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Environmental Scenario of Jammu and Kashmir: Indicators and Trends

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The presentation showcases the environmental scenario in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Various aspects of the environment and how they have changed over the last few decades was discussed at KCSDS …

The presentation showcases the environmental scenario in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Various aspects of the environment and how they have changed over the last few decades was discussed at KCSDS interactive meeting of the Civil Society


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  • 1. SHAKIL A ROMSHOOPROF. AND HEAD,DEPT OF EARTH SCIENCESUNIVERSITY OF KASHMIRENVIRONMENTAL SCENARIO IN J&K:INDICATORS AND TRENDS
  • 2. PRESENTATION SCHEME!  HIMALAYAS: OUR CROWN JEWEL!  DEPLETING WATER RESOURCES!  DEGRADING WETLANDS/WATER BODIES!  RECKLESS URBANIZATION!  LAND SYSTEM CHANGES, WQ & FOOD!  TOURISM AND ENVIROMENT!  ENERGY CRISIS!  MAN-BEAR CONFLICT
  • 3. SAMSABARI RANGELADAKH RANGEHIMALAYAS: OUR PRIDE
  • 4. Misunderstanding Himalayan Glaciers
  • 5. SNOW AND GLACIER REOURCES
  • 6. Jammu & Kashmir
  • 7. Water Tower of Asia
  • 8. Changes in Alpine CryosphereTotal&Glacier&area&in&1969&(sq.&Km)!Total&Glacier&area&1992&(Sq.&Km)!Total&Glacier&area&2001(sq.&Km)!Total&Glacier&area&2010&(Sq.&Km)!45.63! 42.33! 39.41! &37.56!
  • 9. 0.000.100.200.300.400.500.600.70Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunSnow%% snow-06% snow-07% snow-08%Snow-09Snow Depletion Across Months (2006-2009)There is a decreasing trend in the snow precipitation asshown by the snow depletion curves.Trend in Snow Depletion
  • 10. Changing Hydrology and Land System
  • 11. Water Demand in Srinagar City
  • 12. Demographic Changes•  The state of has shown population growth from2.14 million in 1901 to 12.5 million 2011.•  A growth rate of about 23% compared to thepopulation figures of 10.1 million in 2001.Population changes from 1981-2001
  • 13. IntroductionVarious beneficial functions of wetlands include lifesustaining processes like water storage (domestic,agriculture, industrial usage) protection from storm andfloods, ground water recharge, storage for nutrients,erosion control and stabilisation of local climate(temperature, rainfall) and thus helps in maintainingecological balance.During the recent past wetlands have been recklesslydestroyed to create land for ‘development’ and only inrecent years their uses and values have begun to beunderstood and appreciated.Wetland!Map!–!Jammu!and!Kashmir!
  • 14. Wetlands & Waterbodies
  • 15. DAL LAKE CATCHMENT
  • 16. DAL LAKE ENVIRONS
  • 17. !34%1992! !2008 65%
  • 18. WHAT DOES THISMEAN???More runoff in a shorteramount of timeDEVELOPEDHigher overall and peakvolumeShorter time to peak flowUNDEVELOPEDSmaller volume, lowerpeakLonger time to peak flowHydrologic Response: Developed vs.Undeveloped ConditionsRunoffVolume(Q)Time
  • 19. Land System ChangesCLASS NAME! 1972 AREA (HA)! 1992 AREA (HA)! 2008AREA (HA)!FOREST! 485473.31! 464798.36! 391368.55!AGRICULTURE! 337788.45! 301094.00! 269138.93PLANTATION! 92240.15! 89443.34! 85876.76HORTICULTURE ! 17954.44! 28858.26! 71899.18!WATER! 12795.11! 11024.42! 6827.09!RIVER BED! 9899.81! 9812.22! 7512.82!AQUA_VEGETATION! 3981.44! 7503.56! 11729.20!BUILT-UP! 578.07! 5914.96! 21432.81!
  • 20. Chemicalcomponents1982 2002 ChangeNH4-N(µg/l) 14.9 85.0 70.1NO3-N(µg/l) 44.7 317.0 272.3PO4-P(µg/l) 17.5 40.0 22.5Total P (µg/l) 55.9 228.0 172.1Cl (µg/l) 11.9 13.5 1.6Ca (µg/l) 23.7 56.5 32.8Mg (µg/l) 2.8 22.0 19.2Change in WQ of river Jhelum(1982–2002)
  • 21. Yield – temperature plot for2011-2040 simulation1234567891039003950400040504100415042004250430043504400Temperature(0C)YieldKg/hectareYearsyield kg/haAverage Temperature24681012142500270029003100330035003700390041004300450020402042204420462048205020522054205620582060206220642066206820702072207420762078208020822084208620882090Temperature(0C)Yieldkg/hectaresYearsYield – temperature plot for2040-2090 simulationSimulated yield under futureclimatic scenario for 2040 showeda decrease of 6.6% from thebaseline (4305.55 kg/ha ) .Simulated yield under future climaticscenario 2090 showed a decrease of29.1% (3049 kg/ha) from thebaseline (4305.55 kg/ha )CC IMPACTS ON FOOD SECURITYThe yield simulations were centered at437 ppm and 630 ppm carbon levels forthe year 2025 and 2075
  • 22. TOURISMDEVELOPMENT&ENVIRONMENT
  • 23. Discrepancy Map89 discrepanciescovering an areaof 26 Ha
  • 24. Energy Crisis in the State
  • 25. " Hydro-power potential: > 25, 000 MW" Out of the identified hydro-electric potentialonly 2327 MWs (<10%) have been exploited sofar" 767 MWs in the state sector from 21 powerprojects and 1560 MWs from three powerprojects under central sector.Energy Scenario
  • 26. S.&No.& Area& C E R ’ s&(Million/year)&1& Power&GeneraIon& 41.63&2& Transmission/DistribuIon& 1.07&3& Energy&ConservaIon& 2.629&4& Municipal&solid&waste& 0.125&5.& Forestry&(LULUCF)& 0.74&Total& 46.19&CDM Potential In J&K
  • 27. POLITICS
  • 28. Year& Total&Conflicts&1995& 1&1996& 1&1997& 2&1998& 1&1999& 1&2000& 5&2001& 8&2002& 7&2003& 7&2004& 19&2005& 48&2006& 51&2007& 80&2008& 130&2009& 186&THE OTHER SIDE ……•  INCREASING BEAR ATTACKSACROSS THE VALLEY•  ILL EQUIPPED GOVT. MACHINERY
  • 29. 9 Districts& 76 Villages&
  • 30. THE OTHER SIDE …..•  POOR UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROBLEM & NOACTION PLAN•  Lack of concrete and holistic measures on theground•  Lack of awareness among the people•  Thus, BEAR-PHOBIA, Frustration and PANICREACTIONSBear Attack Cases operated at SKIIMS
  • 31. -101234561880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020Average_Temperature(0C) Average Temperature (Dec. & Jan.) (0C)-1.000.001.002.003.004.005.006.007.008.001975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010Temperature(0C)Average Temperature (Dec &Jan)-515355575951971197419771980198319861989199219951998Rainfall(mm)Total Precipitation Dec-Jan0501001502002503003504004505001979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006Rainfall(mm)Total Precipitation (Dec. &Jan. )
  • 32. ANNUALAVERAGE MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE9101112131415161718201120162021202620312036204120462051205620612066207120762081208620912096Temperature(0C)Years7891011121314151617201120162021202620312036204120462051205620612066207120762081208620912096Temperature(0C)Years15161718192021222324201120162021202620312036204120462051205620612066207120762081208620912096Temperature(0C)Years1516171819202122232425201120162021202620312036204120462051205620612066207120762081208620912096Temperature(0C)Years
  • 33. ANNUALAVERAGE MINIMUM TEMPERATURE-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-10201120162021202620312036204120462051205620612066207120762081208620912096Temperature(0C)Years-11-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-10201120162021202620312036204120462051205620612066207120762081208620912096Temperature(0C)Years2345678910201120162021202620312036204120462051205620612066207120762081208620912096Temperature(0C)Years123456789201120162021202620312036204120462051205620612066207120762081208620912096Temperature(0C)Years
  • 34. 39IN CONCLUSION …..! L O U D A N D C L E A R T R E N D S O FENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION! TREMENDOUS TRANSFORMATION OF THESOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALSCENARIO IN THE STATE! A N T H R O P O G E N I C A N D N A T U R A LCOMPONENT! CALLOUSNESS AND INACTION. NEED FORINVOLVEMENT OF THE ENTIRE SOCIETY! NEED FOR SECTOR-WISE ACTION PLANSBASED ON INTEGRATED SCIENTIFICANALYSIS
  • 35. 40Thank you
  • 36. ENVIRONMENT LINKAGESUnderstanding the linkages between various components of theearth system