 5.488014434 Total Floor Area (sft) Average Hourly Rate/1000 sft 70376.74 11.12100027 11.12100027 10.47676692 Group 1,16,29 1 Structure Name Trip rate of Hospital 7 Shahid Suhrawardi (check) Maximum Hourly Rate/1000 sft 20.4415914 2.69 13.3091884 11.32 Average Trip per hour 1271.85923 1252 Maximum trip per hour 2675.933175 2276 Margin of error (%) average Margin of error (%) Maximum -1.58620045 -17.5717564 Margin of error (%) average Margin of error (%) Maximum Land Use: Office Group Structure Name 7 Southeast Bank Building 8,15,18 Beximco pharma Trip rate of Office 1,16,29 One Bank (check) Maximum Hourly Rate/1000 sft 10.98 7.28 8.659901889 14.26239368 Average Trip per hour 55.26938228 63.875 Maximum trip per hour 100.7925981 13.47259134 39.28156742 166 Land Use: Garments Group Structure Name 5 Hypoid Fashions Trip rate of Garments 17,21 Creative Shirts (check) 90269.13 Maximum Hourly Rate/1000 sft 37.76855746 37.76855746 38.01969668 Average Trip per hour 1003.883019 945 Maximum trip per hour 3409.334824 3432 Margin of error (%) average Margin of error (%) Maximum -6.23100733 0.66040724
  58. Appendix Land Use Residential Residential Residential Residential Grand Total Percentage Commercial Commercial Commercial Commercial Commercial Grand Total Percentage Office Office Office Grand Total Percentage Hospital Hospital Hospital Grand Total Percentage Educational Educational Educational Grand Total Percentage Garments Garments Grand Total Percentage Car Microbus 91 Modal Share Data Compilation(2011-6 Land Use and 20 Surveyed Building) Mode Office Taxi CNG Bus School Human Motorcycl Rickshaw Vehicle Bus Hauler e 12 8 3 96 45 42 10 1 144 3 1 18 115 341 3 13 1 71 160 32.85164 0.289017 1.252408 0.096339 6.840077 15.41426 182 8 34 292 2 21 Bicycle Walking 3 42 7 61 1 141 2 4 15 4 42 7 31 66 0 2 20 128 8 291 0 0.192678 1.926782 12.33141 0.770713 28.03468 9 10 204 15 116 354 6 18 110 29 131 284 8 6 0 17 59 0 0 11 197 280 1 17 47 93 1 329 536 18 5 100 376 974 2 63 539 1636 40 12 117 492 1528 2 9 114 1400 26.25582 0.649 0.186585 1.877708 7.894052 24.52374 0.032098 0.144439 1.83361 22.46693 45 3 10 53 19 64 49 21 0 0 5 18 0 0 30 63 92 2 14 131 11 32 82 186 23 3 0 29 202 0 11 81 209 19.91435 2.462527 0.321199 0 3.104925 21.62741 0 1.17773 8.672377 22.37687 102 11 22 107 184 1 77 219 187 31 0 7 144 24 0 0 36 96 262 90 0 15 154 48 0 0 48 121 551 132 0 44 405 256 0 1 161 436 23.91493 5.719377 0 1.908091 17.58302 11.10589 0 0.043403 6.982626 18.9321 22 6 815 16 7 79 22 6 815 16 7 79 69 13 5 18 1021 17 38 266 113 13 5 0 30 2651 0 49 52 424 2.705291 0.311228 0.119703 0 0.718219 63.4666 0 1.173091 1.244913 10.15083 1 209 37 6 33 209 31 9 23 0 1 0 0 0 418 0 68 15 56 0 0.021008 0 0 0 8.781513 0 1.428571 0.315126 1.176471 2 3 154 664 359 151 1444 23.17257 66 55 47 168 17.98715 41 7 254 302 13.1233 346 346 26 718 17.18937 2164 1999 4163 87.45798 2 22 0.350073 5 2 15 22 2.35546 13 0 3 16 0.694118 122 122 2.920757 20 19 39 0.819328 Total 182 393 78 385 1038 100 870 804 664 1127 2766 6231 100 265 243 426 934 100 777 532 995 2304 100 1291 1291 1595 4177 100 2470 2290 4760 100
  59. Appendix Increased PCU Calculation (Peak Hourly) from the Changed Amount of Land Uses in Mirpur Road Commercial (Modal Share) Car Microbus Office Vehicle Taxi CNG Bus School Bus Human Hauler Motorcycle Rickshaw Bicycle Walking 26.25581769 0.649 0.186585237 1.877708 7.894052 24.52374 0.03209758 0.144439095 1.833610211 22.46693 0.350073 23.17257 Person Trip 5209.7894 Vehicle Trip No. of vehicles 1367.872807 683.9364033 33.811533 1.1270511 9.720697906 97.82464 411.2635 1277.635 1.67221615 0.324023264 48.91232 205.6317 42.58784 0.05574054 7.524972653 95.52723041 1170.48 18.23808 1207.242 2.508324218 95.52723041 585.2399 18.23808 PCU 683.9364033 1.1270511 0.324023264 48.91232 102.8159 106.4696 0.11148108 1.254162109 28.65816912 468.1919 3.647616 0 1445.448602 Residential (Modal Share) Car Microbus Office Vehicle Taxi CNG Bus School Bus Human Hauler Motorcycle Rickshaw Bicycle Walking 32.85163776 0.2890173 1.252408478 0.096339 6.840077 15.41426 0 0.192678227 1.926782274 12.33141 0.770713 28.03468 Person Trip -999.1018084 Vehicle Trip No. of vehicles -328.221307 -2.8875775 -164.110654 -0.0962526 -12.51283575 -0.96253 -68.3393 -154.004 -0.417094525 -0.48126 -34.1697 -5.13347 0 0 -1.925051654 -19.25051654 -123.203 -7.70021 -280.095 -0.641683885 -19.25051654 -61.6017 -7.70021 PCU -164.110654 -0.0962526 -0.417094525 -0.48126 -17.0848 -12.8337 0 -0.320841942 -5.775154962 -49.2813 -1.54004 0 Hospital (Modal Share) Car Microbus Office Vehicle 23.91493056 5.7193766 Taxi CNG Bus School Bus Human Hauler Motorcycle Rickshaw Bicycle Walking 0 1.908091 17.58302 11.10589 0 0.043402778 6.982625835 18.9321 0.694118 13.1233 Vehicle Trip No. of vehicles 736.5593168 368.2796584 176.15188 5.8717295 0 58.76755 541.5419 342.0519 0 29.38377 270.771 11.40173 0 0 1.33676827 215.0588772 583.0923 21.37824 404.1865 0.445589423 215.0588772 291.5461 21.37824 PCU Person Trip 368.2796584 5.8717295 0 29.38377 135.3855 28.50432 0 0.222794712 64.51766317 233.2369 4.275648 -251.9411352 3079.914094 0 869.68 Garments (Modal Share) Person Trip 2950.11194 Car Microbus Office Vehicle Taxi CNG Bus School Bus Human Hauler Motorcycle Rickshaw Bicycle 0 0 0 0 8.781513 0 1.428571429 Vehicle Trip No. of vehicles 0 0 0.6197714 0.020659 0 0 0 0 0 259.0645 0 8.635482 0 0 42.14445628 9.296571239 14.04815209 9.296571239 PCU Person Trip 0.0210084 0 0.020659 0 0 0 0 7.024076047 2.788971372 13.88288 4.834217 2059.045058 21.5887 Walking 0.31512605 1.176471 0.819328 87.45798 34.7072 24.17109 2580.108 17.3536 24.17109 0 Office (Modal Share) Car Microbus Office Vehicle Taxi 19.9143469 2.4625268 0.321199143 CNG Bus School Bus Human Hauler Motorcycle Rickshaw Bicycle Walking 0 3.104925 21.62741 0 1.177730193 8.672376874 22.37687 2.35546 17.98715 Vehicle Trip No. of vehicles 410.0453756 205.0226878 50.704536 1.6901512 6.613635091 3.306817545 0 63.93181 445.3181 0 31.9659 14.84394 0 0 24.24999533 178.5681475 460.7499 48.49999 370.3636 8.083331778 178.5681475 230.375 48.49999 PCU 205.0226878 1.6901512 3.306817545 0 15.98295 37.10984 0 4.041665889 53.57044424 50.13950755 184.3 9.699998 Total PCU 0 514.7245222 2955.71
  60. Appendix Traffic Volume of Mirpur Road in 2006 Location Peak(N-S) Peak(S-N) Location: Dhanmondi 27 2404.2 2796.4 Location: Science Lab 3899.6 2386.6 Location: New Market 1263 2031 Location: Technical 2404.2 2796.4 Average 2492.75 2502.6 Source: Course Report of Plan 342: Library;DURP Both Direction 5200.6 6286.2 3294 5200.6 4995.35 Traffic Volume of Mirpur Road in 2011 Peak Off-Peak Rate (PCUs/hour) Source: Field Survey,2011 5351.53 Average 3399.99 4621.97 Volume Survey Data of 2006 for BRTC-Technical Section Table: Volume Survey Data of 2006 for Technical (South to North) Section Vehicle 8:00-8:30 AM 9:30-10:00 AM 5:30-6:00 12:00-12:30 PM PM Car, Microbus, Jeep, Pickup 517 434 454 394 Taxi 85 83 139 124 Motor cycle 8 19 107 41 Truck 8 2 12 9 Large Bus 77 83 86 45 Mini Bus 121 112 121 76 Auto Rickshaw 289 237 405 287 Human Hawler 71 36 43 21 Total PCU 1242 1098.3 1334.4 968.9 3:00-3:30 PM 314 193 69 13 53 87 457 39 1112.1 Table: Volume Survey Data of 2006 for Technical (North to South) Section Vehicle 8:00-8:30 AM 9:30-10:00 AM 5:30-6:00 PM Car, Microbus, Jeep, Pickup 393 337 331 Taxi 112 153 162 Motor cycle 74 101 53 Truck 7 16 9 Large Bus 107 90 74 Mini Bus 142 119 109 Auto Rickshaw 290 321 460 Human Hawler 29 93 27 Total PCU 1255.1 1231.6 1176.1 315 91 12 13 69 128 383 45 1082.6 3:00-3:30 PM 246 120 43 11 87 122 389 40 1080.9 12:00-12:30 PM Both Direction(30 min) 2497.1 2329.9 2510.5 2051.5 2193 Both Direction(1 hour) Source: Field Survey,2011 4994.2 4659.8 5021 4103 4386
  61. Appendix Voulume Survey of Mirpur Road, 2011 BRTC Market-Technical Intersection (Section-07) Time N-S(PCU/Hr) 7:30 AM-10:30 AM 1371 11:00 AM-12:00 AM 1486.732 1:00 PM-2:00 PM 2249.2 3:00 PM-4:00 PM 1636.6 5:00 PM-7:00 PM 2211.5 S-N(PCU/Hr) 1967.8 2018.5 2977.5 2453.1 2313.8 Combined 3338.339 3505.232 5226.700 4089.700 4525.250 Average 1749.383 2248 3997.383 N-S 2249.2 1371 1749.383 S-N 2977.5 1967.8 2248 Traffic Peak Off-Peak Av. Source: Field Survey,2011 Land Use Change Traffic Calculation-1: In Section-7(BRTC Market-Technical Intersection) Land Use Commercial Activity Residential Hospital Office Garments Change(sq.ft.) 72942.05 327865.51 97140.38 0.00 19123.40 Trip Rate-In Peak(Per sq.ft/Per Hr. ) 0.006 0.001 0.013 0.009 0.038 Increased PersonTrip(Per Hr.) 444.399 362.892 1292.860 0.000 722.263
  62. Appendix Land Use Change Traffic Calculation-1: In Section-7(BRTC Market-Technical Intersection) Commercial (Modal Share) Car Microbus Office Vehicle Taxi CNG Bus School Bus Human Hauler Motorcycle Rickshaw Bicycle Walking 26.25581769 0.649 0.186585237 1.877708 7.894052 24.52374 0.03209758 0.144439095 1.833610211 22.46693 0.350073 23.17257074 Person Trip 444.3988773 Vehicle Trip No. of vehicles 116.680559 58.34027951 2.8841487 0.0961383 PCU 58.34027951 0.0961383 0.829182699 8.344514 35.08108 108.9832 0.14264127 0.41459135 4.172257 17.54054 3.632774 0.00475471 0.41459135 4.172257 8.77027 9.081936 0.00950942 0.641885716 8.148543192 99.84279 1.555722 102.9786442 0.213961905 8.148543192 49.92139 1.555722 0.106980953 2.444562958 39.93711 0.311144 0 123.685 Residential (Modal Share) Car Microbus Office Vehicle Taxi CNG Bus School Bus Human Hauler Motorcycle Rickshaw Bicycle Walking 32.85163776 0.2890173 1.252408478 0.096339 6.840077 15.41426 0 0.192678227 1.926782274 12.33141 0.770713 28.03468208 Person Trip 362.8917769 Vehicle Trip No. of vehicles 119.215892 59.60794602 1.0488202 0.0349607 4.54488738 0.349607 24.82208 55.93708 2.27244369 0.174803 12.41104 1.864569 0 0 0.699213443 0.233071148 6.99213443 44.74966 2.796854 6.99213443 22.37483 2.796854 101.735556 PCU 59.60794602 0.0349607 2.27244369 0.174803 6.205519 4.661423 0 0.116535574 2.097640329 17.89986 0.559371 0 Hospital (Modal Share) Car Microbus Office Vehicle 23.91493056 5.7193766 309.1864835 154.5932418 73.943511 2.4647837 0 24.66893 227.3238 143.5836 0 12.33447 113.6619 4.786119 0 0 0.561136994 90.27555078 244.7654 8.973973 169.6658877 0.187045665 90.27555078 122.3827 8.973973 PCU Person Trip Taxi CNG Bus School Bus Human Hauler Motorcycle Rickshaw Bicycle Walking 0 1.908091 17.58302 11.10589 0 0.043402778 6.982625835 18.9321 0.694118 13.12330305 Vehicle Trip No. of vehicles Person Trip 154.5932418 2.4647837 0 12.33447 56.83094 0 0.093522832 27.08266523 97.90617 1.794795 1292.859633 Garments (Modal Share) Car Microbus Office Vehicle 0 0.0210084 722.2633316 Taxi CNG 11.9653 0 0 0 365.07 Bus School Bus Human Hauler Motorcycle Rickshaw Bicycle Walking 0 8.781513 0 1.428571429 0.31512605 1.176471 0.819328 87.45798319 Vehicle Trip No. of vehicles 0 0 0.151736 0.0050579 0 0 0 0 0 63.42565 0 2.114188 0 0 10.31804759 3.439349198 PCU Person Trip 93.6305 0 0.0050579 0 0 0 0 1.719674599 0.682811973 3.398886 1.183541 Office (Modal Share) Car Microbus Office Vehicle Taxi 19.9143469 2.4625268 0.321199143 5.28547 2.27603991 8.497216 5.917704 631.6769431 2.27603991 4.248608 5.917704 0 12.2754 CNG Bus School Bus Human Hauler Motorcycle Rickshaw Bicycle Walking 0 3.104925 21.62741 0 1.177730193 8.672376874 22.37687 2.35546 17.98715203 Total Increased PCU 594.66

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