Republic of the Philippines
UNIVERSTY OF SOUTHEASTERN PHILIPPINES
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
Iňigo St. Obrero, Davao City 8000
Compilation of Report
Prof. Mark Llanto
Group 1 Members;
Abude, Charmine Joy
Development of culture around the world
All societies have developed certain common practices and beliefs, known us
cultural universals. Cultural universal are customs and practices that occur in all
cultures (Kendall, 2003). Most cultural universals are adaptions to meet essential
human needs, such as the need for food, shelter, and clothing. The long list of cultural
universals. Included cooking, gift giving, funeral ceremonies, medicine, marriage and
sexual restrictions, among many others. These cultural practices may found in all
cultures, but the manner in which they are expressed varies from culture to culture.
For instance. One society may allow its members to choose their own marriage
patterns. Another may encourage marriages arranged by parents (Schaefer, 2001).
Cultural universals may not only vary from one society to another; it may also
change over time within a society. Most human cultures change and expand as a
result of innovations and diffusion (Schaefer).
Innovation takes place when a new idea or objects is introduced to culture.
These are two forms of innovation: discovery and innovation). Discovery is the process
of learning about something previously unknown or unrecognized (Kendall, 2003).
Traditionally, discovery involve uncovering natural elements or existing realities, such
as fire or true shape of the earth. At present, discovery is often a product of scientific
research. The discovery of a polio vaccine, for instance, virtually eliminated one of the
major childhood diseases. Examples may include the principle of the lever, a new
continent, or the moons of Saturn. A discovery, if shared within the society becomes
an addition to the society culture and store of knowledge (Robertson, 1987).
Invention, on the other hand, is a combination or new use of existing knowledge to
procedure something that did not exist before (Robertson, 1987). Inventions may be
either material or social. Material inventions include the bow and arrow, automobiles,
can openers, guns, airplanes, and microchips, among so many others.
Diffusion is the processcultural items or social practices spread from one society to
another. Diffusion may result from many factors, such as travel, trade, conquest
migration or telecommunications (Robert, 1987). To illustrate the concept of diffusion,
sociologist George Ritzer coined the phrase “Mcdonalization” is associated with the
melding of culture, so much so that we see more and more similarities in cultural
expression. In japan, for instance, African entrepreneurs have found a thriving market
for hip-hop fashion that was made popular by teenagers in United States (Schaefer,
Nolan and Lenski (1999 in schaefer,2005). Defined technology as information
about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs
and desires. It refers to the knowledge, techniques and tools that allow people to trans
from resources into usable forms as well as the knowledge and skills required to use
what is developed (Kendall,2003).technology is responsible not only in accelerating
scientific innovations but also in transmitting culture.
The diffusion of cultural elements of North America throughout the worldcan best be
explain by the dominance of the English language and North American Culture in the
internet and the worldwide web. Today, websites cover even the most superficial
aspect of the US culture yet offer very little information about the pressing issues
faced by people of other nations (Schaefer, 2005).
Globalization is the worldwide integration of culture, social movements, governments
polices, and financial markets through trade and exchange of ideas. Today
developments outside a country are as likely to influence people’s lives as change at
home. For example, the terrorist attack in New York and Washington D.C in 2001
caused immediate in tourism not only in the United States but also around the world,
which lasted of at least two years. The effect were health by people far removed from
the United State, including African game wardens Asian taxi drivers (Schaefer, 2005).
Each culture has unique character.
The Ecological views
People create culture as a means of adapting to the environment, and so their
cultural practices are necessarily affected by the particular pressure and opportunities
of the physical surroundings in which they live.
The culture of the desert Bedouins Arabs offers a good illustration of this view.
The Bedouins live in a region so arid that farming is impossible. Because of this fact,
they cannot form permanent settlements or live in houses. Instead, they are Nomads,
spending most of the year wandering from oasis to other, always reading on when the
water dries up. There shelter necessarily consist of tents. The only form of shelter that
can easily be transported. In short, many important elements o their culture van be
trace to the influence of the environments in which they live. (Robertson.19087)
The Functionalist Perspective
Another ways of analyzing specific components of culture more closely is look
for the functions they perform, or effects they have, in maintaining order in a society
(Robertson, 1987). In a traditional Eskimo society, according to Robertson (1987)
hospitality to travelers, including complete strangers is an important value. A host is
obliged to do everything possible to make travelers comfortable, if he finds them
personally offensive. Without this norm, communication and trade among various
groups might have the two hazardous to undertake.
The Conflict Perspectives
Conflict perspective are based on the assumption that social life is a continuous
struggle in which members of powerful groups seek to control scare resources. Based
on this approach, values and norms help createand sustain the privileged position of
the powerful in society while excluding others. Thus, it is possible for political,
economic, and social leaders to use ideology, an integrated system of ideas that is
external to, and coercive of people –to maintain their positions of dominance in a
Variations among cultures
Cultures may vary, but human begins spend their entire lives within the
culture in which they were born. Ethnocentrism is on the assumption that one’s own
life is superior to all others. For example, most school children are taught that their
own school and country are the best. The school song, pledge to the flag, and the
national anthem are forms of positive ethnocentrism. However, negative ethnocentrism
can also result from constant emphasis on the superiority of one’s own group or
The ability to fully understand another culture depends largely on one’s
willingness to adopt the position of cultural relativism, the recognition that one culture
cannot be arbitrarily judged by the standards of another. It is difficult attitude to
adopt. It requires understanding unfamiliar values norms and suspending cultural
standards we have known all our lives. Nevertheless, as people of the world come into
increasing contact with one another, the importance of understanding other cultures
becomes even greater (Macionis, 2003).
An interesting extension of cultural relativism is referred to as
xenocentrism. It is the belief that the products, styles, or ideas of one’s society are
inferior to those that originate elsewhere (Schaerfer, 2005). Xenocentrism creates a
negative economic impact in the economy of the developing world. Consumers in
developing nations often turn their backs on locally produced goods and instead
purchase items imported from Europe or North America (W. Wilson etal., 1976 in
Reported by: SaiRannehAlfante
THE FILIPINO CULTURE AND BELIEFS AND
There are many Filipino values that Filipinos should be very proud of! I can only give you some, but there
Hospitality is one of the values that tourists from around the world notice first every time they visit the
Philippines. Filipinos took great care of their guests , making sure that they're comfortable and happy in
their stay. Filipinos are also family oriented. They value greatly their families, which is always on top of
their priorities. Filipinos are also happy people, always smiling and never forget to have a good laugh
amidst the problems and hardships that come their ways. Filipinos are very respectful. They show respect
to their elders by saying 'po' and 'opo' and kissing their hands. Filipinos are also religious. They devote
time to reconnect with God. They have strong faith, believing that problems and adversities in life will
surpass with the help and providence of God.
The culture of the Philippines reflects the country's complex history. It is a blend of the Malayo-Polynesian
and Hispanic cultures, with influences from Indian and Chinese.
The Philippines was first settled by Melanesians; today, although few in numbers, they preserve a very
traditional way of life and culture. After them, the Austronesians or more specifically, MalayoPolynesians, arrived on the islands. Today the Austronesian culture is very evident in the ethnicity,
language, food, dance and almost every aspect of the culture. These Austronesians engaged in trading
with China, India, Japan, the Ryukyu islands, the Middle East, Borneo, and other places. As a result, those
cultures have also left a mark on Filipino culture.
The Spanish colonized the islands and after more than three centuries of colonization have heavily
impacted the culture. The Philippines being governed from both Mexico and Spain, had received a fair bit
of Hispanic influence. Mexican and Spanish influence can be seen in dance and religion as well as many
other aspects of the culture. After being colonized by Spain, the Philippines became a U.S. territory for
about 40 years. Influence from the United States is seen in the wide use of the English language, and the
modern pop culture.
Religion in the Philippines and Philippine mythology
The San Agustin Church in Manila was built in 1607. It is the oldest stone church still standing in the
The Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic nations in Asia-Pacific, the other being East
Timor. From a census in 2000, Catholics constitute 80.9%, with Aglipayan followers at 2%, Evangelical
Christians at 2.8%, Iglesia Ni Cristo at 2.3%, and other Christian denominations at 4.5%. Islam is the
religion for about 5% of the population, while 1.8% practice other religions. The remaining 0.6 did not
specify a religion while 0.1% are irreligious.
The literature of the Philippines illustrates the Prehistory and European colonial legacy of the Philippines,
written in both Indigenous and Hispanic writing system. Most of the traditional literatures of the
Philippines were written during the Mexican and Spanish period. Philippine literature is written in
Spanish, English, Tagalog, and/or other native Philippine languages.
Architecture of the Philippines
Calle Crisologo in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, showing typical Hispanic architecture
The Nipa hut (Bahay Kubo) is the mainstream form of housing. It is characterized by use of simple
materials such as bamboo and coconut as the main sources of wood. Cogon grass, Nipa palm leaves and
coconut fronds are used as roof thatching. Most primitive homes are built on stilts due to frequent
flooding during the rainy season. Regional variations include the use of thicker, and denser roof thatching
in mountain areas, or longer stilts on coastal areas particularly if the structure is built over water. The
architecture of other indigenous peoples may be characterized by an angular wooden roofs, bamboo in
place of leafy thatching and ornate wooden carvings.
The Spaniards introduced stones as housing and building materials. The introduction of Christianity
brought European churches, and architecture which subsequently became the center of most towns and
cities. Spanish architecture can be found in Intramuros, Vigan, Iloilo, Jaro and other parts of the
Philippines. Islamic and other Asian architecture can also be seen depicted on buildings such as mosques
The Coconut Palace is an example of Philippine Architecture.
Contemporary architecture has a distinctively Western style although pre-Hispanic housing is still
common in rural areas. American style suburban-gated communities are popular in the cities, including
Manila, and the surrounding provinces.
Filipinos cook a variety of foods influenced by Western and Asian cuisine. The Philippines is considered a
melting pot of Asia.
Eating out is a favorite Filipino pastime. A typical Pinoy diet consists at most of six meals a day; breakfast,
snacks, lunch, snacks, dinner, and again a midnight snack before going to sleep. Rice is a staple in the
Filipino diet, and is usually eaten together with other dishes. Filipinos regularly use spoons together with
forks and knives. Some also eat with their hands, especially in informal settings, and when eating seafood.
Rice, corn, and popular dishes such as adobo (a meat stew made from either pork or chicken), lumpia
(meat or vegetable rolls), pancit (a noodle dish), and lechón (roasted pig) are served on plates.
A roasted pig known as the Lechón, one of the Philippines most popular dishes.
Other popular dishes brought from Spanish and Southeast Asian influences include afritada, asado,
chorizo, empanadas, mani (roasted peanuts), paksiw (fish or pork, cooked in vinegar and water with some
spices like garlic and pepper), pan de sal (bread of salt), pescado frito (fried or grilled fish), sisig, torta
(omelette), kare-kare (ox-tail stew), kilawen, pinakbet (vegetable stew), pinapaitan, and sinigang
(tamarind soup with a variety of pork, fish, or prawns). Some delicacies eaten by some Filipinos may seem
unappetizing to the Western palate include balut (boiled egg with a fertilized duckling inside), longanisa
(sweet sausage), and dinuguan (soup made from pork blood).
Popular snacks and desserts such as chicharon (deep fried pork or chicken skin), halo-halo (crushed ice
with evaporated milk, flan, and sliced tropical fruit), puto (white rice cakes), bibingka (rice cake with
butter or margarine and salted eggs), ensaymada (sweet roll with grated cheese on top), polvoron
(powder candy), and tsokolate (chocolate) are usually eaten outside the three main meals. Popular
Philippine beverages include San Miguel Beer, Tanduay Rhum, coconut arrack, and tuba.
Every province has its own specialty and tastes vary in each region. In Bicol, for example, foods are
generally spicier than elsewhere in the Philippines. Patis, suka, toyo, bagoong, and banana catsup are the
most common condiments found in Filipino homes and restaurants. Western fast food chains such as
McDonald's, Wendy's, KFC, and Pizza Hut are a common sight in the country.
Education in the Philippines and Higher education in the Philippines
Education in the Philippines has been influenced by Western and Eastern ideology and
philosophy from the United States, Spain, and its neighbouring Asian countries. Philippine students enter
public school at about age four, starting from nursery school up to kindergarten. At about seven years of
age, students enter elementary school (6 to 7 years). This is followed by high school (5 years). Students
then take the college entrance examinations (CEE), after which they enter college or university (3 to 5
years). Other types of schools include private school, preparatory school, international school, laboratory
high school, and science high school. Of these schools, private Catholic schools are the most famous.
Catholic schools are preferred in the Philippines due to their religious beliefs. Most Catholic schools are
unisex. The uniforms of Catholic schools usually have an emblem along with the school colors.
The school year in the Philippines starts in June and ends in March, with a two-month summer break from
April to May, two-week semestral break in October and Christmas and New Year's holidays.
Arnis, a form of martial arts, is the national sport in the Philippines.  Among the most popular
sports include basketball, boxing, football, billiards, chess, ten-pin bowling, volleyball, horse racing, and
cockfighting. Dodgeball and badminton are also popular.
A Negrito woman.
The Indigenous peoples of the Philippines consist of a large number of Austronesian ethnic groups. They
are the descendants of the original Austronesian inhabitants of the Philippines, that settled in the islands
thousands of years ago, and in the process have retained their Indigenous customs and traditions.
Important Filipino traits and values include generosity, respectfulness and diligence. They also have closeknit families and tend to be cheerful. Filipino values also include a strong faith is God.
SHAIMA AMBALAGAN Q.
What is culture?
Culture refers to the values, beliefs, behavior, and material objects that together form
a people’s way of life. Culture includes what we think, how we act, and what we own.
Culture is both a bridge to our past and a guide to the future (Soyinka, 1991 in
What functions does culture serve for society? According to Conklin (1987), culture
serves several functions. First, culture offers specific ways for people to meet general
biological needs or drives, such as hunger and sex. For instance, people must eat in
order to survive, but every culture has its own customs about what can be eaten and
how food is to be prepared. Second, culture protects people from the weather. The way
that people dress is a part of their culture. In a few cultures, people wear practically
nothing at all, although even in hot climates there are customs that require the body
to be covered in some way. Third, because of culture, people do not have to figure out
how to meet basic needs, accomplish tasks, or interpret the world for they can rely on
tradition of their ancestors. Each new generation does not have to reinvent clothing,
rediscover fire, or redesign the computer. New generations sometimes discard aspects
of culture that no longer seem relevant or important, and they modify other aspects of
culture to fit their own needs.
Material Culture and Nonmaterial Culture. The various elements of culture
fall into two general categories: material culture and nonmaterial culture. Material
culture consists of the physical creations that members of a society make, use, and
share. Some examples of material culture are vintas, stone clubs, jet airplanes,
bridges, artworks, and sky scrapers. Nonmaterial culture, on the other hand,
consists of the abstract or intangible human creations of society that influences
people’s behavior. They are those things that have no physical existence such as
language, beliefs, ideas, knowledge, and behaviors.
The Components of Culture. Sociologists sometimes refer to nonmaterial
culture as symbolic culture because a central component is the symbol that people
use. A symbol is something to which people attach meaning and which they then use
to communicate with one another. Symbols are the basis of culture. They include
gestures, languages, values, norms, folkways, mores, laws, and sanctions.
Abude, Charmine Joy B.
VARIATIONS WITHIN CULTURE
Cultures adapt to meet specific sets of circumstances, such as climate, level of
technology, population, and geography. This adaption to different conditions shows up
in differences in all elements of culture, including norms, sanctions values and
language. Thus, despite the presence of cultural universals such as courtship and
religion, there is still great diversity among many cultures around the world.
Is a category of people who share distinguishing attributes, beliefs,
values and/or norms that set them apart in some significant matter from
the dominant culture. Frequently, a subculture and argot, or specialized
language that distinguishes it from the wider society will develop. Argot
allows insiders, the members of the subculture, to understand words
with special meanings.
Is a group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms, and
seeks alternative lifestyles for example rejected mainstreams culture as
overly competitive, self-centered and materialistic.
REPORTED BY: CHARLINE T. ABADIA
Tips for Helping Adopted Children Learn about Their
Parenting an adopted child who is a different race or ethnicity is a challenge many
parents didn't expect. Your child is trying to fit in with your family and - at the same
time - develop a different racial or cultural identity. As a parent, you will want to help
your child take part in his or her culture. These tips can help:
Study and learn about your child's culture. Find ways to make it a part of your
life and your daily routine. If you know about your child's culture, you'll be
better prepared to answer questions and provide opportunities for your child.
Commit to providing cultural experiences for your child and your family so
everyone learns to embrace the culture. Think about how you can provide
opportunities for your child when you choose where to live, what to do as a
family and where your child goes to school.
Talk openly about race and culture. If you need help, choose one of the many
books that are available for interracial families or children adopted
Help your child establish relationships with adults who look like them and
share their culture. These friends can become natural mentors for your child as
he or she matures.
Help your child put together a scrapbook, photo album or video about his or
her country or a special cultural celebration.
Find toys, books, and games that are part of your child's culture. Display art
from your child's culture.
Make food that reflects your child's culture. Let your child help pick out recipes
and prepare meals.
Seek out exhibitions at museums that celebrate your child's culture.
Find a support group for families who have adopted transracially.
Celebrate holidays that are significant in your child's culture.
Take advantage of teachable moments, like watching a special show on
television on your child's culture. Celebrate accomplishments by others who
share your child's race or culture.
Acknowledge your child's differences, while working to instill a sense of
belonging in your family.
Even if your child seems uninterested in the culture, keep up the routine. Your
child will learn that you respect and cherish his or her cultural background.
The Components of Culture
A symbol is something to which people attach meaning and which they then use to
communicate one another. Symbols are the basis of culture.
Involves using one’s body to communicate with others, are useful shorthand
ways to give messages without using words.
“the storehouse of culture”
The primary way in which people communicate with one another, a system of
symbols that can be put together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose
of communicating abstract thought.
Are broad, abstract, shared standards of what are right, desirable, and worthy
of respect ( Gelles and Levine)
Are broad principles that underlie beliefs, specific statements that people hold
to be true.
Are more specific rules about appropriate behavior.
Express expectations about how a particular person should behave, think, or
feel in a specific situation
2 types of Norms
Formal norms- are written down and specify strict rules for punishment of
violations. They often formalized into laws, which are very precise in defining
proper and improper behavior.
Informal norms- are generally understood but not precisely recorded.
Are strong norms that are regarded as morally significant, and violations of
them are considered a serious matter.
Are the ordinary usages and conventions of everyday life. Conformity to
folkways is expected but not absolutely insisted upon.
Is a rule that has been formally enacted by a political authority and is backed
by the power of the of state.
Refer to rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate
2 Types of Sanctions:
Positive Sanctions are expressions of approval given for following a norm. They
can be a material, such as money, reward, a prize, or a trophy, but in everyday
life they usually consist of hugs, smile, a pat on the back, soothing words, or
Negative Sanctions are expressions of disapproval for breaking a norm. Material
payment of a fine is one example. Negative sanctions can also likely consist of
gestures, such as frowns, stares, harsh words, or raised fists.
Prepared By: AnalynTimosaAbrigon