Final vertebral column 2.


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Final vertebral column 2.

  1. 1. Hyoid Bone & Vertebral Column. BY: Shahzad Bashir Lecturer, NMC ION.Acknowledgment:Gail Jenkins, Christopher Kemnitz, Gerard Tortora Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 1
  2. 2. Describe the relationship of the hyoid bone to the skull.Identify the regions and normal curves of the vertebralcolumn and describe its structural and functionalfeatures. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 2
  3. 3. Hyoid bone is U-Shaped.Located in the anterior neck between the mandible andlarynx.The only bone that does not articulate with another boneServes as a moveable base for the tongue muscle andalso provide attachment site of neck & pharynx muscle.The hyoid bone consists of a horizontal body and pairedprojections called the lesser horns and the greater horns. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 3
  4. 4. Mandible Hyoid bone LarynxShahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 4
  5. 5. Hyoid bone helps to keep the larynx (voice box) openat all times.Aids in swallowing and speech.The hyoid bone supports the tongue, providingattachment sites for muscles of the tongue, neck, andpharynx. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 5
  6. 6. The vertebral column, also called the spine, backbone, orspinal column, and is composed of a series of bones calledVERTEBRAE.The vertebral column, the sternum, and the ribs form theskeleton of the trunk of the body.Average length in an adult male is 71 cm (28 in.) and about 61cm (24 in.) in an average adult female.Of this length the cervical part measures 12.5 cm., the thoracicabout 28 cm., the lumbar 18 cm., and the sacrum and coccyx12.5 cm.The total number of vertebrae during early development is 33.As a child grows, several vertebrae in the sacral and coccygealregions fuse. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 6
  7. 7. As a result, the adult vertebral column typically contains 26irregular bones called VERTEBRAEThe cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae are movable,but the sacrum and coccyx are not.S.No REGION VERTEBRAE NUMBER1. Neck Cervical 72. Chest Thoracic 123. Lower Back Lumbar 54. Sacrum Sacral 5 4 Fused Together5. Coccyx Coccygeal Count as 2. TOTAL VERTEBRAE. 26 Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 7
  8. 8. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 8
  9. 9. The spine has a normal curvature◦ Primary curvatures are the spinal curvatures of the thoracic and sacral regions(convex (bulging out). Present from birth◦ Secondary curvatures are the spinal curvatures of the cervical and lumbar regions(are concave (cupping in). Develop after birth Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 9
  10. 10. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 10
  11. 11. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 11
  12. 12. Anteriorly it has a solid part Called Body.Posteriorly there is a ring of bone called NEURAL ARCH.Inside NEURAL ARCH is opening/space calledVERTEBRAL FORAMEN through which passes SPINALCORD.NEURAL ARCH ends posteriorly into SPINOUS PROCESS.Laterally projects 2 TRANSVERSE PROCESS forarticulation with vertebra above and vertebra below. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 12
  13. 13. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 13
  14. 14. Cervical vertebrae 7(C1-C7) in number.Except for the first 2, each Cervical Vertebraehas.Small Oblong body.A large neural arch.A divided Spine called BIFID. (Except for no.7)All cervical vertebrae have three foramina: onevertebral foramen and two transverse foraminafor the passage of VERTEBRAL ARTERIES. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 14
  15. 15. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 15
  16. 16. Atlas is the first Cervical Vertebra, except for the first 2, theother Vertebrae are TYPICAL only the first 2 are A- Typical.It supports the head.It is a ring of bone with no body.Has large FACETS for articulation with OCCIPUT to form aCONDYLER JOINT/ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL JOINTS.Has small Transverse Process.Has a FACET for the articulation with theDENS/ODONTOID PEG/ Process of Axis. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 16
  17. 17. Articular surfacefor dens of axis Figure 5.18a Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 17
  18. 18. It is second A-Typical Cervical Vertebra.Has large facets for articulation with ATLAS.Has ODONTOID PEG /DENS Process for articulationwith Atlas to form PIVOT JOINT/ATLANTO-AXIAL JOINT. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 18
  19. 19. Figure 5.18bShahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 19
  20. 20. Are 12 (T1–T12) in number, consider larger and stronger thancervical vertebrae.Has a heart-shaped body with 2 Facets on each side for articulationwith the head of Ribs to form VERTEBROCOSTAL JOINTS.A small Neural Arch.A long downwards pointed SPINE OR SPINOUS PROCESS.A long Transverse Process with Facets for articulation with theTUBERCLES of Ribs. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 20
  21. 21. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 21
  22. 22. Lumber Vertebrae are five in Number(L1–L5).Are the largest and strongest of the unfused bones inthe vertebral column.Has a large Kidney shaped body.A broad flat Spine.Fifth lumber Vertebra articulates with the SACRUMforming LUMBO - SACRAL JOINT. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 22
  23. 23. Figure 5.18dShahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 23
  24. 24. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 24
  25. 25. The SACRUM is a triangular bone formed by the union of fivesacral vertebrae (S1–S5).Forming the back of Pelvis.Anterior surface is Concave, Posterior surface is Convex.APEX articulates with the Coccyx forming SACRO-COCCYXALJOINT.Base articulates with fifth lumber vertebra.Anterior surface is called PROMONTARY OF SACRUM.Sides articulates with the INNOMINATE BONE to form SACRO-ILIC JOINT. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 25
  26. 26. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 26
  27. 27. S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Figure 5.19Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 27
  28. 28. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 28
  29. 29. Sacro -Iliac Joint (with Innominate Bone)Lumbo – Sacral Joint (with lumber vertebra)Sacro – Coccygeal Joint (with Coccyx Vertebra) Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 29
  30. 30. Four fused vertebrae forming one bone calledCOCCYX.Articulates with sacrum to form SACRO-COCCYXEAL JOINT.Also called TAIL BONE. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 30
  31. 31. They are Cartilaginous Joints.The body of adjacent Vertebrae are separated by padsof fibrous cartilage called INTERVERTEBRALDICS. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 31
  32. 32. Cervical Curve - Forward.Thoracic Curve - BackwardLumbar Curve - Forward.Pelvic Curve - Backward.◦ These Curves provide Flexibility and also helps in movement. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 32
  33. 33. Supports the head.Forms the posterior boundries for thoracic, abdominal andpelvic cavities.Supports the trunk in a erect position.Gives surface for attachment of muscles.GIVES MOVEMNTS.◦ Flexion : Bending Forwards.◦ Extension : Bending Backwards.◦ Lateral Flexion: Bending side ways.◦ Rotation : Turning right to left.◦ To Absorb Shock : For example while running or Jumping. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 33
  34. 34. Tortora, G. J. & Grabowski, S.R. (2000). Principlesof anatomy and physiology (12th ed.). New York:John Wiley & sons Inc.Eline, N.M, Essential of human anatomy &physiology (9th ed.). New York: John Wiley & sonsInc. Shahzad Bashir. 4/6/2013 34