RFID-based Hospital Real-time Patient Management System Belal Chowdhury Rajiv Khosla School of Business, La Trobe University School of Business, La Trobe University Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia Email: email@example.com Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract bring down the cost and improve efficiency, intelligent systems can play a significant role in providing In a health care context, the use RFID (Radio intelligently processed and personalized informationFrequency Identification) technology can be employed about patients to doctors, their health care staff (i.e.,for not only bringing down health care costs but also nurses) and health care administrators.facilitate automating and streamlining patient The performance of health care managementidentification processes in hospitals and use of mobile system is far behind compared to the service anddevices like PDA, smart phones, for design a health manufacturingcare management systems. In this paper, we outline a industries. Health care organizations nowadays areRFID model for designing a system in the health care. dealing with greater rank diseases, their cost, qualityAn application of the architecture is described in the and delivery has essentially not improved significantly,area of RFID-based Real-time Hospital Patient and even the difference with the other industries seemsManagement System (HPMS). to have increased  further. There is growing concern about maintaining ones health as population ages, mobile/sensor technology1. Introduction are expected to provide real-time information about vital signs and other physiological indicators of one’s Recent years, in almost every country in the world, health and fitness. Such monitoring systems aresubstantial financial resources have been allocated to expected to find greater use in such applications asthe health care sector. Technological development and hospitals, home health monitoring, physician’s offices,modern medicine practices are amongst the elderly care facilities, fitness centers, and healthoutstanding factors triggering this shift. Developed research studies .countries like Australia are currently facing a middle- In a health care context, we might consider theand older-aged marketplace from a predominantly Internet to deliver services in remote areas. Mobileyouth-driven marketplace. This trend is resulting in a commerce can also be used to automate the delivery ofgreater demand for health care-related services and life saving drugs and, simultaneously, to alertgreater competition among health care providers . emergency personnel that there might be a health Achieving a high operational efficiency in the problem developing . So far, the Internet makes anhealth care sector is an essential goal for organizational entire range of new technologies available to hospitalsperformance evaluation. Efficiency uses to be to facilitate communications and build relationshipsconsidered as the primary indicator of hospital .performance . From a managerial perspective, The application of these principles can beunderstanding the hospitals cost structure and their facilitated by the use of the mobile technology such asinefficiency in utilizing resources is crucial for making Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). Todayshealth care policies and budgeting decisions. The cost advanced technology is capable of uniting smart tagsof medical services in hospitals is likely control by (RFID) and data processing into a single integratedhigher operational efficiency and to provide more system . RFID is a killer technology that elegantlyaffordable care and improved access to the public . provides a solution to wide range of business needs  In the last few years’ health care providers are including healthcare sector. It is also observed that amaking a concerted effort in using information medical application such as RFID-based Real-timetechnology for bringing down the spiraling health care Hospital Patient Management System (HPMS) offerscost in Australia and in the western world. In order to
the tremendous benefits of healthcare management Each RFID tag/wristband is identified by a Uniquesystems. Identification Number (UIN) that can be programmed This paper is structured as follows: Section 2 either automatically or manually and then passwordoutlines the RFID model used for developing a health protected to ensure high security.care system. Section 3 illustrates the benefits of RFID wristband can be issued to every patient atadopting RFID in health care system. Section 4 registration, and then it can be used to identify patientsoutlines the six layers of the health care systems during the entire hospitalization period. It can also bearchitecture. Section 5 illustrates the application of the used to store patient important data (such as name,health care systems architecture using a RFID-based patient ID, drug allergies, drugs that the patient is onHPM. Section 6 illustrates the implementation of today, blood group, and so on) in order to dynamicallyHPMS application. Section 7 concludes the paper. inform staff before critical. RFID encoded wristband data can be read through bed linens, while patients are2. RFID Model for Healthcare Systems sleeping without disturbing them . RFID technology provides a method to transmit Healthcare providers (i.e., hospitals) traditionally and receive data from a patient to health serviceuse a paper-based ‘flow chart’ to capture patient provider/medical professionals without humaninformation during registration time, which is updatedby the on duty nurse and handed over to the incomingstaff at the end of each shift. Although, the nursesspent large amount of time on updating the paperworkat the bedside of the patient, it is not always accurate,because this is handwritten. The nurses play a vital role at the Hospital systemin the success of both inpatient and outpatient care.They also play a very important role in bridging toexecute clinical orders or to communicate informationbetween the hospital and the patient that motivates toevaluate the potential of RFID (Radio FrequencyIdentification) technology, and to reinforce the criticaljob of information handover. RFID is one of the emerging technologies offeringa solution, which can facilitate automating andstreamlining safe and accurate patient identification,tracking, and processing important health relatedinformation in health care sector such as hospitals .
The antenna picks up radio-waves or electromagneticenergy beamed at it from a reader device and enables
provide real-time integration into existing systems. 5. RFID-based Real-time Hospital PatientThis layer enables data mapping, formatting, business Management System (HPMS) Applicationrule execution and the service interactions withdatabases. The data access layer composed of a Figure 4 shows the GUI (Graphical User Interface)Relational Database Management System (i.e., based HPMS application developed by Agile Systemnormalization, database schema) and applications that Development Methodology (ASDM) using C# inallow healthcare providers for the creation of RFID Microsoft Visual Studio.net 2003 environment. ASDM“events”. This layer includes a data loading approach enables rapid software development methods that arethat supports high volumes of RFID data, access them faster, cheaper, and more responsive to user needs thanusing structured query Language (SQL) and enables the traditional (e.g., SDM - Software Developmentthe data to be easily presented through the use of Methodology) of software engineering . The SDMcustomized views to healthcare provider (i.e., hospital) (e.g., waterfall methodology) provides an orderlyto use them . sequence of development steps that being needlessly The application layer interacts with multiple slow and cumbersome to ensure the quality, reliability,patients’ wristband in the medical application (i.e., and maintainability of the developed software. Whilepatient management system). Finally, the user interface agile method places more emphasis on people, workinglayer is comprised of an extensible, graphical user software, customer collaboration and responding tointerfaces that allow RFID devices (e.g., reader, RFID changes rather than processes of software developmenttag) in a uniform, user-friendly way to work seamlessly (i.e., plans, contracts and tools) as an orderly, rationalin a Windows environment. process. ASDM recommends activities that are often context dependant and a variety of practices for User Interface Layer constant feedback on customer requirements, and technical decisions . The HPMS uses the unique ID transmitted by RFID tags as a key to information stored in the HPITS back- end databases. For example, an RFID tag attached to a patient wristband only contains an RFID tag ID, which an application can use to retrieve patient record stored in the hospital databases. When a RFID reader reads multiple patient wristbands that have embedded RFID tags, the application lists and displays all ID’s in patient info area. Click on a particular ID will display the information for that patient. In addition, healthcare professionals (e.g., doctors, consultants) can edit/update password protected patient’s medical record for increased patient and data Figure 3: Multi-layer architecture for health security by clicking the Update Patient Button. care systems
The Patient Management System’s administratorcan issue unused tag (wristband) to every patient atregistration time by using the ‘Assign Tag to Patient’
In a future version of RFID-based HPMS, we willexplore the functionality to access patient’s medicalrecord from other health care providers (e.g., hospitals)databases through Internet. Finally, we are in the