Introduction Objectives Specifications Payloads End of mission Accomplishment Chandrayaan-2 Conclusion References
CHANDRAYAAN mission was Indias “ first lunar exploration”. It was been launched by a modified version of PSLV C11. It was an unmanned lunar exploration undertaken by ISRO( Indian space research organization) It was launched on 22nd October 2008; 6:23 IST from SATISH DHAWAN SPACE CENTRE , SRIHARIKOTA, ANDHRA PRADESH.
Organization Indian Space Research OrganizationMission type OrbiterSatellite of MoonLaunch date 22 October 2008 from Sriharikota, IndiaLaunch vehicle PSLV-C11Mission duration 2 yearsNSSDC ID 2008-052AHome page Chandrayaan-1Mass 523 kg (1,153 lb) Orbital ElementsEccentricity near circularInclination polarApoapsis initial 7,500 km (4,660 mi), final 100 km (62 mi)Periapsis initial 500 km (311 mi), final 100 km (62 mi)
The main objective was to carry out scientific studies and to conduct high- resolution mapping of topographic features in 3D,distribution of various minerals and chemical species such as radioactive nuclides that cover the surface of the moon. To Impact a sub-satellite ( Moon Impact Probe -MIP ) on the surface on the Moon as a fore-runner to future soft landing missions.
Search for surface or sub-surface water- ice on the Moon, specially at lunar poles. Another objective was to harness several science payloads, lunar craft and the launch vehicle with suitable ground support system.
After full integration, the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft (left) is seen being loaded into the Thermovac Chamber (right)Mass 1380 kg at launch, 675 kg at lunar orbit, and 523 kg after releasing the impactor.Dimensions Cuboid in shape of approximately 1.5 m.Communications X band, 0.7 m diameter parabolic antenna for payload data transmission. The Telemetry, Tracking & Command (TTC) communication operates in S band frequency.
Power The spacecraft was mainly powered by its solar array, which included one solar panel covering a total area of 2.15 x 1.8 m generating 700 W of power, which was stored in a 36 A·h Lithium-ion battery.Propulsion The spacecraft used a bipropellant integrated propulsion system to reach lunar orbit as well as orbit and altitude maintenance while orbiting the Moon.Navigation and Control The craft was 3-axis stabilized with two star sensors, gyros and four reaction wheels.
PAYLOADS SENSOR CONFIGURATION OBJECTIVETERRAIN MAPPING CAMERA( Three stereo cameras with Topographic mapping TMC) pixelated detectorsHYPERSPECTRAL IMAGER (HySI) Wedge filter pixelated AREAL MAPPING OF MINERALSLUNAR LASER RANGING Pulsed Nd-Yag laser with HEIGHT OF THE SURFACEINSTRUMENT (LLRI) optical system TOPOGRAPHYHIGH ENERGY X-RAY CdZnTe detector U, Th, 210Pb and otherSPECTROMETER (HEX) radioactive elements mappingMOON IMPACT PROBE (MIP) C-band Radar, avideo imaging Taking images and measuring system and mass spectrometer constituents of the lunar atmosphere.X-RAY FLUROSCENCE Swept charged CCD Chemical mappingSPECTROMETER (C1XS) (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe)SUB ATOM REFLECTING ANALYSER Mass spectrometer and Mineral composition(SARA) solar wind monitorMOON MINEROLOGY MAPPER Grating spectrometer and Areal mineral(M3) HgCdTe detector and resource .INFRARED SPECTROMETER (SIR-2) Grating spectrometer Linear mapping Of mineralsSYNTHETIC APPERTURE RADAR Radar, Scatterometer and Lunar polar ice.(MINI SAR) altimeterRADIATION DOSE MONITOR Si semiconductor Radiation environment(RADOM)
CHANDRAYAAN -1 was sent to moon in a series of orbit increasing man oeuvres around the earth as opposed to the launching of craft on a direct trajectory to moon. Chandrayaan -1 successfully completed the lunar orbit insertion operation on 8th Nov 2008, with this India became the fifth nation to put vehicle in lunar orbit. The MIP landed on lunar surface on 14th Nov 2008, which kept on sending information to the mother satellite. The M3 retrieved the presence of iron and also changes in rock and mineral composition.
ISRO claims that the landing sites of the APOLLO moon mission have been mapped The craft completed 3000 orbits acquiring 70,000 images of lunar surface , which was quite a record. ISRO officials estimated that more than 40,000 images were sent in 75 days. On 26th Nov 2008, TMC acquired images of peaks and craters on the surface. On 25th March 2009, Chandrayaan beamed back the first image of earth.
Chandrayaan-I completed 312 days in orbit It made nearly 3,400 orbits around the moon Indian deep space network (IDSN) noticed a number of technical failures. But ISRO announced that the mission was 90% completed
To construct the complex spacecraft with 11- payloads. To place the spacecraft in a circular orbit around the moon. To place the flag of India on the moon. To carry out imaging operation and to collect data on mineral content. Discovery of large caves on the lunar surface.
Moon surface picture taken from theequatorial region by Chandrayaan-1
Picture of the lunar surface taken from the polar region by Chandrayaan-1The second picture has been taken over the equatorial region of the Moon. This picture was taken on November 13, 2008, by Chandrayaan-1’s TMC.
The American institute of Aeronauticsand Astronautics(AIAA) had selectedISRO’s Chandrayaan-1 mission as one ofits annual AIAA Space 2009 awards.
The scientists considered instrumental to the success of the Chandrayaan-1 project are:: G. Madhavan Nair – Chairman, Indian Space Research Organisation T. K. Alex – Director, ISAC (ISRO Satellite Centre) Mylswamy Annadurai – Project director S. K. Shivkumar – Director - Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network. George Koshi –Mission Director Srinivasa Hegde – Mission Director M Y S Prasad – Associate Director of the Sriharikota Complex and Range Operations Director J N Goswami – Director of the Ahmedabad-based Physical Research Laboratory and Principal Scientific Investigator of Chandrayaan-1 Narendra Bhandari – Head, ISRO`s Planetary Sciences and Exploration program.
It is a joint mission proposed by ISRO and Russian Federal Space Agency. The projected cost is Rs 425 crores. The mission is proposed to be launched in 2013 by a GSLV launch vehicle. It includes a lunar orbiter and a rover and a lander. There would be 7 payloads, 5 for the orbiter and 2 for the rover.CURRENT STATUS:: On 30 August 2010, ISRO has finalized payloads for CHANDRAYAAN -2 mission.
India’s first lunar exploration. India has started its journey to moon. The Chandrayaan-1 was one of the “touchstones of India”.
http://www.chandrayaan-i.com THE HINDU , 26th November (Wednesday),2008. THE HINDU,31ST October, 2009. "India kisses the Moon, Chandrayaan MIP lands". IBN Live. 14 November 2008. http://ibnlive.in.com/news/india-kisses-the-moon- chandrayaan-mip-lands/78179-11.html. Retrieved 18 November 2008. Chandrayaan-1 mission terminated The Hindu. 31 August 2009. "ISRO completes Chandrayaan-2 design news". http://www.domain- b.com/aero/space/spacemissions/20090817_chandrayaan- 2_design.html. Retrieved 2009-08-20. "Payloads for Chandrayaan-2 Mission Finalised". Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) (ISRO). August 30, 2010. http://www.isro.gov.in/pressrelease/scripts/pressreleasein.aspx?Aug 30_2010. Retrieved 2010-09-02.