Republic of the Philippines
UNIVERSTY OF SOUTHEASTERN PHILIPPINES

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
Iňigo St. Obrero, Davao City 8000
...
Development of culture around the world

All societies have developed certain common practices and beliefs, known us
cultu...
and desires. It refers to the knowledge, techniques and tools that allow people to trans
from resources into usable forms ...
Conflict perspective are based on the assumption that social life is a continuous
struggle in which members of powerful gr...
THE FILIPINO CULTURE AND BELIEFS AND
VALUES
There are many Filipino values that Filipinos should be very proud of! I can o...
The San Agustin Church in Manila was built in 1607. It is the oldest stone church still standing in the
Philippines.
The P...
flooding during the rainy season. Regional variations include the use of thicker, and denser roof thatching
in mountain ar...
spices like garlic and pepper), pan de sal (bread of salt), pescado frito (fried or grilled fish), sisig, torta
(omelette)...
A Negrito woman.
The Indigenous peoples of the Philippines consist of a large number of Austronesian ethnic groups. They
a...
Culture
What is culture?
Culture refers to the values, beliefs, behavior, and material objects that together form
a people...
VARIATIONS WITHIN CULTURE
Cultures adapt to meet specific sets of circumstances, such as climate, level of
technology, pop...
Tips for Helping Adopted Children Learn about Their
Culture

Parenting an adopted child who is a different race or ethnici...
The Components of Culture
A symbol is something to which people attach meaning and which they then use to
communicate one ...
 Are strong norms that are regarded as morally significant, and violations of
them are considered a serious matter.

Folk...
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ELECTIVE 1 MULTICULTURAL GROUP 1

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ELECTIVE 1 MULTICULTURAL GROUP 1

This is a compilation of the reports made by group 1 about what is culture, its components and the Filipino culture.

---USEP CED-BSED TLE 3

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ELECTIVE 1 MULTICULTURAL GROUP 1

  1. 1. Republic of the Philippines UNIVERSTY OF SOUTHEASTERN PHILIPPINES COLLEGE OF EDUCATION Iňigo St. Obrero, Davao City 8000 Elective 1 Compilation of Report Submitted to; Prof. Mark Llanto Submitted By; Group 1 Members; Abadia, Charline Abrigon, Analyn Abude, Charmine Joy Alfante, SaiRanneh Ambalagan, Shaima Bagaporo, Beverly October 2013
  2. 2. Development of culture around the world All societies have developed certain common practices and beliefs, known us cultural universals. Cultural universal are customs and practices that occur in all cultures (Kendall, 2003). Most cultural universals are adaptions to meet essential human needs, such as the need for food, shelter, and clothing. The long list of cultural universals. Included cooking, gift giving, funeral ceremonies, medicine, marriage and sexual restrictions, among many others. These cultural practices may found in all cultures, but the manner in which they are expressed varies from culture to culture. For instance. One society may allow its members to choose their own marriage patterns. Another may encourage marriages arranged by parents (Schaefer, 2001). Cultural universals may not only vary from one society to another; it may also change over time within a society. Most human cultures change and expand as a result of innovations and diffusion (Schaefer). Innovation takes place when a new idea or objects is introduced to culture. These are two forms of innovation: discovery and innovation). Discovery is the process of learning about something previously unknown or unrecognized (Kendall, 2003). Traditionally, discovery involve uncovering natural elements or existing realities, such as fire or true shape of the earth. At present, discovery is often a product of scientific research. The discovery of a polio vaccine, for instance, virtually eliminated one of the major childhood diseases. Examples may include the principle of the lever, a new continent, or the moons of Saturn. A discovery, if shared within the society becomes an addition to the society culture and store of knowledge (Robertson, 1987). Invention, on the other hand, is a combination or new use of existing knowledge to procedure something that did not exist before (Robertson, 1987). Inventions may be either material or social. Material inventions include the bow and arrow, automobiles, can openers, guns, airplanes, and microchips, among so many others. Diffusion is the processcultural items or social practices spread from one society to another. Diffusion may result from many factors, such as travel, trade, conquest migration or telecommunications (Robert, 1987). To illustrate the concept of diffusion, sociologist George Ritzer coined the phrase “Mcdonalization” is associated with the melding of culture, so much so that we see more and more similarities in cultural expression. In japan, for instance, African entrepreneurs have found a thriving market for hip-hop fashion that was made popular by teenagers in United States (Schaefer, 2005). Nolan and Lenski (1999 in schaefer,2005). Defined technology as information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs
  3. 3. and desires. It refers to the knowledge, techniques and tools that allow people to trans from resources into usable forms as well as the knowledge and skills required to use what is developed (Kendall,2003).technology is responsible not only in accelerating scientific innovations but also in transmitting culture. The diffusion of cultural elements of North America throughout the worldcan best be explain by the dominance of the English language and North American Culture in the internet and the worldwide web. Today, websites cover even the most superficial aspect of the US culture yet offer very little information about the pressing issues faced by people of other nations (Schaefer, 2005). Globalization is the worldwide integration of culture, social movements, governments polices, and financial markets through trade and exchange of ideas. Today developments outside a country are as likely to influence people’s lives as change at home. For example, the terrorist attack in New York and Washington D.C in 2001 caused immediate in tourism not only in the United States but also around the world, which lasted of at least two years. The effect were health by people far removed from the United State, including African game wardens Asian taxi drivers (Schaefer, 2005). Explaining Culture Each culture has unique character. The Ecological views People create culture as a means of adapting to the environment, and so their cultural practices are necessarily affected by the particular pressure and opportunities of the physical surroundings in which they live. The culture of the desert Bedouins Arabs offers a good illustration of this view. The Bedouins live in a region so arid that farming is impossible. Because of this fact, they cannot form permanent settlements or live in houses. Instead, they are Nomads, spending most of the year wandering from oasis to other, always reading on when the water dries up. There shelter necessarily consist of tents. The only form of shelter that can easily be transported. In short, many important elements o their culture van be trace to the influence of the environments in which they live. (Robertson.19087) The Functionalist Perspective Another ways of analyzing specific components of culture more closely is look for the functions they perform, or effects they have, in maintaining order in a society (Robertson, 1987). In a traditional Eskimo society, according to Robertson (1987) hospitality to travelers, including complete strangers is an important value. A host is obliged to do everything possible to make travelers comfortable, if he finds them personally offensive. Without this norm, communication and trade among various groups might have the two hazardous to undertake. The Conflict Perspectives
  4. 4. Conflict perspective are based on the assumption that social life is a continuous struggle in which members of powerful groups seek to control scare resources. Based on this approach, values and norms help createand sustain the privileged position of the powerful in society while excluding others. Thus, it is possible for political, economic, and social leaders to use ideology, an integrated system of ideas that is external to, and coercive of people –to maintain their positions of dominance in a society. Variations among cultures Ethnocentrism. Cultures may vary, but human begins spend their entire lives within the culture in which they were born. Ethnocentrism is on the assumption that one’s own life is superior to all others. For example, most school children are taught that their own school and country are the best. The school song, pledge to the flag, and the national anthem are forms of positive ethnocentrism. However, negative ethnocentrism can also result from constant emphasis on the superiority of one’s own group or nation. Cultural Relativism. The ability to fully understand another culture depends largely on one’s willingness to adopt the position of cultural relativism, the recognition that one culture cannot be arbitrarily judged by the standards of another. It is difficult attitude to adopt. It requires understanding unfamiliar values norms and suspending cultural standards we have known all our lives. Nevertheless, as people of the world come into increasing contact with one another, the importance of understanding other cultures becomes even greater (Macionis, 2003). Xenocentrism. An interesting extension of cultural relativism is referred to as xenocentrism. It is the belief that the products, styles, or ideas of one’s society are inferior to those that originate elsewhere (Schaerfer, 2005). Xenocentrism creates a negative economic impact in the economy of the developing world. Consumers in developing nations often turn their backs on locally produced goods and instead purchase items imported from Europe or North America (W. Wilson etal., 1976 in Schaefer, 2005). Reported by: SaiRannehAlfante
  5. 5. THE FILIPINO CULTURE AND BELIEFS AND VALUES There are many Filipino values that Filipinos should be very proud of! I can only give you some, but there are much more! Here are some of them: Hospitality is one of the values that tourists from around the world notice first every time they visit the Philippines. Filipinos took great care of their guests , making sure that they're comfortable and happy in their stay. Filipinos are also family oriented. They value greatly their families, which is always on top of their priorities. Filipinos are also happy people, always smiling and never forget to have a good laugh amidst the problems and hardships that come their ways. Filipinos are very respectful. They show respect to their elders by saying 'po' and 'opo' and kissing their hands. Filipinos are also religious. They devote time to reconnect with God. They have strong faith, believing that problems and adversities in life will surpass with the help and providence of God. The culture of the Philippines reflects the country's complex history. It is a blend of the Malayo-Polynesian and Hispanic cultures, with influences from Indian and Chinese. The Philippines was first settled by Melanesians; today, although few in numbers, they preserve a very traditional way of life and culture. After them, the Austronesians or more specifically, MalayoPolynesians, arrived on the islands. Today the Austronesian culture is very evident in the ethnicity, language, food, dance and almost every aspect of the culture. These Austronesians engaged in trading with China, India, Japan, the Ryukyu islands, the Middle East, Borneo, and other places. As a result, those cultures have also left a mark on Filipino culture. The Spanish colonized the islands and after more than three centuries of colonization have heavily impacted the culture. The Philippines being governed from both Mexico and Spain, had received a fair bit of Hispanic influence. Mexican and Spanish influence can be seen in dance and religion as well as many other aspects of the culture. After being colonized by Spain, the Philippines became a U.S. territory for about 40 years. Influence from the United States is seen in the wide use of the English language, and the modern pop culture. Religion Religion in the Philippines and Philippine mythology
  6. 6. The San Agustin Church in Manila was built in 1607. It is the oldest stone church still standing in the Philippines. The Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic nations in Asia-Pacific, the other being East Timor. From a census in 2000, Catholics constitute 80.9%, with Aglipayan followers at 2%, Evangelical Christians at 2.8%, Iglesia Ni Cristo at 2.3%, and other Christian denominations at 4.5%. Islam is the religion for about 5% of the population, while 1.8% practice other religions. The remaining 0.6 did not specify a religion while 0.1% are irreligious. Literature The literature of the Philippines illustrates the Prehistory and European colonial legacy of the Philippines, written in both Indigenous and Hispanic writing system. Most of the traditional literatures of the Philippines were written during the Mexican and Spanish period. Philippine literature is written in Spanish, English, Tagalog, and/or other native Philippine languages. Architecture Architecture of the Philippines Calle Crisologo in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, showing typical Hispanic architecture The Nipa hut (Bahay Kubo) is the mainstream form of housing. It is characterized by use of simple materials such as bamboo and coconut as the main sources of wood. Cogon grass, Nipa palm leaves and coconut fronds are used as roof thatching. Most primitive homes are built on stilts due to frequent
  7. 7. flooding during the rainy season. Regional variations include the use of thicker, and denser roof thatching in mountain areas, or longer stilts on coastal areas particularly if the structure is built over water. The architecture of other indigenous peoples may be characterized by an angular wooden roofs, bamboo in place of leafy thatching and ornate wooden carvings. The Spaniards introduced stones as housing and building materials. The introduction of Christianity brought European churches, and architecture which subsequently became the center of most towns and cities. Spanish architecture can be found in Intramuros, Vigan, Iloilo, Jaro and other parts of the Philippines. Islamic and other Asian architecture can also be seen depicted on buildings such as mosques and temples. The Coconut Palace is an example of Philippine Architecture. Contemporary architecture has a distinctively Western style although pre-Hispanic housing is still common in rural areas. American style suburban-gated communities are popular in the cities, including Manila, and the surrounding provinces. Cuisine Philippine cuisine Filipinos cook a variety of foods influenced by Western and Asian cuisine. The Philippines is considered a melting pot of Asia. Eating out is a favorite Filipino pastime. A typical Pinoy diet consists at most of six meals a day; breakfast, snacks, lunch, snacks, dinner, and again a midnight snack before going to sleep. Rice is a staple in the Filipino diet, and is usually eaten together with other dishes. Filipinos regularly use spoons together with forks and knives. Some also eat with their hands, especially in informal settings, and when eating seafood. Rice, corn, and popular dishes such as adobo (a meat stew made from either pork or chicken), lumpia (meat or vegetable rolls), pancit (a noodle dish), and lechón (roasted pig) are served on plates. A roasted pig known as the Lechón, one of the Philippines most popular dishes. Other popular dishes brought from Spanish and Southeast Asian influences include afritada, asado, chorizo, empanadas, mani (roasted peanuts), paksiw (fish or pork, cooked in vinegar and water with some
  8. 8. spices like garlic and pepper), pan de sal (bread of salt), pescado frito (fried or grilled fish), sisig, torta (omelette), kare-kare (ox-tail stew), kilawen, pinakbet (vegetable stew), pinapaitan, and sinigang (tamarind soup with a variety of pork, fish, or prawns). Some delicacies eaten by some Filipinos may seem unappetizing to the Western palate include balut (boiled egg with a fertilized duckling inside), longanisa (sweet sausage), and dinuguan (soup made from pork blood). Popular snacks and desserts such as chicharon (deep fried pork or chicken skin), halo-halo (crushed ice with evaporated milk, flan, and sliced tropical fruit), puto (white rice cakes), bibingka (rice cake with butter or margarine and salted eggs), ensaymada (sweet roll with grated cheese on top), polvoron (powder candy), and tsokolate (chocolate) are usually eaten outside the three main meals. Popular Philippine beverages include San Miguel Beer, Tanduay Rhum, coconut arrack, and tuba. Every province has its own specialty and tastes vary in each region. In Bicol, for example, foods are generally spicier than elsewhere in the Philippines. Patis, suka, toyo, bagoong, and banana catsup are the most common condiments found in Filipino homes and restaurants. Western fast food chains such as McDonald's, Wendy's, KFC, and Pizza Hut are a common sight in the country. Education in the Philippines and Higher education in the Philippines Education in the Philippines has been influenced by Western and Eastern ideology and philosophy from the United States, Spain, and its neighbouring Asian countries. Philippine students enter public school at about age four, starting from nursery school up to kindergarten. At about seven years of age, students enter elementary school (6 to 7 years). This is followed by high school (5 years). Students then take the college entrance examinations (CEE), after which they enter college or university (3 to 5 years). Other types of schools include private school, preparatory school, international school, laboratory high school, and science high school. Of these schools, private Catholic schools are the most famous. Catholic schools are preferred in the Philippines due to their religious beliefs. Most Catholic schools are unisex. The uniforms of Catholic schools usually have an emblem along with the school colors. The school year in the Philippines starts in June and ends in March, with a two-month summer break from April to May, two-week semestral break in October and Christmas and New Year's holidays. Sports Arnis, a form of martial arts, is the national sport in the Philippines. [17] Among the most popular sports include basketball, boxing, football, billiards, chess, ten-pin bowling, volleyball, horse racing, and cockfighting. Dodgeball and badminton are also popular. Indigenous groups
  9. 9. A Negrito woman. The Indigenous peoples of the Philippines consist of a large number of Austronesian ethnic groups. They are the descendants of the original Austronesian inhabitants of the Philippines, that settled in the islands thousands of years ago, and in the process have retained their Indigenous customs and traditions.[21] Important Filipino traits and values include generosity, respectfulness and diligence. They also have closeknit families and tend to be cheerful. Filipino values also include a strong faith is God. PREPARED BY: SHAIMA AMBALAGAN Q.
  10. 10. Culture What is culture? Culture refers to the values, beliefs, behavior, and material objects that together form a people’s way of life. Culture includes what we think, how we act, and what we own. Culture is both a bridge to our past and a guide to the future (Soyinka, 1991 in Macionis, 2003). What functions does culture serve for society? According to Conklin (1987), culture serves several functions. First, culture offers specific ways for people to meet general biological needs or drives, such as hunger and sex. For instance, people must eat in order to survive, but every culture has its own customs about what can be eaten and how food is to be prepared. Second, culture protects people from the weather. The way that people dress is a part of their culture. In a few cultures, people wear practically nothing at all, although even in hot climates there are customs that require the body to be covered in some way. Third, because of culture, people do not have to figure out how to meet basic needs, accomplish tasks, or interpret the world for they can rely on tradition of their ancestors. Each new generation does not have to reinvent clothing, rediscover fire, or redesign the computer. New generations sometimes discard aspects of culture that no longer seem relevant or important, and they modify other aspects of culture to fit their own needs. Material Culture and Nonmaterial Culture. The various elements of culture fall into two general categories: material culture and nonmaterial culture. Material culture consists of the physical creations that members of a society make, use, and share. Some examples of material culture are vintas, stone clubs, jet airplanes, bridges, artworks, and sky scrapers. Nonmaterial culture, on the other hand, consists of the abstract or intangible human creations of society that influences people’s behavior. They are those things that have no physical existence such as language, beliefs, ideas, knowledge, and behaviors. The Components of Culture. Sociologists sometimes refer to nonmaterial culture as symbolic culture because a central component is the symbol that people use. A symbol is something to which people attach meaning and which they then use to communicate with one another. Symbols are the basis of culture. They include gestures, languages, values, norms, folkways, mores, laws, and sanctions. Reported by: Abude, Charmine Joy B.
  11. 11. VARIATIONS WITHIN CULTURE Cultures adapt to meet specific sets of circumstances, such as climate, level of technology, population, and geography. This adaption to different conditions shows up in differences in all elements of culture, including norms, sanctions values and language. Thus, despite the presence of cultural universals such as courtship and religion, there is still great diversity among many cultures around the world. SUBCULTURES  Is a category of people who share distinguishing attributes, beliefs, values and/or norms that set them apart in some significant matter from the dominant culture. Frequently, a subculture and argot, or specialized language that distinguishes it from the wider society will develop. Argot allows insiders, the members of the subculture, to understand words with special meanings. COUNTERCULTURES  Is a group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms, and seeks alternative lifestyles for example rejected mainstreams culture as overly competitive, self-centered and materialistic. REPORTED BY: CHARLINE T. ABADIA
  12. 12. Tips for Helping Adopted Children Learn about Their Culture Parenting an adopted child who is a different race or ethnicity is a challenge many parents didn't expect. Your child is trying to fit in with your family and - at the same time - develop a different racial or cultural identity. As a parent, you will want to help your child take part in his or her culture. These tips can help:   Study and learn about your child's culture. Find ways to make it a part of your life and your daily routine. If you know about your child's culture, you'll be better prepared to answer questions and provide opportunities for your child.  Commit to providing cultural experiences for your child and your family so everyone learns to embrace the culture. Think about how you can provide opportunities for your child when you choose where to live, what to do as a family and where your child goes to school.  Talk openly about race and culture. If you need help, choose one of the many books that are available for interracial families or children adopted internationally.  Help your child establish relationships with adults who look like them and share their culture. These friends can become natural mentors for your child as he or she matures.  Help your child put together a scrapbook, photo album or video about his or her country or a special cultural celebration.  Find toys, books, and games that are part of your child's culture. Display art from your child's culture.  Make food that reflects your child's culture. Let your child help pick out recipes and prepare meals.  Seek out exhibitions at museums that celebrate your child's culture.  Find a support group for families who have adopted transracially.  Celebrate holidays that are significant in your child's culture.  Take advantage of teachable moments, like watching a special show on television on your child's culture. Celebrate accomplishments by others who share your child's race or culture.  Acknowledge your child's differences, while working to instill a sense of belonging in your family.  Even if your child seems uninterested in the culture, keep up the routine. Your child will learn that you respect and cherish his or her cultural background. Bagaporo, Beverly
  13. 13. The Components of Culture A symbol is something to which people attach meaning and which they then use to communicate one another. Symbols are the basis of culture. Gestures  Involves using one’s body to communicate with others, are useful shorthand ways to give messages without using words. Language  “the storehouse of culture”  The primary way in which people communicate with one another, a system of symbols that can be put together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought. Values  Are broad, abstract, shared standards of what are right, desirable, and worthy of respect ( Gelles and Levine)  Are broad principles that underlie beliefs, specific statements that people hold to be true. Norms  Are more specific rules about appropriate behavior.  Express expectations about how a particular person should behave, think, or feel in a specific situation 2 types of Norms  Formal norms- are written down and specify strict rules for punishment of violations. They often formalized into laws, which are very precise in defining proper and improper behavior.  Informal norms- are generally understood but not precisely recorded. Mores (Mor-ays)
  14. 14.  Are strong norms that are regarded as morally significant, and violations of them are considered a serious matter. Folkways  Are the ordinary usages and conventions of everyday life. Conformity to folkways is expected but not absolutely insisted upon. Laws  Is a rule that has been formally enacted by a political authority and is backed by the power of the of state. Sanctions  Refer to rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior. 2 Types of Sanctions:  Positive Sanctions are expressions of approval given for following a norm. They can be a material, such as money, reward, a prize, or a trophy, but in everyday life they usually consist of hugs, smile, a pat on the back, soothing words, or even handshakes.  Negative Sanctions are expressions of disapproval for breaking a norm. Material payment of a fine is one example. Negative sanctions can also likely consist of gestures, such as frowns, stares, harsh words, or raised fists. Prepared By: AnalynTimosaAbrigon BSEd-T.L.E.3

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