STRATEGIC DIRECTION IDENTIFICATION Educational Planning & Evaluation EDA 6590 Prepared By Nur Shahidah Mardhiyyah G1012396 (firstname.lastname@example.org)
CONTENTS Introduction Articulating Vision Statement And Strategic Guiding Principles Analyses Of Environment Factors Identification Of Strategic Issues Critical Success Factors Strategic Goals And Objectives KPI. Conclusion References
INTRODUCTION Term strategic is applied to planning activities to denote linkages with the goal setting process, the formulation of more immediate objectives to move on an organization toward its goals, and the selection of specific actions or strategies required in allocation of organizational resources to assist in achieving objectives (Steiss, 2003). Strategic planning as a disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization is, what is does and why it does it (Bryson, 2004).
VISION STATEMENT Vision describe how the organization should look when it is working well with environment and key stakeholders. Developing vision is more time consuming than formulating mission statement (Senge, 1990; Angelice,2001) It is more difficult because most organizations are coalitional and thus the vision must usually be a treaty negotiated among rival coalitions.
CONT… Vision statement present a guiding image of what success will look like. Should be appropriate to the organization’s mission and consistent with organization’s value (Steiss, 2003). Should clarify the organization’s purpose and direction, action oriented and future oriented, reflect high ideals and challenging ambitions.
CONT… Decision makers must be courageous in order to construct a compelling vision of success. They must be disciplined enough to affirm the vision in the present, to work hard to make the vision real in the here and now (Collin & Porras, 1997; Terry, 1993,2001).
BENEFITS OF VISION STATEMENT Give image of what it should do and how it should do it to achieve success. Organizational members should be given specific, reasonable and supportive guidance about what is expected of them and why. A clear vision provides an effective substitute for leadership. Vision provides a way to claim the future in the present and to invent one’s own preferred future.
The Mission Statement to achieve Islamization, Internationalization, Integration and Comprehensive Excellence. (I.I.I.C.E. or “Triple-I” CE) The Vision Statement To be a leading international centre of educational excellence.
IIUM’S VISION Inspired by the world-view of tawhid and the Islamic philosophy of the unity of knowledge as well as its concept of holistic education, The IIUM aims to become a leading international centre of educational excellence which: Revitalizes the intellectual dynamism of Islam and the Muslim Ummah; Integrates Islamic revealed knowledge and values in all academic disciplines and educational activities; Seeks to restore a leading and progressive role of the Muslim Ummah in all branches of knowledge; thereby, Contributing to the improvement and upgrading of the qualities of human life and civilisation.
Stakeholder Clarification analysis of mandates Vision Missionstatement statement
STRATEGIC GUIDING PRINCIPLES Ten step of strategic planning process: (Bryson)1. Initiate and agree on a strategic planning process2. Identify organizational mandates3. Clarify organizational mission and values4. Assess the external and internal environment to identify SWOT5. Identify strategic issues facing the organization6. Formulate the strategies to manage the issues7. Review and adopt the strategies or strategic plan8. Establish an effective organizational vision9. Develop an effective implementation process10. Re-assess the strategies and the strategic planning process.
ANALYSES OF ENVIRONMENT FACTORS SWOT analysis: Identifies strengths that are available to implement strategies and tactics. Identifies weaknesses which can be corrected or minimized in order to achieve ideal vision. Identifies opportunities exist which have not be utilized. Discovers the threats which can be avoided.
CONT… To determine the organization’s strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats exist within the organization and external environment SWOT analysis:1. It involve external factor (opportunities and threat) and2. internal factors (strength and weaknesses).
CONT… Internal factor (strength and weakness) It is a comprehensive evaluation of the organization’s distinctive core competencies. With identification of its strengths and weaknesses. Three basic element:1. Resources (inputs)2. Present strategy (process)3. Performance (output) Strength: What are the organization’s advantages, how does it do well? Weakness: what area need improvement? What should be avoided?
CONT… External factor (opportunities and threat) Explore environment outside the organization. Identify the opportunities and challenges the organization. Opportunities: where are the best chances for change n improvement? Threats: what are the obstacles does the organization face? (Steiss, 2003)
IDENTIFICATION OF STRATEGIC ISSUES Strategic issue described as “a forthcoming development, either inside or outside the organization which is likely to have an important impact on the ability of an enterprise to meet its objectives” Identifying strategic issues is the heart of the strategic planning process. Strategic issue involves conflicts over ends (what), means (how or how much), philosophy (why), location(where), timing (when) and who. It creates useful tension necessary to prompt organization change. Organization rarely change unless they feel some need, pressure or tension to change. (Bryson, 2004)
STRATEGIC ISSUE DESCRIBE AS:1. The issue should be phrased as a question the organization can do something and that has more than one answer. Some of the reasons are: If there is nothing the organization can do about the situation, then there is no strategic issue. Effective strategic planning has an action orientation. If strategic planning doesn’t produce useful decision and action, then it probably was a waste of time Focusing on what the organization can do helps it attend to what it controls, instead of worrying pointlessly about what it does not control. Organization should focus on their most precious resource- the attention of key decision makers-on the issue they can do something about.
CONT…2. Discuss the confluence of factors (mission, mandates, internal, external environment aspects) that makes the issue strategic. Strategic issue can arise in three situations:1. Arise when the event beyond the control of the organization. This situation called threats.2. Arise when technological, cost, financial, staffing management or political choices are changing.3. Arise when changes in mission, mandates suggest present and future opportunities.
SEVEN APPROACHES OF STRATEGIC ISSUES IDENTIFICATION1. Direct approach: Goes straight from a discussion of mandates, mission and SWOTs to the identification of strategic issues.2. Indirect approach: Begins with brainstorming about different kinds of option before identifying issues. This options include actions the organization could take.3. Goal approach: Start with goals and then identifies issues that must be addressed before goals can be achieved.
CONT…4. Vision of success approach: Start with the sketch of a vision in order to identify issues that must be dealt with before vision can be realized. Enable organizational members to see what change are necessary.5. Oval mapping approach: Involve creation of word and arrow diagram in which ideas about actions the organization might take, how it might take them, and why are linked by the arrow indicating cause and effect or influence relationship.
CONT…6. Tension approach: There are four basic tension around any strategic issue. (Nutt and Backoff, 1992) Involve human resources (equity concern), innovation and change, maintenance of tradition and productivity improvement. They suggest highlighting these tension in order to find the best way to frame the issue.7. System analysis approach: Used to discern the best way to frame issues and with issue areas can be conceptualized as a system
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS Critical success factors refer to "the limited number of areas in which satisfactory results will ensure successful competitive performance for the individual, department, or organization”. “The things organization must do or criteria it must meet in order to be successful in the eyes of stakeholders…”
CONT… Six critical success factors:1. CSF 1: be willing to move out of today’s comfort zone and use new and wider boundaries for thinking, planning, doing and evaluating.2. CSF 2: differentiate between ends and means (focus on what and how)3. CSF 3: use all three levels of results (mega, macro, micro)4. CSF4: use and ideal vision as the underlying basis for planning (don’t be limited by current restraints).5. CSF 5: prepare objectives including mission objectives-that include measures of how you will know when you have arrived.6. CSF 6: define “need” as a gap in results.
STRATEGIC GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Goal statement of desired result or outputs drawn from the broad purpose of the organization. Objectives expected changes in condition, welfare or behavior as a consequence of the initiation of some program or activity. It specifies what the organization proposes to do and why it proposes to do so.
CONT… Strategic goals are statements of what you wish to achieve over the period of the strategic plan. It reflect the analysis that starts with creating a vision, a role statement and a mission statement, and then analysis of environment, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Objectives are used to operationalize the mission statement. That is, they help to provide guidance on how the organization can fulfill or move toward the “high goals” in the goal hierarchy-the mission and vision
KPI (KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR) Key Performance Indicators, also known as KPI or Key Success Indicators (KSI), help an organization define and measure progress toward organizational goals. Key Performance Indicators are quantifiable measurements, that reflect the critical success factors of an organization. They will differ depending on the organization. For example: A business may have as one of its Key Performance Indicators the percentage of its income that comes from return customers. A school may focus its Key Performance Indicators on graduation rates of its students.
CONCLUSION The know what is strategic direction identification is all about, we must understand the is strategic planning. The planners must have mission and vision, goals and objectives and strategic issue in order to create a good plan. The critical success factors and key performance indicator is important to monitor and measure the progress of the organization.
REFERENCES: Bryson, J.M. (2004). Strategic Planning For Public And Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide To Strengthening And Sustaining Organizational Achievement (3rd Ed.). San Francisco: Jossey- bass Inc. Kaufman, R., Herman, J. and Watters, K. (2002). Educational Planning: Strategic, Tactical And Operational. NY: Prentice Hall. Kaufman, R. (1992). Mapping Educational Success: Strategic Thinking And Planning For School Administrators. California: Corwin Press Inc. Steiss, A.W. (2003). Strategic Management For Public And Nonprofit Organizations. New York: Marcel Dekker. http://management.about.com/cs/generalmanagement/a/keyperfi ndic.htm