Exploration of Pipeline Water System in Doldoli Tea Garden and Its Feasibility from Planning Perspective
Exploration of Pipeline Water System in Doldoli Tea
Garden and its Feasibility from a Planning Perspective
Exploration of Pipeline Water System in Doldoli Tea Garden
and its Feasibility from a Planning Perspective
Shahadat Hossain Shakil
Student of Level-4/Term-2
Department of Urban and Regional Planning
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
Assistant Program Coordinator, Equity and Inclusion
WaterAid in Bangladesh
I want to express my gratitude to WaterAid in Bangladesh for giving me this chance to work
with them. I would like to acknowledge my supervisor Shamim Ahmed (Assisstant Program
Coordinator – Equity & Inclusion) for his regular guidance. Thank goes to Pankaj Ghosh
Dostider (Project Manager, IDEA) and Rantu Das (Field Engineer, IDEA) for their cordial help
during the field trip in Sylhet.
Finally I want to thank my thesis supervisor Dr. Ishrat Islam (Assistant Professor, DURP,
BUET) for her guidance and help.
Tea is one of the most important foreign revenue earning products in Bangladesh. This success is
led by the intense hard work of the tea garden laborers. Though they work really hard, they are
deprived from some basic human rights. They lead a very pitiable life in consideration of Water,
Sanitation and Hygiene (WaSH). Doldoli tea garden is not an exception. The main objective of
this internship report is to explore the existing pipe line water supply system in Doldoli and come
up with some possible recommendations for its restoration process. The existing water supply
option has been evaluated as a part of the short study and supplementary actions have been
anticipated considering various socio-economic factors.
Table of Contents
Contents Page No
Title Page i
Table of Contents iv
Lists of Illustration vi
Chapter 01: Introduction (Page 1-4)
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Literature Review 1
1.3 Main Objective 2
1.3.1 Specific Objectives 2
1.4 Justification 2
1.5 Study Design 3
1.6 Scope of the Study 3
1.7 Study Area Profile 3
Chapter 02: Exploration of the Existing Pipeline Water System (Page 5-8)
2.1 Present Physical Condition 5
2.2 Problems Identified 6
2.3 Effects of the Problems 7
2.4 Assessment of the Water Facilities 7
2.5 Feasibility of the Pipeline Water System 7
2.6 Evaluation of the Proposed Renovation 8
Chapter 03: Findings and Recommendations (Page 9-10)
3.1 Overall Findings 9
3.2 Short Term Recommendations - Low Cost 9
3.3 Long Term Recommendations - High Cost 9
3.4 Conclusion 10
Appendices (Page I-VII)
A - Existing Water Supply Point and Tube Well List I
B - Map of Doldoli Tea Garden III
C - Identified Locations for Pipe Line Repairing IV
D - Pictures of Present Physical Condition and Problems Identified V
E - Proposed New Water Supply Points and Tube Wells VII
List of Illustration
List of Figures Page No.
Figure 1.1 : Map of Sylhet Sadar Upazilla 4
Figure 1.2 : Study Area of Doldoli Tea Garden 4
Figure 2.1: Water Supply Platform 8
Figure 2.2 : Bathing Facility in the Platform 8
Figure 2.3 : Proposed Water Supply Platform 8
Figure 2.4 : Proposed Bathing Facility 8
List of Tables Page No.
Table 2.1: At a Glance Water Supply Facility in Doldoli Tea Garden 5
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Chapter - 01: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
Bangladesh is an agro based developing country. It is facing numerous problems regarding
water, sanitation and hygiene since its birth. This problem is more severe in the north-east
part of (Sylhte Division) the country where majority [135 (Banglapedia, 2006)] of the tea
gardens are located. The overall statistics of access to safe water is 85.5% (GOB & UNICEF,
2009) but in the study area of this report (Doldoli Tea Garden; Sylhet Sadar) it is 74.8%
(WaterAid & IDEA , 2010). Among 198 households (in the selected study area) only 34 have
pipeline water system (Field Survey: 2011).Tea-community (tea laborers) facing this kind of
problem more than other because of their extreme poverty and lack of education.
Equity and Inclusion program of WaterAid Bangladesh aims to eradicate poverty of the tea
community by providing admittance to safe access to water, sanitation and hygiene. Under
this program WaSH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) project is being implemented with
incorporation with the local partner IDEA (Institute of Development Affairs). Among the
four tea gardens (Lakkatura, Doldoli, Borjan and Cheragong) of the WaSH project, Doldoli
tea gardens pipeline water system has been selected as the study topic of this report.
1.2 Literature Review
History of Bangladesh tea industry dates back to around 1823 when tea started to be grown
for commercial purposes in the Assam forests. The first commercial tea plantation was
established in 1857 in Mulnichera in Sylhet. (Banglapedia, 2006)
“Tea is the one of the major exporting product in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is the 10th
producing country and 9th
tea exporting country in the world. There are 164 tea gardens in
Bangladesh in 7 districts. Tea is cultivated in 115,757 hectare land areas in Bangladesh.
There are 90 tea gardens in Moulvibazar, 20 in Sylhet, 23 in Habigonj, 21 in Chittagong, 1 in
Rangamati, 1 in Brahmanbaria and 8 in Panchaghar district. A Total of 359,085 people live in
tea garden areas. 89,812 registered laborers and 19,592 casual laborers are working in the tea
gardens”. (Rahman, 2007)
“During its initial stage, plantation in Bangladesh faced acute shortage of labor. No local
workers were willing to do this job since it is very hard and labor intensive. The colonial
British Government deployed indentured immigrants to meet this shortage.
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Tea plantation workers in Bangladesh came mostly from the backward class and tribal areas
of central India and regions of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. The present work
force in the tea plantation sector of Bangladesh is the fourth generation of those indentured
immigrants.” (Majumder, 2001)
“Productivity of the tea plantation workers in Bangladesh is far less than that of the other tea
producing countries in Asia and Africa. In addition to crop yield, a large number of factors
have contributed to the low productivity of tea plantation workers in Bangladesh. Among
these factors, socio-cultural and religious barriers; geographical isolation and bonded nature
of workers, very low education and poor health status of the workers; extremely inadequate
wages and fringe benefits; low quality and quantity of benefits in kind; and uncongenial
working conditions are the most influential ones. These factors deprive the tea plantation
workers from their basic right to ‘decent work’. This deprivation greatly deteriorates the labor
standards of the tea plantation industry in Bangladesh.” (Majumder, 2001)
1.3 Main Objective
To assess the proposed pipeline water system in Doldoli tea garden.
1.3.1 Specific Objectives
To assess the existing pipeline water system in Doldoli tea garden and proposed
To assess the water facilities in Doldoli tea garden from a planner’s perspective and
make recommendations for program incorporation
Safe water supply system is very crucial for livelihood, sanitation and hygiene. In Doldoli tea
garden any kind of natural water option other than pipeline water system is absent. Few ring
well and shallow tube is there but in a non functioning state. It will be described in detail in
the next chapter.
Pipeline water system has been provided by the tea garden authority in near about 1980. The
number of supply points1
(34) is now very insufficient if considered with the demand.
Condition of the pipeline water system network is very vulnerable due to lack of
maintenance. This causes contamination and worsening the water quality. So a
Pipeline is extended from the main pipeline water system to a specific location for providing water to a few household.
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comprehensive study was needed to improve the pipeline water system in Doldoli to achieve
the Goal of this project.
This one month internship project has been designed in the following way. Project has been
assigned by the Assistant Program Coordinator (APC) of Equity and Inclusion program of
WaterAid Bangladesh. Preliminary information about the project and the study area has been
gathered. Then a Seven (7) day field trip has been made. During the early period of the field
trip all the relevant data and maps regarding the project have been collected from the local
partners (IDEA) office in Sylhtet. In the later part field survey; informal discussions with the
workers, community leaders and tea garden authority; map production of the whole study
area indicating the supply network have been done. Visit to number of household with the
Field Engineer of IDEA has been performed to visualize their problems and their need. In the
next stage all data, maps and pictures were analyzed to find out the sustainable and best fit
solution for short-run and long-run. A report and PowerPoint presentation have been
1.6 Scope of the Study
Through this study the renovation options for pipeline water system of Doldoli can be figured
out. The immediate need and longer version need regarding water supply can be explored
through the direct consultation with the workers. Sustainable strategies can be formulated
which fulfills the goal of the WaSH project as per the community requirement.
The main constraint of this study was the limited time frame of the internship which is only
one month. So only seven days field trip had been made to manage the schedule effectively.
Another constraint is absence of accurate base map of the study area, for this study which is
very crucial. Nevertheless best effort has been given to find out the sustainable solution.
1.7Study Area Profile
Doldoli tea garden is North-West side of Sylhet Sadar Upazilla. It’s near the Shahi Eidgah
and Scholars Home School of Sylhet. Two map indicating the location of Doldoli within
Sylhet Sadar is presented below.
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Figure 1.1: Map of Sylhet Sadar Upazilla Figure 1.2: Study Area of Doldoli Tea Garden
The area of Doldoli tea garden workers living is subdivided into four lines/zones. They are
Pashchim Line, Chanmari Line, Mandob Line and Muslim Line. There is no pipeline water
system facility in Muslim Line so it’s not included in this report.
There are total 271(198 in the selected 3 zones) households in this garden. Total population is
1358. Among them 685 persons are male and 673 are female. Almost every single family has
one or two person working in the garden. Working in the garden is their main occupation.
New generations are now switching to other professions outside the garden which is
experienced during the field survey. There is no government school inside the garden though
it is the responsibility of the tea garden authority to ensure this facility. There is no medical
center or recreational facilities in the garden. Brac and UCEP are working with the primary
school going children. IDEA is working with the WaSH program which is supported by
Though the main focus of this report is to assess the pipeline water system but from the field
survey other problems have also been identified. They are Sanitation and Drugs. Sanitation
practice among the tea garden workers is largely absent. Ground water and supply water
contamination is also closely related with that. Drugs are cheaply available because of close
proximity with the border.
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Chapter - 02: Exploration of the Existing Pipeline Water System
2.1 Present Physical Condition
During the field survey in the three “para” (Pashchim Line, Chanmari Line and Mandob
Line) of this tea garden total 34 water supply points is identified. Out of these 34 points, 6
supply points are for the stuff of the tea garden. So the worker can’t use it. Consulting with
the operator of the water supply pump of the garden “Ganeshda” (he is also the head of the
Panchayet committee) it was found that total 10-12 supply points are provided by the garden
authority at the beginning. Rests of the points are extended by the workers with their own
cost. In total 8 shallow tube wells were found. Among them only 4 were working. Present
physical condition of water supply is described in a tabular format below.
Table 2.1: At a Glance Water Supply Facility in Doldoli Tea Garden
No. of HH Total
(1)With Tap Without
77 353 7 5 2 1 1
29 214 2 2 0 1 0
92 445 10 8 0 4 0
1012 19 15 2 6 1
From the table it can be summarize that one supply point is available for near about 6
families (198 families/34 supply points). The alternative options are also very insufficient.
The data sheet regarding the supply points and tube well location is attached in Appendix-A.
The map showing the location of all the supply points is attached in Appendix-B.
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2.2 Problems Identified
Insufficient Supply: To serve near about 1400 population there is only one water
pump. In addition during the time of power failure water supply is seriously disrupted.
Fixed Time Frame: Supply is provided during 3 fixed periods in a day. They are
6.00 AM – 8.00 AM; 1.00 PM – 2.00 PM and 5.00 PM – 7.00 PM. During
consultation with Ganeshda he said “We have only one pump. It will not be able to
take the load if we continuously run it for the whole day. That’s why we only provide
water at peak times of the day. The amount of water is sufficient”. Reverse image is
found when taking an informal interview of a women named Sumitra Das. She said
“Supply is not enough. During morning and in the evening necessity of water reaches
the peak. In that time we have to wait a long time to get water because of long serial
in front of the supply tap. When the power is out, pump is not functioning and the tube
well does not work, we are in big trouble. We have to collect water outside of the
Absence of Water Tap and Pucca Platform: Out of 34 water supply points only 19
have tap or flow controlling facility. Rests 15 are just open pipes. There is no flow
controlling facilities there which causes wastage of water in several places. Absence
of any kind of pucca platform near/under the water supply point is also noticed.
Causing unhygienic condition during and after the collection period.
Non-functioning Shallow Tube Well: Among 8 tube wells found half of those are
not working anymore because of low water table. Others are also in a risk of being
Absence of Natural Source: A pond is there but it’s dry because of very low water
table. Any kind of Chara, Jhorna, Canal is absent in the nearest locality. So they are
dependent on the pipeline water system. It’s a huge drawback.
Leakage in the Pipeline Water System: During field survey 8 locations have been
identified having serious damage and leakage in the pipeline water system network.
This threatens health of the workers through water contamination. List of identified
location of pipeline leakage is attached in Appendix-C.
Inefficient Distribution of the Water Supply Points: Supply points are distributed
in a scattered way not considering the geographical and density factor. This is because
of the financial capability of the workers who could extend the line to his/her house.
This way the better off sections enjoying the better opportunity now. People in the
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upper hills having no money and power are suffering the most. Relevant pictures
regarding present physical condition and problems identified are attached in
2.3 Effects of the Problems
Supply is not sufficient to fulfill day long demand quite efficiently. This problem is
found to be more acute during weekends and other holidays.
Long waiting hours for collecting water. As water points are limited
Collection of water is challenging work for the women and children living in the
upper hills. Only a few houses have storage option. That’s why they have to travel 3-4
time or more to collect water.
Wastage of water due to the absence of any kind of taps or flow controlling
mechanisms in most of the supply points.
Leakage in pipeline and absence of pucca platform in the supply points threatens the
quality of water and crates health related diseases.
2.4 Assessment of the Water Facilities
Pipeline water system is the key option. This is because of absence of any other
The only alternative which is tube well is not properly working in many cases. Low
water table because of high altitude location is the main reason.
The tube wells are free from Arsenic, Iron and others ground water contaminations.
So deep tube wells can be sustainable alternatives.
Pipeline water system should be renovated for leakage and extended where needed.
This should be done considering the density and altitude location of the houses. New
supply points and tube wells should be given considering the greater catchment area
of that providing location.
2.5 Feasibility of the Pipeline Water System
Supplying water through the pipeline water system network is a must in this area
because of absence of any other water option.
Water supply controlling facilities together with maintenance knowledge in the
community is needed to sustain this key option in this garden.
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Figure 2.1: Water Supply Platform Figure 2.2: Bathing Facility in the Platform
Figure 2.3: Proposed Water Supply Platform Figure 2.4: Proposed Bathing Facility
2.6 Evaluation of the Proposed Renovation
IDEA (supported by WaterAid) has constructed two water supply platforms together
with bathing facilities in two household. This has been highly appreciated by the
community inhabitants. This system of renovation provides privacy and good hygiene
practice among the inhabitants but the household just beside that enjoys more benefit.
If more households to be served with the limited budget then the following type of
structure can be suggested. Two taps in a single column with a pucca platform can be
constructed. For providing the bathing facility a small pucca platform with tree leaves
shading/surrounding can be suggested. This will serve the purpose as well as create
hygiene behavior among the community. The shaded bathing facility with pucca
platform is already experienced in some of the household. This will reduce the
location disparity among the household by providing more platform for water supply
within the limited budget.
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Chapter - 03: Findings and Recommendations
3.1 Overall Findings
Pipeline water system is a must in this area but needed extensive renovation.
Alternative sources have to be built to meet up the demand in the emergency time.
Knowledge regarding health and hygiene among the inhabitants is almost absent.
Sustainable solutions have to be provided allowing different socio-economic factors.
3.2 Short Term Recommendations - Low Cost (Arranged According to Priority Basis)
First. Providing water tap in the needed supply points (15) with pucca platform.
Second. Repair the leakage in pipeline network. Selected points (8) are listed in Appendix-C.
Third. Providing bathing facility with a pucca platform and shading.
3.3 Long Term Recommendations - High Cost (Arranged According to Priority Basis)
First. Providing new 6 water supply points. The locations of these new points are listed in
Appendix-E. They are also indicated in the map of Appendix-B. This 6 location has
been determined considering various socio-economic factors like density, distance
from house and deprived houses for high altitude. The vital aspect considered while
selecting these locations is consultation with the local community. Any kind of
influence or biasness is tried to avoid during selecting these new locations.
Second. Providing 3 deep tube well in 3 prime location of this area to cover the whole area.
This tube wells will be act as the alternative source of water. Their location is also
listed in Appendix-E and indicated in the map of Appendix-B.
Third. Large scale renovation of the pipeline water system network including excavation in
the ground to put the pipeline network inside in many places. This will reduce further
leakage possibility in the long run and possibility of future health hazard.
Fourth. Providing water supply platform with bathing facility in every water supply point
step by step what IDEA and WaterAid has already provided in two locations.
Fifth. Replacing the non functioning shallow tube well with the deeper ones step by step.
Sixth. Providing deep tube well in every water supply point in the future to ensure long term
Seventh. Another water pump (motor) should be provided to ensure the day long supply.
Eighth. Creating awareness regarding hygiene and maintenance of the provided facilities.
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Workers of the Doldoli tea garden lead a very measurable life in consideration of Water,
Sanitation and Hygiene. They are totally dependent upon the tea garden authority for
pipeline water system. The lack of motivation and willingness of the respective authority for
renovation of this pipeline water system network leaded this into a bad condition in course of
time. This pipeline network requires immediate improvement. Some needed urgently and
some are needed in the long run which is already mentioned earlier. Improvement measures
should be taken to serve all the inhabitants equally. Finally it can be stated that if this
renovation program implemented successfully it will help the tea community of this garden to
enhance their quality of life remarkably.
Banglapedia. (2006). Tea Industry. Retrieved September 3, 2011, from Banglapedia(National
Encyclopedia of Bangladesh): http://www.banglapedia.org/httpdocs/HT/T_0100.HTM
BTB. (2007). Retrieved August 9, 2011, from Bangladesh Tea Board:
GOB & UNICEF. (2009). Bangladesh Mutiple Indicator Cluster Survey . Switzerland: WHO
Majumder, P. P. (2001). Working Conditions in the Bangladesh Tea Plantation Industry. In
ILO, Labour and Social Issues in Plantation in South Asia (pp. 79-132). India: Publication of
the International Labour Office.
Rahman, A. (2007, December 30). Muktomancho. Retrieved August 3, 2011, from Shamokal:
WaterAid & IDEA. (2010). Project Proposal for WaSH Project. Sylhet, Bangladeh.
Existing Tube Well List:
Sr. No. HH Name Father’s
Area/Para Name No. of HH Covers Comments
01 িনেপন দাস পি ম লাইন 05 কাজ কের
02 চা ু দাস পি ম লাইন 05 কাজ কের
03 হিরদাস পি ম লাইন 08 কাজ কের না
04 চু ুর কারেত চানমারী লাইন - কাজ কের না
05 লুেচন ধর মা ব লাইন - কাজ কের না
06 বাদল কু িম মা ব লাইন - কাজ কের না
07 দীপক দাস মা ব লাইন 02 কাজ কের
08 পন কু িম পি ম লাইন 01 কাজ কের
Map of Doldoli Tea Garden
Showing Existing and Proposed Water Supply Points and Tube Well Locations
Identified Locations for Pipe Line Repairing:
১. পন এর দাকান এর সামেন
২.সকাল এর বাড়ীর সামেন
৩.নারায়ন এর বাড়ীর সামেন
৪.হীরালাল এর বাড়ীর সামেন
৫.ল ী েরর বাড়ীর সামেন
৬.Primary School/চ র বাড়ীর সামেন
৭.কল ানীর বাড়ীর সামেন
৮.আনুমািনক ২০টা জায়গায় গত কের মািটর িনেচ পাইপ ঢুকােত হেব
Pictures of Present Physical Condition and Problems Identified
Figure: Water Supply without Water Tap Figure: Pipe Network is exposed above the Ground
Figure: Nonfunctioning Shallow Tube Well Figure: Unhygienic Condition at Supply Point
Figure: Absence of Platform and Water Tap Figure: Exposed Pipe Network in Tilla
Figure: Long Serial for Water Collection Figure: Tap is Unused for the Absence of Platform
Proposed New Water Supply Points:
Sr. No. Household Name Location
01 িনেপন দােসর বাড়ী পি ম লাইন
02 িবজয় মু ার বাড়ী পি ম লাইন
03 নয়ন/চা ু দােসর বাড়ী চানমারী লাইন
04 রবন/ম েলর বাড়ী চানমারী লাইন
05 গাপাল/শংকেরর বাড়ী মা ব লাইন
06 সূ র বাড়ী মা ব লাইন
Proposed New Tube Well Locations:
Sr. No. Household Name Location
01 পাে র সামেন চানমারী কানা
02 পেনর দাকােনর সামেন পি ম লাইন
03 মি র এর সামেন মা ব লাইন