‫/شاكر‬ ‫الطالب‬
‫السامعي‬
‫د/حسن‬
‫الربيعي‬
• Many different designs have been
manufactured
• Patients usually uses brushes selected on
the basis of cost, availabilit...
Characteristics of an effective
toothbrush
• Conforms to individual patient
requirements
• Easily and efficiently manipula...
I. Influencing factors
• Patient
• Gingiva
• Position of teeth
• Shape of teeth and exposed roots
• Personal preferences
•...
II. Toothbrush size and shape
Must be able to adapt to all facial,
lingual, palatal, and occlusal
surfaces for bacterial p...
III. Soft nylon brush
• More effective in cleaning the
cervical area
• Less traumatic to the gingival tissue
• Can be dire...
• Prevention of tooth abrasion
and/or gingival recession
• More effective use for sensitive
gingiva in severe gingivitis,
...
• Complete tooth brushing instruction for
patients involves teaching;
• What, when, where and how
• The grasp of the brush...
• The emphasis in patient education
should be placed on complete plaque
control rather than on number of
brushing
• At lea...
• Sulcular:Bass
• Roll: Rolling stroke, modified
Stillman
• Vibratory:Stillman, Bass, Charters
• Circular
• Vertical
• Hor...
Purpose and indications
• For bacterial plaque removal
adjacent to and directly beneath the
gingival margin
• For open int...
Problems
• Change the very short strokes
into vigorous scrub that causes
injury to the gingival margin
• Dexterity require...
• Two brushes for home use and a third
in a portable container for use at work
• Frequent replacement recommended
• Brushe...
Purpose and indications
• Cleaning gingiva and bacterial
plaque without emphasis on gingival
sulcus
• Meant for children
•...
Problems
• Brushing too high during initial
placement can lacerate the alveolar
mucosa
• Use too quickly results in no bru...
Purpose and indications
• Bacterial plaque removal from
cervical areas and exposed proximal
surfaces
• General application...
Problems
• Without careful placement and using a
brush with end-rounded filaments, tissue
laceration can result.
• Light p...
Purpose and indications
• Loosen debris and bacterial plaque
• Massage and stimulate marginal and
interdental gingiva
• Re...
Problems
• Brush end do not engage the gingival
sulcus to remove subgingival bacterial
plaque accumulation
• In some areas...
• Electrical tooth brushes are equally
effective in removing plaque, prevent
calculus, and reduce the incidence of
gingivi...
Purpose and indications
• To facilitate mechanical bacterial
plaque removal
• Especially helpful for people who
lack the m...
Problem areas
• Facially displaced teeth
• Inclined teeth
• Exposed roots
• Overlapped teeth or wide embrasures
• Surface ...
Objectives
• Loosen plaque microorganisms packed
in pits and fissures
• Removes plaque deposit from occlusal
surfaces of t...
Total mouth cleanliness includes
tongue care
• Microorganisms of the tongue
• Effects of cleaning the tongue
• Brushing pr...
• Acute oral inflammation or
traumatic lesion
• Following periodontal surgery
• Acute stage of ANUG
• Following dental ext...
• Two brushes for home use and a third
in a portable container for use at work
• Frequent replacement recommended
• Brushe...
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
Brushing
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Brushing

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Brushing

  1. 1. ‫/شاكر‬ ‫الطالب‬ ‫السامعي‬ ‫د/حسن‬ ‫الربيعي‬
  2. 2. • Many different designs have been manufactured • Patients usually uses brushes selected on the basis of cost, availability, advertising claims, family tradition, or habit • Because of the variety in shapes, sizes, textures, and other characteristics • Dental professionals must become familiar with the many available products to advise patients appropriately
  3. 3. Characteristics of an effective toothbrush • Conforms to individual patient requirements • Easily and efficiently manipulated • Is readily cleaned • Is durable and inexpensive • Flexible, soft, and of strength, rigidity and lightness of the handle • Has end rounded filaments or bristles
  4. 4. I. Influencing factors • Patient • Gingiva • Position of teeth • Shape of teeth and exposed roots • Personal preferences • Method selected
  5. 5. II. Toothbrush size and shape Must be able to adapt to all facial, lingual, palatal, and occlusal surfaces for bacterial plaque removal
  6. 6. III. Soft nylon brush • More effective in cleaning the cervical area • Less traumatic to the gingival tissue • Can be directed into the sulcus and interproximal areas • Applicable around fixed orthodontic appliances
  7. 7. • Prevention of tooth abrasion and/or gingival recession • More effective use for sensitive gingiva in severe gingivitis, ANUG, or during healing stages
  8. 8. • Complete tooth brushing instruction for patients involves teaching; • What, when, where and how • The grasp of the brush • The sequence and amount of brushing • Supplementary brushing for occlusal surfaces and the tongue • Effect from improper brushing • Care of the tooth brushings
  9. 9. • The emphasis in patient education should be placed on complete plaque control rather than on number of brushing • At least two brushing with interdental cleaning is recommended for control of bacterial plaque and halitosis prevention • A night brushing before bed time should be encouraged
  10. 10. • Sulcular:Bass • Roll: Rolling stroke, modified Stillman • Vibratory:Stillman, Bass, Charters • Circular • Vertical • Horizontal • Scrub-brush
  11. 11. Purpose and indications • For bacterial plaque removal adjacent to and directly beneath the gingival margin • For open inter proximal areas, cervical areas and exposed root surfaces • For adaptation to abutment teeth, under the gingival border of a fixed partial denture and orthodontic appliances
  12. 12. Problems • Change the very short strokes into vigorous scrub that causes injury to the gingival margin • Dexterity requirement may be too high for certain patients
  13. 13. • Two brushes for home use and a third in a portable container for use at work • Frequent replacement recommended • Brushes should be replaced before filaments become splayed, frayed or lose resiliency • Clean thoroughly after each use • Brushes should be kept in open air with head in an upright position, apart from contact with other brushes.
  14. 14. Purpose and indications • Cleaning gingiva and bacterial plaque without emphasis on gingival sulcus • Meant for children • Useful in preparatory instruction for Modified Stillman method
  15. 15. Problems • Brushing too high during initial placement can lacerate the alveolar mucosa • Use too quickly results in no brushing for the cervical third of the tooth • Brush with filaments tip directed into gingiva causes gingival laceration
  16. 16. Purpose and indications • Bacterial plaque removal from cervical areas and exposed proximal surfaces • General application for cleaning tooth surfaces and massage of the gingiva
  17. 17. Problems • Without careful placement and using a brush with end-rounded filaments, tissue laceration can result. • Light pressure is needed • Patient may try to move the brush too quickly and the vibratory effect may be ineffective at the gingival margin
  18. 18. Purpose and indications • Loosen debris and bacterial plaque • Massage and stimulate marginal and interdental gingiva • Removes plaque from proximal areas • Adapt to cervical areas and to exposed root surfaces • Cleanse orthodontic appliance
  19. 19. Problems • Brush end do not engage the gingival sulcus to remove subgingival bacterial plaque accumulation • In some areas, the correct brush placement is limited or impossible • Requirements in digital dexterity are high
  20. 20. • Electrical tooth brushes are equally effective in removing plaque, prevent calculus, and reduce the incidence of gingivitis to the manual tooth brushes • The motion of the brush varies from rotational, counter-rotational and oscillating counter- rotational • The speed varies from low to high among the different models
  21. 21. Purpose and indications • To facilitate mechanical bacterial plaque removal • Especially helpful for people who lack the manual dexterity • Patients with special dental treatment
  22. 22. Problem areas • Facially displaced teeth • Inclined teeth • Exposed roots • Overlapped teeth or wide embrasures • Surface of teeth next to edentulous area • Exposed furcation area • Right canine and lateral incisor • Distal surfaces of most posterior teeth
  23. 23. Objectives • Loosen plaque microorganisms packed in pits and fissures • Removes plaque deposit from occlusal surfaces of teeth out of occlusion or not used during mastication • Remove plaque from margins of restorations • Clean pits and fissures to prepare for sealants
  24. 24. Total mouth cleanliness includes tongue care • Microorganisms of the tongue • Effects of cleaning the tongue • Brushing procedures • Tongue scraper
  25. 25. • Acute oral inflammation or traumatic lesion • Following periodontal surgery • Acute stage of ANUG • Following dental extraction • Following dental restoration
  26. 26. • Two brushes for home use and a third in a portable container for use at work • Frequent replacement recommended • Brushes should be replaced before filaments become splayed, frayed or lose resiliency • Clean thoroughly after each use • Brushes should be kept in open air with head in an upright position, apart from contact with other brushes.

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