An information processing perspective conceptual systems theory
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

An information processing perspective conceptual systems theory

on

  • 516 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
516
Views on SlideShare
516
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

An information processing perspective conceptual systems theory An information processing perspective conceptual systems theory Presentation Transcript

  • NUR SHAHIDAH MARDHIYYAH G1012396
  •  Introduction  Major constructs in conceptual systems theory.  Relationship among constructs in conceptual systems theory  Studies Of Educational Organization  Implications of conceptual systems theory for enhancing student learning outcomes  Conclusion
  •  Definition: offers a framework for interrelating people, situations and behaviors in term of information processing.  Why and how people interpret situations in divergent ways, why and how their behaviors differ in response to situation and how situations differ from each other.
  • Conceptual system Environment Complexity Behavioral Complexity • Differentiation • Discrimination • Integration • Rate • Load • Diversity • Decision Making • Communication • Problem solving
  • Conceptual System Is the pattern of information processing that an individual uses to interpret interpersonal stimuli. This pattern is similar to computer program
  • Differentiation • Refers to the ways in which stimuli are dimensionalized by the perceiver’s conceptual system • For example, people can be perceived as differentiated in term of height, sex, intelligent and etc Discrimination • The refinement of differentiations along any given aspect. Degrees of refinement can range from dichotomous discriminations through categorical discriminations • For example, one perceiver might consider people as “smart” or “stupid”. Or “bright”, “average” “dull”. Integration • The extent the various perceived dimensions are interrelated. Varied perspectives, combinatory rules • Another example, people might be perceive as intelligent if they are creative, intelligent if they are have lot of knowledge, intelligent if they have sense of humor.
  • Environment Complexity An individual’s environment complexity refers to the nature of the stimuli (signals) that are generated by people in an interpersonal situation. For example, the signals in the form of facial expression, actions, statements, postures and etc.
  • Rate • Refers to the speed or rapidity with which signals are sent within any given unit of time • For example, a class might be regarded as a teacher’s interpersonal environment. When the students are all sitting quietly and reading, the signals students emit are slow, but when the discussion starts, they interrupting each others, the signals are faster. The greater the rate of signal, the more complex the interpersonal environment Load • Refers to the total number of signals emitted by persons in the environment over period of time. Rate and load are interrelated, since faster signals result in a greater total number in any time span. The greater load of signals, the more complex the environment. • Refers to the variation of signals within a time period, the changeability of signals, their unexpectedness or surprise value • For example, in a classroom, when students making conflicting Diversity comments, exciting argument and reacting in diverse emotional ways, making irrelevant comments, there is wide variability of signals and great predictability or surprise value to any particular signals.
  • Behavioral complexity Varies to the degree that behavior requires or show evidence of differentiation, discrimination and integration on the part of the behaving individual. Classes of behavior that can be seen in a person such as decision making, communicating, problem solving and etc.
  • Decision Making • Can vary in complexity depending on the rage of information used, the amount of conflicting information in the decision. The authoritativeness in decision making Communication Problem Solving • Can vary in complexity depending on the extent to which messages sent are categorical, authoritarian, similar or predictable and generalize as rules. • Simple communication pattern characterize by categorical, authoritarian, predictable and rulebound statement. • Complex communication pattern characterize statement are conditional, speculative, varied or unpredictable, and sensitive to the particular audience. • Is a class of behaviors that can vary in complexity depending on the alternative solutions. • Simplistic problem solving characterized by few alternative solutions, rigidity in combining pieces of information and programmed (predictable) solution. • Complex problem solving considering broad range of alternative solutions, combining pieces of information flexibly (in many different ways) and inventing unexpected solutions.
  • A moderately simple conceptual system A simple conceptual system A moderately complex conceptual system Relationship among constructs in conceptual systems theory A complex conceptual system
  • A Simple Conceptual System Called low integrative complexity, a low integration index or concrete functioning-is characterized by few differentiating dimensions, dichotomous or grossly categorical discriminations and one fixed perspective for integrating dimensions.
  • A Moderately Simple Conceptual System Is characterized by few dimensions, somewhat categorical discriminations and few alternative perspectives for interrelating dimensions. These perspectives represent alternative viewpoints not integrated perspectives.
  • A Moderately Complex Conceptual System Has many differentiating dimension, quite refine discriminations and interrelated perspectives for interpreting interpersonal situations. These diverse perspectives can be used simultaneously in perceiving people.
  • A Complex Conceptual System Characterized by very many dimensions, highly refine discriminations and multiple interrelated perspectives for integrating dimensions. People having this complex conceptual system also called high integration index, high integrative complexity or abstract functioning- have a theoretical outlook on life, they can create new generalizations about situations they experience, so that other persons are perceived according to dynamically changing pattern of thought.
  • Related Research On Instruction The studies of teaching or teacher-student interactions. The conceptual level of teachers’ classroom behaviors. For example, integratively complex teachers were found to be more resourceful and task oriented, less dictatorial and less punitive than integratively simple teachers (Harvey et al, 1966, 1968).
  • Research On Educational Administration The studies of administration or administrator teacher interaction. The elementary school principals’ conceptual levels were found to be related to the complexity of their interpersonal environments and to the frequency of their person-oriented leadership behaviors (silver, 1975). That is, the more conceptually complex principals had more function performed in their schools, more professionally oriented faculty members and more frequent interactions with faculty, they also exhibited greater tolerance of uncertainty and freedom, greater consideration for teachers.
  •  Taxonomy of Bloom in which cognitive, affective and psychomotor goals are classified in terms of increasingly higher order learning.  For example, objectives for learning range from simple recall through more complex application and synthesis to evaluation.  The parallel between learning objectives and conceptual systems is apparent, the higher order cognitive objectives demand higher order conceptual functioning on the part of students.
  •  But the research on higher order objectives are often ignored, the teacher tend to strive for memorization and repetition rather than for deeper understanding, integration and creative etc.  In applying conceptual system theory in education, theorists suggest to focus on process of learning rather than content of learning.  Emphasize on how to think rather than what to think.
  •  To understand human behavior differences in perceiving varied interpersonal environment and response to the environment.  Each individual has a conceptual system that is more complex or less complex in interpreting the situations, the response for the situation is behavior complexity which are more or less complex and environment complexity refers to the signals available to be perceived by an individual.