The islamic concept of science

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  • 1. The Islamic concept of science What is science? The ability to produce solution in some problem domain (sage dictionary) A body of knowledge (in the sense of discipline), which arises as a result of the process of determining a subject matter that is investigated by a scholarly developed method yielding theories, is a science. (AlParslan, 1996)
  • 2. Islamic Science Islamic science is that scientific activity which takes place ultimately within the Islamic worldview (which can be identified as the Islamic conceptual environment); but as an extension of it directly within the Islamic scientific conceptual scheme (which can be identified as the Islamic context of sciences) (al-Attas)
  • 3. Subject matter Accumulation of knowledge 4 essential characteristics Theories Methods
  • 4. Subject Matter Methods • Well defined and clearly determined body of problems. • The way subject matters are examined
  • 5. Theory • Application of the methods to the subject method produces some opinions Accumulated Knowledge • The result of the three determinations
  • 6. If the subject matter are nature, an experimental and observational method can be applied If the subject matter is perception and cannot be examined through experiment.
  • 7. Islamic Worldview And Sciences • The Quran manifest two world which are subject to human knowledge: Alam Ghayb Alam shahadah
  • 8. ALAM GHAYB (UNSEEN WORLD) ALAM SHAHADAH (VISIBLE WORLD) Absolute realm Physical realm Based on revelation Based on sense or perception Represented by the term ma’rifah based on experiential through heart and internal faculties Represented by the term ilm Can be understood through revelation Can be known or examined through reflective thinking Experienced through sense organ and external faculties. E.g: eyes, ears, touch, smell to acquire knowledge.
  • 9. ALAM GHAYB (UNSEEN WORLD) ALAM SHAHADAH (VISIBLE WORLD) Free from time, space, no time Bounded by time, space or dimension and no geographical geographical boundary and boundary subject to change. “God alone knows the ghayb and He does not disclose it to anyone except a messenger whom He has chosen” al-jinn (72): 26-27. “in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day there are indeed signs for men of understanding” ali Imran (3):190
  • 10. Ghayb (ma’rifah) Shahadah (ilm) hikmah
  • 11. • Hikmah (wisdom) is stage of intellectual and spiritual maturity where human being are able to distinguish between bad and good, right and wrong. • It happen with the combination of ma’rifah and ilm. • It lead a person to the right path.