Vrc regeneration framework 14 april 2014 technical report
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Vrc regeneration framework 14 april 2014 technical report

on

  • 407 views

The Regeneration Framework for the Urban Core of Cape Town 2014 to 2040

The Regeneration Framework for the Urban Core of Cape Town 2014 to 2040

Statistics

Views

Total Views
407
Views on SlideShare
407
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Vrc regeneration framework 14 april 2014 technical report Document Transcript

  • 1. Page | 1 TECHNICAL REPORT BETA EDITION March 2014 VOORTREKKER ROAD CORRIDOR REGENERATION FRAMEWORK
  • 2. Page | 2 Foreword by the Chairman, Dr Musa Shezi of the Greater Tygerberg Partnership I am pleased to release the “Beta Version” of the Greater Tygerberg Partnership’s Regeneration Framework for the Voortrekker Road Corridor for comment and input. The Beta Version is an invitation to join a public conversation with all stakeholders including the various authorities and those who live, work, learn, play, use public facilities or own businesses on the Corridor. I am proud that the production of this comprehensive and integrated “Beta” strategy for Cape Town’s economic engine room has been completed in record time, considering that the Partnership has only been operational with permanent staff since August 2013. I am especially pleased to report that this document reflects the outcomes of a process of extensive consultation through the Future Tyger public engagement programme. The Regeneration Framework embodies the action mandate that we seek from our partners, members and stakeholders which include local businesses, property owners and corporates, the University of the Western Cape, the University of Stellenbosch, the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, the Northlink College, PRASA, Transnet, the City of Cape Town, the Western Cape Government, National Government Departments and State owned Enterprises and local communities. Building partnerships is the core business of the Greater Tygerberg Partnership. Meaningful partnerships are not possible without focussed programmes, and the most impactful programmes inevitably require partnerships. We are particularly keen to hear how your organisation could become a partner in the regeneration of the Voortrekker Road Corridor. By commenting on the Beta Edition, you will help the Greater Tygerberg Partnership to facilitate a process of constant improvement for regeneration and improvement from today towards 2020 and beyond to 2040. We are especially grateful to Her Worship the Mayor Alderman Patricia de Lille for the funding provided to the Partnership from the Mayor’s Urban Regeneration Programme, which has made this work possible. And to Mr Tienie le Roux, Executive Director and chairman of the Business Development Committee under whose auspices this work has been directed. The baton is handed to Ms Lindsey Jones our newly appointed COO to translate these bold ideas into a practical programme of implementation through partnership. I look forward to working with all our partners, members and stakeholders in delivering on the inspiring vision outlined in this Regeneration Framework, which indeed will also be a milestone in implementing the Urban Network Strategy developed by National Treasury, the Integrated Development Plan and the City Development Strategy of the City of Cape Town and the One Cape 2040 vision for the Western Cape. Dr Musa Shezi Chairman of the Board Greater Tygerberg Partnership
  • 3. Page | 3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The release of this initial Beta Version1 of the Regeneration Framework by the Greater Tygerberg Partnership is the fourth step in the Future Tyger public conversation about the Voortrekker Road Corridor (VRC) and the Bellville Central Area, which is designated as Cape Town’s Second Metropolitan Node. The Regeneration Framework is a part of the City of Cape Town’s Mayoral Urban Regeneration Programme (MURP). The release of the Beta Version aims to trigger debate and input on an approach to regeneration, to frame next steps in the regeneration process and to identify projects and investigations into a framework for implementation aligned with the City’s Integrated Development Plan. The Regeneration Framework is a working document that is constantly revised. A flexible and responsive approach is essential because urban regeneration is a partnership-driven process that gives effects to the policies, strategies and investment programmes of the three spheres of government as well as those of key partners including local higher learning institutions, transport agencies and the business community. The ultimate goal is to generate a shared understanding and ongoing programme of action between the partners and the stakeholders who are involved in regenerating the Voortrekker Road Corridor and the Second Metropolitan Node. Setting the scene for urban regeneration is the theme of Chapter 2. Regeneration is presented in the context of the historical evolution of the VRC through seven transitions. It posits four scenarios for the future of the Corridor based on the insights of a diverse team of academics, specialists, developers and community leaders. The best case scenario entails a partnership driven approach with a focus on place making “Tyger Becomes Great”, whereas the worst case “Eish” scenario sees a level of deterioration comparable with most degraded African inner cities. Chapter 3 picks up the major findings and outlines the arguments for corridor development through Transit-Orientated Development or TOD. Perspectives and experiences in South African cities are considered, with a special focus on Cape Town. Spatial arguments consider the Metro’s growth options and the potential of TOD as a major driver/enabler for regeneration of the VRC. 1 To borrow the analogy of computer software release life cycle, the Beta Version denotes a product that is available for the first time outside the organisation who developed it. The Beta Version is used to test and monitor user acceptance.
  • 4. Page | 4 The Voortrekker Road Corridor and the Bellville Central Area have considerable investment potential. A mixed use medium-high intensity scenario for developing the 680 ha of underutilised public land and TOD development on the Voortrekker Spine could conservatively unlock some R 300 bn of investment. Chapter 4 analyses investment growth scenarios for the Metropolitan Node as developed by a respected property analyst. Some 550 000 m2 of additional retail is possible in a Bellville Decades scenario where correct preconditions for regeneration are put in place, the equivalent of 5 major regional malls and entailing investment of at least R 8bn and 250 000 m2 of office space in 20 years, an additional Century City office park. Another 250 000 people could be located in high density residential areas on the Spine. These estimates are to be regarded as no more than indicative prior to detailed work being done on major public land sites and in the four focus areas. Research must still be done on the large scale industrial development potential of the Bellville – Cape Town International Airport axis, but it is likely to be of regional significance. Seen in the light of these perspectives, the growth potential of the VRC such that it can take up a sizeable percentage of Cape Town’s development potential to 2040. In Chapter 5, we construct an analytical framework for long term (2040) medium term (2020) and short term (2014/15) planning. The 2040 vision proposed for the Corridor harmonises with the City of Cape Town’s 2040 City Development Strategy and the OneCape 2040 vision: By 2040 a regenerated and inter-connected Voortrekker Road Corridor will link Cape Town’s two metropolitan nodes with the city at large and it’s regional hinterland to play a dynamic role as an innovation and development powerhouse in Cape Town’s transition to achieving its 2040 vision of becoming “one of the world’s greatest cities in which to live and learn, work, invest and discover – a place of possibility” A step path from 2014 towards the 2040 Corridor vision is proposed, which builds on the OneCape 2040 step path and the City of Cape Town’s 2040 City Development Strategy. This is discussed in more detail in Annexure A. The following steps are indicated in the Step Path to 2040: STEP ONE: Creating the platform (2014-2019): This step sees the Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor undergoing an urban turnaround through the implementation of catalytic game changer projects and the creation of an infrastructural and institutional networked platform that sets in place a cycle of self-sustaining regeneration. The will accelerate a transition from urban decay, socio economic decline, urban fragmentation and disinvestment to urban regeneration, inter- connectivity, socio economic up-liftment, re-investment and renewal. STEP TWO: Implementation at scale (2020-2025): This steps sees he accelerated development of the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor as a seamlessly managed interconnected corridor and a fast growing nucleus for innovation, job creation, youth development and high density urban lifestyles.
  • 5. Page | 5 STEP THREE: Accelerated improvement (2026-2033) This steps sees the creation of a distinctive identity and economic vibrance that renders the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor as leading destinations to live, produce, work, play, visit and do business in Cape Town. STEP FOUR: Sustained Performance (2034-2040): This step sees the phasing out of special measures to regenerate the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor due to their seamless integration within the growth dynamics of the City of Cape Town and the Western Cape. The step path is centrally informed by local, provincial and national short, medium and long term planning. Chapter 5 extracts 2020 Outcomes as a basis for medium term planning on the basis of a performance framework of “Six Regeneration Imperatives” which the Framework proposes for the assessment of progress and development. Achieving Step One Creating the platform (2014-2019) will be achieved through progressive realisation of six regeneration imperatives to achieve the 2020 Outcomes identified. This time frame is important as it provides the basis for influencing the programmes of action for national and provincial government 2014 to 2019 and for the City of Cape Town’s IDP from 2015 to 2020. The following regeneration imperatives and Partnership Programmes are identified: 1. REGENERATION IMPERATIVE: GROWTH & INNOVATION GENERATING 1.1. Learning and Innovation Corridor: Synergising the knowledge and learning capacity of institutions located in the Corridor for maximum impact in regard to education, skills development and the application of innovation to business development 1.2. Production Corridor: Integrating the knowledge, air/ road/rail/ sea logistics and manufacturing capacity of the Corridor to drive “aerotropolis” development, ICT, green technology, bio technology and niche manufacturing and ensure the retention of existing manufacturing 1.3. Services Corridor: Developing clusters of office development, business process outsourcing, business tourism and retail development that couple large scale corporate businesses and complexes with small and informal business networks 2. REGENERATION IMPERATIVE: PEOPLE SERVING 2.1. Caring Corridor: Providing quality public facilities and over the counter services for the public at large and livelihood and support opportunities for vulnerable groups 2.2. Youth Corridor: Providing leadership development, career guidance, learning support, cultural, sport and recreation opportunities that capture the needs and aspirations of young people for whom the Corridor is the most accessible place to fulfil those needs and aspirations 3. REGENERATION IMPERATIVE: INTER CONNECTED 3.1. Ease of Movement Corridor: Modernising public transport, developing non-motorised transport and integrating both with development and private transport 3.2. Broadband Corridor: Extending quality affordable last mile broadband and access points in areas of highest need, density and footfall
  • 6. Page | 6 4. REGENERATION IMPERATIVE: FULLY DEVELOPED AND DENSIFIED 4.1. Accomplished Corridor: Developing vacant and underutilised public land 4.2. TOD Corridor: Coupling the growth of public transport and transit ridership and development that supports it through well designed transit precincts that achieve intensification, mixed use, densification and value capture 4.3. Vibrant Living Corridor: Promoting high density housing with an emphasis on social housing, gap market housing and student housing in transit precincts and the most accessible parts of the Corridor whilst protecting the integrity and liveability of lower density suburbs that attach to the Corridor 5. REGENERATION IMPERATIVE: ECO-LOGICAL 5.1. Green Building And Development: : Championing buildings and development that reduce carbon dioxide emissions and conserve consumption of energy, water, waste and materials 5.2. Riparian Corridor: Conserving, coupling and integrating streams, rivers, canals and wetlands and storm water systems within an open space network that proves green relief and amenity, protection of biodiversity, recreation, public access and flood protection 6. REGENERATION IMPERATIVE: WELL MANAGED 6.1. Partnership Corridor: Maintaining a visionary, cohesive and integrated programme of partnership action and investment marketing and facilitation to achieve economic, social and urban regeneration 6.2. Well Organised Corridor: Maintaining a seamlessly clean, safe and attractive urban and industrial environment that progressively integrates smart city technologies Going forward, the Partnership will play a facilitation role as co-manager of the regeneration conversation and will seek to integrate the outcomes and priorities of the conversation in the programmes of government, institutions, and corporate sector. This will involve a detailed process of further engagement and reworking of the Beta Edition. These activities will include: • Publicising and securing comment on the beta version of the Regeneration Framework with a view to later undertaking a comprehensive review • Developing an Implementation Framework including possible innovative tools such as land availability agreements, development vehicle(s), flexible rights granting mechanisms and a regional innovation ecosystem • Developing detailed regeneration plans, design and marketing collateral for each of the four focus areas and including these in the comprehensive review • Managing an international design competition as part of the World Design Capital 2014 programme in order to secure global best practice, planning and design thinking • Establishing effective coordination, communication and planning forums with all major government departments and state-owned enterprises in collaboration with the City of Cape Town • Establishing a membership model and funding framework to better engage the corporate sector and private investors in urban regeneration programmes in the context of a 5 year Strategic Plan for the Partnership • Setting up communication mechanisms with local property owners in each of the four focus areas with the view to participating in local precinct design, development entities, land packaging, and regeneration and urban acupuncture projects
  • 7. Page | 7 Contents 1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 13 Intention and status of the GTP’s Regeneration Framework ...............................................13 Introducing the Voortrekker Road Corridor and the Second Metropolitan Node ...............13 More about the Greater Tygerberg Partnership ..................................................................14 More about the Future Tyger public engagement process ..................................................15 Outline of the Regeneration Framework..............................................................................16 2. Regeneration as a Process of Transition .............................................................................. 18 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................18 The Broader Policy Context...................................................................................................18 Defining Regeneration ..........................................................................................................19 Seven regeneration transitions affecting the Voortrekker Road Corridor ...........................20 2.4.1. 1680 – 1840: Corridor birth ..........................................................................................20 2.4.2. 1840 – 1940: Urbanisation and Industrialisation..........................................................20 2.4.3. 1940 – 1980: City Integration .......................................................................................20 2.4.4. 1980 – 2020: Metro sprawl...........................................................................................21 2.4.5. 2020 – 2030: Metro Compaction..................................................................................21 2.4.6. 2030 - 2040: Africanisation...........................................................................................21 2.4.7. Post 2040: Regionalism.................................................................................................22 Scenarios for transition.........................................................................................................22 3. A Transit Orientated Development Corridor ........................................................................ 26 A Rationale for a Transit Orientated Development (TOD) approach to the VRC .................26 TOD in South African cities ...................................................................................................26 TOD in Cape Town.................................................................................................................27 TOD and the Voortrekker Road Corridor..............................................................................30 Exploring structuring elements of the VRC...........................................................................31 4. Growth Potential of the VRC To 2040 .................................................................................. 35 Population growth and residential development projections..............................................35 Retail take-up projections.....................................................................................................35 Commercial floorspace projections......................................................................................36 5. Building a Framework for Regeneration .............................................................................. 38 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................38 The 2040 Vision for the Voortrekker Road Corridor and the Second Metropolitan Node...38 A Step path to 2040 ..............................................................................................................38 5.3.1. STEP ONE: Creating the platform (2014-2019).............................................................38 5.3.2. STEP TWO: Implementation at scale (2020-2025)........................................................39
  • 8. Page | 8 5.3.3. STEP THREE: Accelerated improvement (2026-2033) ..................................................39 5.3.4. STEP FOUR: Sustained Performance (2034-2040) ........................................................40 A 2020 Programme of Partnership Action to achieve Regeneration....................................41 5.4.1. Imperative # 1: Growth & Innovation Generating........................................................42 5.4.2. Imperative # 2: People Serving .....................................................................................42 5.4.3. Imperative # 3: Inter Connected...................................................................................43 5.4.4. Imperative # 4: Fully Developed and Densified ............................................................43 5.4.5. Imperative # 5: Eco-logical:...........................................................................................44 5.4.6. Imperative # 6: Well managed:.....................................................................................44 6. Developing Regeneration Programmes ............................................................................... 46 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................46 Growth and Innovation Generating......................................................................................46 6.2.1. Regeneration Imperative ..............................................................................................46 6.2.2. Policy Context ...............................................................................................................47 6.2.3. Status quo analysis........................................................................................................47 6.2.4. How Partnership Programmes can deliver regeneration ............................................48 People serving.......................................................................................................................49 6.3.1. Regeneration Imperative ..............................................................................................49 6.3.2. Policy Context ...............................................................................................................49 6.3.3. Status quo analysis........................................................................................................49 6.3.4. How Partnership Programmes can deliver regeneration ............................................50 Inter Connected ....................................................................................................................50 6.4.1. Regeneration Imperative ..............................................................................................51 6.4.2. Policy Context ...............................................................................................................51 6.4.3. Status quo analysis........................................................................................................52 6.4.4. Regeneration Opportunity............................................................................................54 6.4.5. How Partnership Programmes can deliver regeneration .............................................55 Fully Developed and Densification........................................................................................56 6.5.1. Regeneration Imperative ..............................................................................................56 6.5.2. Policy Context ...............................................................................................................56 6.5.3. Status quo analysis........................................................................................................58 6.5.4. Regeneration Opportunity............................................................................................60 6.5.5. How Partnership Programmes can deliver regeneration ............................................61 Eco-logical .............................................................................................................................62 6.6.1. Regeneration Imperative ..............................................................................................62 6.6.2. Policy Context ...............................................................................................................62
  • 9. Page | 9 6.6.3. Status quo analysis........................................................................................................62 6.6.4. Regeneration Opportunity............................................................................................63 6.6.5. How Partnership Programmes can deliver regeneration ............................................63 Well managed .......................................................................................................................63 6.7.1. Regeneration Imperative ..............................................................................................63 6.7.2. Policy Context ...............................................................................................................63 6.7.3. Status quo analysis........................................................................................................64 6.7.4. Regeneration Opportunity............................................................................................65 6.7.5. How Partnership Programmes can deliver Regeneration.............................................66 7. Regeneration Focus Areas................................................................................................... 68 Approach and methodology .................................................................................................68 Eastern Regeneration Focus area .........................................................................................68 7.2.1. Demographic and development context ......................................................................68 7.2.2. Regeneration Opportunities .........................................................................................71 7.2.3. Regeneration Proposals................................................................................................73 Metro Node South Regeneration Focus area .......................................................................74 7.3.1. Demographic and development context ......................................................................74 7.3.2. Regeneration Opportunities .........................................................................................76 7.3.3. Regeneration Proposals................................................................................................77 Central Regeneration Focus area..........................................................................................78 7.4.1. Demographic and development context ......................................................................78 7.4.2. Regeneration Opportunities .........................................................................................80 7.4.3. Regeneration Proposals................................................................................................81 Western Regeneration Focus area........................................................................................82 7.5.1. Demographic and development context ......................................................................82 7.5.2. Regeneration Opportunities .........................................................................................84 7.5.3. Regeneration Proposals................................................................................................85 8. The Way Forward ............................................................................................................... 87 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................87 Accomplished Corridor .........................................................................................................87 Broadband Corridor ..............................................................................................................88 Caring Corridor......................................................................................................................88 Ease of Movement Corridor..................................................................................................89 Green Building and Development Corridor: .........................................................................90 Learning and Innovation Corridor.........................................................................................91 Partnership Corridor: ............................................................................................................92
  • 10. Page | 10 Production Corridor:.............................................................................................................93 Riparian Corridor...................................................................................................................94 Services Corridor...................................................................................................................95 TOD Corridor:........................................................................................................................95 Vibrant Living Corridor..........................................................................................................97 Well Organised Corridor: ......................................................................................................98 Youth Corridor.......................................................................................................................99 9. Ongoing Engagement to Improve the Regeneration Framework ........................................ 101 10. Conclusion........................................................................................................................ 102
  • 11. Page | 11 List of abbreviations BDM – Building Demand Management BEPP – Built Environment Performance Plan (2014/2014) CCT – City of Cape Town CTSDF – Cape Town Spatial Development Framework (2012) ECAMP – Economic Areas Management Programme GABS – Golden Arrow Bus Service GTP – Greater Tygerberg Partnerships ICDG – Integrated City Development Grant IDP – Integrated Development Plan (2012 – 2017) ITP – Integrated Transport Plan (2014 – 2018) MBT – Minibus Taxis MURP – Mayoral Urban Regeneration Programme MSDF - Municipal Spatial Development Framework (1996) PRASA – Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa PTI – Public Transport Interchange SETT – Socio-Economic Task Team SRA – Special Rating Area TOD – Transit Orientated Development TROSS – Tygerberg Riverine Open Space System UDZ – Urban Development Zone VRC – Voortrekker Road Corridor VRCID – Voortrekker Road Corridor Improvement District WCPG – Western Cape Provincial Government
  • 12. Page | 12 List of figures and tables (page numbers to be finalised in copy for print) Fig Description Page 1.1 GTP demarcation of the Broader impacted area, the Voortrekker Road corridor and the Bellville Central Area 2.1 Scenarios for the development of the VRC based on the Future Tyger “participlan” exercise 3.1 Concept of a development corridor 3.2 Assessed values for properties abutting Voortrekker Road 3.3 The urban core corridor and Voortrekker Road shown relative to economic activity 3.4 Structuring elements of the VRC graphically illustrated 3.5 Typical TOD neighbourhood economic activities 3.6 Walkability matrix applied to the corridor 6.1 Journey of Street Adult in Northern Suburbs 7.1 Eastern Focus Area demarcation 7.2 Bellville ECAMP Profile 7.3 The locational potential of the Southern Focus Area to become an internationally competitive “aerotropolis” urban-industrial activity corridor 7.4 Airport Industria ECAMP Profile 7.5 Sack’s Circle Industria ECAMP Profile 7.6 Central Focus Area demarcation 7.7 Parow - Goodwood ECAMP Profile 7.8 Western Focus Area Demarcation 7.9 Maitland ECAMP Profile Tables Table Description Page 2.1 Seven corridor transitions in a global development context 4.1 Potential density and population around Voortrekker Road 4.2 Balancing the extended catchment Area for transient shoppers 4.3 Cape Peninsula office stock (grades A and B) and vacancies by node as in Quarter 2 of 2014 4.4 A comparative view of the impact of the share-gain modelling on the base scenarios. 6.1 Overall economic activities on the Voortrekker Road corridor 6.2 Potential development yield of greenfield sites 6.3 Land uses developed through UDZ incentives in Bellville by category 6.4 Crimes reported per police district 6.5 Building plans passed for new buildings and improvements /extensions in the City of Cape Town and in the UDZ 6.6 Plans passed in the UDZ as a percentage of plans passed in City of Cape Town Text Boxes Text Box Description Page 3.1 The 5D’s of TOD (Bruce 2012) 3.2 Distinguishing activity routes and development routes 3.3 The “urban core” argument 6.1 The “Triple Helix” effect 6.2 A Cape Town contextual reading of “aerotropolis” 6.3 “Integration Zones” as per Integrated City Development Grant (ICDG) 6.4 Economic Areas Management Programme (ECAMP) 7.1 Urban Acupuncture Projects
  • 13. Page | 13 1. Introduction Intention and status of the GTP’s Regeneration Framework The release of this initial Beta Version2 of the Regeneration Framework by the Greater Tygerberg Partnership is the fourth step in the Future Tyger public conversation about the Voortrekker Road Corridor (VRC) and the Bellville Central Area, which is designated as Cape Town’s Second Metropolitan Node. The Regeneration Framework is a part of the City of Cape Town’s Mayoral Urban Regeneration Programme (MURP). The release of the Beta Version aims to trigger debate and input on an approach to regeneration, to frame next steps in the regeneration process and to identify projects and investigations into a framework for implementation aligned with the City’s Integrated Development Plan. The Regeneration Framework is a working document that is constantly revised. A flexible and responsive approach is essential because urban regeneration is a partnership-driven process that gives effects to the policies, strategies and investment programmes of the three spheres of government as well as those of key partners including local higher learning institutions, transport agencies and the business community. The ultimate goal is to generate a shared understanding and ongoing programme of action between the partners and the stakeholders who are involved in regenerating the Voortrekker Road Corridor and the Second Metropolitan Node. The Regeneration Framework document thus draws together multiple policies, programmes and plans into a coordinated and consolidated approach and regeneration programme for the Voortrekker Road Corridor and Cape Town’s Second Metropolitan Node. The Regeneration Framework therefore does not replace or eclipse any statutory, policy and strategic documents and positions held by the City, Provincial or National government. Introducing the Voortrekker Road Corridor and the Second Metropolitan Node The Voortrekker Road Corridor is the belt of intense urban development from the Salt River Circle in the west to the Stikland Bridge in the east. Cape Town’s Second Metropolitan Node overlays the Voortrekker Road Corridor and is the nucleus of intense urban development that includes the Tyger Valley precinct and the Bellville Central Area. The Bellville Central Area is located between the N1 in the North, up to an including the CPUT and UWC campuses in the South, the Parow business area to the West and the business and industrial areas flanking the R 300 to the East. 2 To borrow the analogy of computer software release life cycle, the Beta Version denotes a product that is available for the first time outside the organisation who developed it. The Beta Version is used to test and monitor user acceptance.
  • 14. Page | 14 Figure 1.1 Demarcation of the study area The Regeneration Framework is demarcated into four focus areas:  Western Focus Area: Salt River to Maitland;  Central Focus Area: Goodwood to Parow;  Eastern Focus Area: the Bellville Central Area between the N1 and the Northern rail line; and  Southern Focus Area: the Bellville Central Area South of the Northern rail line including Bellville South, the Transnet Marshalling Yard (Belcon site) and extending down to the campuses of the University of Western Cape and the Cape Peninsula University of Technology. The Voortrekker Road Corridor incorporates 21 ward councils and is home to a population of 708 061 (2011 census). Almost 100 000 students are registered in tertiary education institutions, colleges and further learning institutions within 5 km from the Bellville Central area. The Corridor is exceptionally well endowed with higher order services and facilities including more than ten public and private hospitals totalling 2,894 beds, the Medical Research Council, three universities, and many more colleges. The Bellville Public Transport Interchange (PTI) is the second busiest transport hub in Cape Town, recording 162,000 person trips every day (70,000 by train, 70,000 by taxi minibus, and 22,000 by bus). Some 178 bus and 348 taxi routes operate pn the Voortrekker Road Corridor. More about the Greater Tygerberg Partnership The Greater Tygerberg Partnership (GTP) is a public benefit organisation (PBO) registered with the Department of Social Development as a not-for-profit company in August 2012. The Partnership is supported by the City of Cape Town’s Mayoral Urban Regeneration Programme (MURP). The agreement between the City and the Partnership is linked to an approved business plan that
  • 15. Page | 15 requires the Partnership to develop a regeneration programme for the Voortrekker Road Corridor. The approved business plan can be found online at www.gtp.org.za. The GTP’s board composition reflects the diversity of stakeholders in the development of the sub- region. Representatives of organised business, City of Cape Town and Western Cape Provincial Government officials, councillors, and community organisations are well balanced on the board of directors. The vision of the GTP is to “inclusively and innovatively facilitate the creation and sustained existence of a vibrant thriving, desirable and value adding economically prosperous area” GTP business plan, adopted by the City of Cape Town More about the Future Tyger public engagement process Future Tyger was launched on 26 August 2014 as an inclusive conversation that aims to engage all stakeholders in the sub-region including government, business, academic institutions, local communities and city at large. The goal is to build an interactive community that is involved in the regeneration programme. The programme consists of six major phases: • Phase 1: Feeling the Temperature: Public meetings were arranged in August and September 2014 in Saltriver (Minor Hall), Kensington (Minor Hall), Parow (Town Hall), Goodwood (Town Hall), Ravensmead (Minor Hall), Belhar (Minor Hall), Bellville (CR Louw Auditorium, Sanlam), and UWC campus (Lecture Hall 3A). At these meetings, the GTP’s “initial spatial argument”, which is elaborated in this document, was presented to community organisations, rate payers associations, Municipal officials and councillors, investors and other interested stakeholders. This was paired with a questionnaire that “feels the temperature” on transport, city management and development issues on the Corridor. Dedicated social media channels (Facebook and Twitter pages) were also created where content was shared. These channels are still being utilised. • Phase 2: Imagining the Future: This phase entailed a two-day specialist seminars which took place on 2 and 3 October 2014 at the Bellville Civic Centre conference room. In attendance was a cross-sector mix of people including councillors, City and Provincial government officials, planners and urban designers, researchers, NGOS, built environment professionals, and members of the media. On Day 1, the theme of “Setting the scene for 2040” considered under the key drivers within the five themes of the project over the milestones of 2020, 2030 and 2040, and the key uncertainties so as to develop plausible scenarios. On Day 2, the Greater Tygerberg Partnership facilitated scenario planning in unpacking plausible scenarios, identifying the choices they imply and mapping development trajectories over the milestones. The seminars aimed to position the initial Future Tyger spatial arguments/scenarios and align to the National Development Plan 2030, the provincial One Cape 2040 strategy and Cape Town’s City Development Strategy. • Phase 3: Design the City: In Phase 3 a series of design sessions were facilitated between 11 and 15 November 2014 in which stakeholders were grouped by interest (1. Community- based organisations, 2. Ratepayers and Property owners, and 3. Government Planning) and by Regeneration Focus area. The goal of central participation in developing proposals for regeneration was achieved through a programme of stimulating, informing and interacting in focus group seminars by using a 3D spatial Model (customised Google Earth Pro). • Phase 4: Regeneration Framework: The production of the Regeneration Framework: Beta Version is a first attempt at packaging the main arguments, concepts, strategies and
  • 16. Page | 16 proposals for the regeneration of the Voortrekker Road corridor and the Metropolitan Second Node. This is a living document, and will be continually revisited and adjusted to fit the context as informed by core partners. • Phase 5: International Design Competition: The Future Tyger project has been accepted into the official World Design Capital 2014 programme under theme 2, “Bridging the Divide”. Running from April to September 2014, the Greater Tygerberg Partnership will launch an International Design Competition linked to the World Design Capital 2014 programme and the University of Stellenbosch’s 2014 Winelands Conference entitled “Innovation for the Urban Age”. The International Design Competition linked to World Design Capital 2014 creates a platform to attract leading local and international development practitioners, planners, designers and architects talent through an international design competition to generate innovative and sustainable urban development proposals. • Phase 6: The Implementation Framework: Working in close cooperation with core partners, the Greater Tygerberg Partnership will facilitate the regeneration process by: o Facilitating, aligning and integrating the programmes of its partners; o Establishing the institutional modalities (networks, partnerships, entities) needed to achieve regeneration; o Championing short term achievable Urban Acupuncture projects that set the platform for longer term urban regeneration; and o Constantly reviewing the Regeneration Framework as a direction setter for work in progress Outline of the Regeneration Framework This document aims to be a regeneration partnership programming framework with an explicit focus on the Voortrekker Road Corridor Setting the scene for urban regeneration is the theme of Chapter 2. Regeneration is presented as a process of transition. In this light, the chapter contextualises the Corridor within its historical evolution. It posits four scenarios for the future of the Corridor based on the insights of a diverse team of academics, specialists, developers and community leaders. Chapter 3 picks up the major findings and outlines the arguments for corridor development through Transit-Orientated Development. Perspectives and experiences in South African cities are considered, with a special focus on Cape Town. Spatial arguments consider the Metro’s growth options and the potential of creating a second Metropolitan Node in the Bellville Central Area. Chapter 4 analyses investment growth scenarios for the Corridor and Metropolitan Node. In Chapter 5, we construct an analytical framework for long term (2040) medium term (2020) and short term (2014/15) planning. The 2040 vision for the Corridor harmonises with the City of Cape Town’s City Development Strategy and the OneCape 2040 vision. A step path from 2014 towards the 2040 Corridor vision is proposed, which builds on the OneCape 2040 step path. This is discussed in more detail in Annexure A. The step path is centrally informed by local, provincial and national short, medium and long term planning. The chapter extracts 2020 Outcomes as a basis for medium term planning on the basis of a performance framework of “Six Regeneration Imperatives” which the Framework proposes for the assessment of progress and development. 13 Partnership Programmes are identified to deliver on the Regeneration Imperatives. It presents a practical programme development and implementation model aligned to the National Development Plan 2030, OneCape 2040, the City Development Strategy and Cape Town’s IDP.
  • 17. Page | 17 In Chapter 6, strategies and programmes for urban regeneration are presented, by considering for each of the six regeneration imperatives the policy context, an analysis of the status quo, regeneration opportunities and their applicability to the VRC and the Metropolitan Node. The strategies are categorised under the “Six Strategic Imperatives” introduced in Chapter 5. Taking a spatial perspective, regeneration opportunities in the four broadly demarcated regeneration focus areas are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 7. The four regeneration focus areas are profiled in their demographic and development contexts, followed by regeneration opportunities based on the “Six Strategic Imperatives”, and regeneration proposals are made in regard to public land repackaging, prime transit precincts, and urban acupuncture projects. Chapter 8 unpacks the 13 suggested programmes for corridor development. Under each of these programmes, detailed plans of action for the next 18 months for core stakeholders are presented. Chapters 9 and 10 conclude the major arguments for regenerating the Corridor.
  • 18. Page | 18 2. Regeneration as a Process of Transition Introduction In this Chapter we set the scene by outlining the broader policy context, suggesting a definition of “regeneration”, locate the Metropolitan Node and the VRC within a long term process of city transition 1680 – 2040, motivate the concept of Transit Orientated Development as the key spatial/transport/development driver of regeneration and explore the inter-connections that exist with the structure and functioning of the VRC in the context of Cape Town and the Western Cape. The Broader Policy Context Cities are increasingly seen as the drivers of regional and national economic growth. The prominence of the spatial economy has been recognised in both the National Spatial Development Perspective, adopted in 2003, and the National Planning Commission’s Diagnostic Report (2011) and the National Development Plan (2012). These documents indicate the central role cities will play in addressing economic growth and poverty alleviation. The spatial economy and associated impacts on infrastructure investment patterns should be aligned and coordinated between all three spheres of government. The Western Cape Provincial Government and City of Cape Town’s Spatial Development Frameworks also shed light on the particular focus of creating integrated, sustainable and inclusive urban growth patterns, with a special focus on mixed-use and medium to high density residential developments, as presented in this proposal. As a response to the National Development Plan, National Treasury has embarked on a new “Urban Network Strategy” (UNS) (National Treasury, 2014) that is directly applicable to the Voortrekker Road Corridor. The UNS is based on a spatial planning logic and network optimisation aimed at long term impact and value for money from public investments. This gives meaning to the NDP when it calls for “a proposed schema for spatial targeting that indicates where investment should be focused, and we identify elements of the existing broad consensus for transforming towns and cities”. The UNS is a strategy of identifying growth generating nodes which are linked together through development corridors. The UNS will be a guiding framework for the implementation of Rail, Roads, SME facilities, Public space & greening, Residential development, Community facilities, Bulk infrastructure such as Water, Electricity, Sewer and ICT. The City of Town Town’s planning strategies (e.g. IDP, SDF, BEPP, ITP) speak of focused public investment in infrastructure that aims to create a more equitable, sustainable, compact and accessible urban form. The City’s 5 year Integrated Development Plan (IDP) (2012 – 2017) rests on the five pillars of a caring city, an opportunity city, an inclusive city, a safe city, and a well-run city. Together with the IDP, the BEPP (page 78) prioritises investment in infrastructure to release the “high development and land use intensification potential to be harnessed” in Bellville and the Voortrekker Road Corridor. The City’s recently approved City Development Strategy (CDS)3 , generated through a consultative process with links to the OneCape 2040 strategy, is a strategic tool to direct future growth and development. The CDS identifies six goals to guide long term development: 3 The City’s briefing document understand the City Development Strategy (CDS) to “include an over-arching long-term collective vision, strategic levers and strategies and the identification of possible targeted interventions. Using the CDS, key stakeholders, both inside and outside of city government, act with deliberate intent and move forward in a consistent, deliberate direction in pursuit of the collective vision.” (CDS page 1)
  • 19. Page | 19  Goal 1: A healthy and vibrant life  Goal 2: Being educated and informed  Goal 3: Being connected  Goal 4: An inclusive and resilient economy  Goal 5: Building and celebrating Cape Town spirit  Goal 6: Being an eco-logical city region The 2040 vision proposed by the CDS is coupled to the VRC vision in the Regeneration Framework (see paragraph 5.2). The CDS takes into account the imperative to transition to a clime change resilient and sustainable growth path. The CDS identifies interventions pertaining to climate change resilience such as food, energy and water system analysis, align with knowledge-producing institutions to create the “MIT of Africa”, integrated public transport, becoming a world leader in “Blue Economy”4 , implementing zero-waste chain chains, and sourcing energy from renewable sources (Taylor, 2014). Defining Regeneration We define regeneration as a process to unlock socio-economic opportunity and urban investment in a strategic and sustainable manner through partnerships. As such it would need to deal with the long term spatial, social, economic and infrastructural forces that shape cities as well as the shorter term triggers, catalysts and/or “tipping points” for system-change or transition. As the regeneration of the VRC involves a very large part of the City of Cape Town and key elements of the Western Cape’s infrastructure it has to be long term in nature. In all cities processes of regeneration and “degeneration” (or creation and destruction) are long term: 10-20 years for property investment cycles, 20 -30 years for the lifespan of infrastructures, and 50 years (and even centuries) for the reshaping of city structure. Indeed the global economy itself goes through 30 – 40 4 Following the ground-breaking findings of the Club of Rome’s research, the “Blue Economy”, a term coined in a book by Gunter Pauli after assessing 2,231 peer-reviewed articles, refers to an action plan for 10 years - 100 innovations - 100 million jobs. A Blue Economy business model argues for a new industrial plan addressing environmental problems and transitioning to a zero-emissions growth path.
  • 20. Page | 20 year cycles of creation and destruction following waves of development and obsolescence of technology, capital investment and disinvestment and growth and contraction of economic activity (Swilling and Annecke 2010; Perez 2014). However regeneration also has to deal with much shorter time frames such as property leases and the project preparation cycle of 1-3 years. Perhaps most importantly, the 5 year election terms of national provincial and City government drive public budgets and investment cycles. The VRC is an example of transport-led transition past, present and future in the context of the seven transitions identified below. Seven regeneration transitions affecting the Voortrekker Road Corridor Cape Town has been shaped and reshaped over some 330 years through the major global transitions that have created the city we live in today. The City will be dramatically reshaped by the powerful global transitions that are inevitable by mid-century, and therefore it is imperative to set the scene for strategies that look to 2040 for Cape Town and the Western Cape region. We identify five global-through-local transitions that have shaped where the VRC is today and two that lie ahead and need to be anticipated and planned for in the regeneration process. These transitions are critically informed by revolutions in transport systems and technologies. This is illustrated in the summary Table 2.1. 2.4.1.1680 – 1840: Corridor birth The history of the Voortrekker Road has an undeniable influence of the present and future urban form of the corridor. Initially the road was a wagon path from what is known today as Salt River to Bellville. At a critical juncture in the path the wagons outspanned into an “uitspan” called “Hardekraaltjie” (“hard surface”). At this point the regional paths converged, creating a logical point for trade, services and the growth of a village. Bellville therefore evolved as a junction of the three most important routes between Cape Town and the Port with the agricultural hinterland: the Paarl route, the Stellenbosch/ Strand route and the Malmesbury route which is today the N7. The importance of Bellville as city-within-region and a connecting hub is as important today as it was 300 years ago. 2.4.2.1840 – 1940: Urbanisation and Industrialisation Coinciding with the Age of Steel, Electricity and Heavy Engineering (cf Perez 2014), the introduction of railways in the mid-19th century spurred the consolidation of high street residential occupation. By 1849 a hard road replaced the wagon path and by 1860 the railway line supported town growth at stations. The high street set the context for ribbon development that was supported by Voortrekker Road. Along the main road, town centres of Maitland, Goodwood, Parow and Bellville were formed. 2.4.3.1940 – 1980: City Integration Globally the post-War period was marked by the Age of Oil, Automobiles and Mass Production which started early in the 20th Century. In Cape Town, rapid industrialisation was spurred by locational opportunity and relatively low cost of land between Voortrekker Road and the railway and was ideal for factories. As the City grew towards the east, these town centres were characterised by town halls and civic precincts. Civic pride and competition reigned in the high years of apartheid, and spatial plans were introduced to reinforce the historical divides between the “bo-dorp” and “onder-dorp”. Bellville’s pre-eminence as the nexus of a sub-regional rail system released a new retail energy on
  • 21. Page | 21 Voortrekker Road, which was the primary location of retail and commercial high street life. In 1972 Parow shopping centre was constructed, one of the first sub-regional retail malls in the country. 2.4.4.1980 – 2020: Metro sprawl Forces of decentralisation coinciding with the Age of Information and Telecommunications resulted in city expansion. Increasingly development was based on relatively cheap oil, the emergence of global supply chains and the rise of the service economy. Cape Town’s growth was highly influenced by provisions made for the private motor car, suburban living for those who could afford it, and retail and office development packaged in malls and office parks. In South Africa the poor and the working class were located in ever larger townships located far away from economic opportunity and relying on an over capacitated public transport system and mini bus taxis to fill in accessibility gaps. This produced an ever more disintegrated and inequitable city with vast disparities. Prior to the N1 national highway construction, Voortrekker Road was the primary access road into the City centre. During this time, the city sprawled out towards the northern suburbs, and the outer- Cape Flats grew under the influence of rapid urbanisation as apart. But the urban boom met its challenge with the construction of the N1 national highway construction between 1960 and 1970. The development of shopping centres along the N1 “Super Corridor” such as Tygervalley Centre (1985), N1 City (1989), Canal Walk/ Century City (2000), and Cape Gate (2005) found ample vacant and relatively cheap land at busy intersections, and superior access to a continuous flow of willing and increasingly wealthy shoppers. This, coupled with major residential developments north of the new N1 Freeway, resulted in partial collapse of the Voortrekker Road corridor’s property values, economic decline and a change in the socio-economic composition. This was compounded with decline in use of the public transport system by the middle class. This growth, whether planned intentionally or not, places the corridor in a strategic location with the potential to integrate and compact the city. However Voortrekker Road has continued to be the most accessible service hub to the Central Cape Flats which accentuated the racial divide. This did however facilitate re-population of the corridor with migrants (often refugees) from other African countries which re-energised small retailing. 2.4.5.2020 – 2030: Metro Compaction The “Era of Turbulence”, to quote Alan Greenspan, previous chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank, following the global financial crisis can transition to a new Age of Biotechnology and Renewable Energy. Worldwide cities are seeking compaction, public transport and low carbon emission development as the global infrastructure is retooled for a sustainable planetary civilisation (Swilling and Annecke 2010).On the VRC an “urban turnaround” can take place and see the reintegration of the VRC and the emergence of a new Metropolitan Node as an equal but different partner to the Central City as parts of a bi-nodal urban core (discussed in more detail in Chapter 3). Urban transition in the period 2014 to 2025 will be driven by considerable investments in road, rail and bus infrastructure. The imminent roll out of the MyCiti Integrated Rapid Bus System with established public transport interchanges will render Voortrekker Road as an integrated rapid transport corridor. A modernised PRASA rail fleet and improvements to train stations will popularise public transport to the private car owning class. The construction of the North-South Blue Downs road-rail corridor linking Khayelitsha and Bellville will also escalate the importance of Bellville Station, possibly overtaking Cape Town station as the city’s busiest interchange. 2.4.6.2030 - 2040: Africanisation
  • 22. Page | 22 By 2040, African cities will absorb the majority of the second wave of urbanisation, said to be unique in its scale and size. This coincides with the “Age of Biotechnology and Renewable Energy” and this transition will drive an inevitable process of social, economic and urban “Africanisation” of Cape Town as the City becomes more deeply integrated in African growth and development dynamics. This will create both the technology and the economic muscle to drive the City’s transition to sustainability and competitiveness. The inherent efficiency, low carbon emissions and inclusivity of the Metropolitan Node and the VRC will cement their leading role in enabling Cape Town to achieve 2040 vision set out in the City Development Strategy. Considering the infrastructure limitations around water, sewerage and electricity infrastructure, the possibility of off-grid sustainable satellite cities on large publicly owned land such as Wingfield, Youngfield, Tygerberg hospital site, Belcon and Stikland hospital site becomes attainable as desired future mixed use large scale developments. 2.4.7.Post 2040: Regionalism In the possible “Golden Age” (Swilling and Annecke 2010, Perez 2014) of a sustainable, technologically connected world it is quite likely that there will be a return to the village, albeit set with a highly urban setting. The VRC would thus transition to a network of communities, each offering the communality and life cycle benefits of the traditional village but set within super connected ICT networks and local and international transport systems. Table 2.1 outlines the major transitions the corridor has evolved through, and those transitions that will have a positive, generative effect on the corridor. Corridor Transition Period World Transition Transport Driver Urban Response 1.Birth 1680 – 1840 Colonialism and the Age of Steel, Electricity & Heavy Engineering Sub-regional Wagon Route Outspan at Hardekraaltjie 2. Urbanisation and Industrialisation 1860 – 1940 Age of Steel, Electricity & Heavy Engineering Hard Road & Railway Line Country Villages & High Streets 3. City Integration 1940 – 1980 Age of Oil, Automobiles & Mass Production Commuter Rail / Bus Corridor Industrialisation Satellite Towns & Corridor Emergence 4. Metro Sprawl 1980 – 2020 Age of Information and Telecommunications N1 Sub-regional Motor Corridor, Mini Bus Taxi Corridor Decline 5. Metro Compaction 2020 – 2030 Era of Turbulence Bus Rapid Transit, New Trains, Smart Transport Systems Corridor Regeneration 6. Africanisation 2030 - 2040 Start of Age of Biotechnology and Renewable Energy? Fast Rail, Smart Vehicles Off Grid Satellite Towns 7. Regionalism 2040 + Golden Age and midpoint of Age of Biotech and Renewable Energy? Walking & Cycling Urban Villages Table 2.1 Seven corridor transitions in a global development context Scenarios for transition During Phase 2 of Future Tyger “Imagining the Future”, the GTP facilitated a “participlan” scenario planning exercise, in which conference attendees were asked for the most important consideration
  • 23. Page | 23 and ideas for development scenarios for the Voortrekker Road Corridor and Metropolitan Second Node into the future. Following the collection of the more than 100 ideas grouped into clusters of the most important themes which presented themselves, attendees were then asked to vote for:  Importance: 3 of the most important ideas or considerations  Influence: 3 of the ideas which the Greater Tygerberg Partnership could influence  A Composite Score: Importance x Influence The Composite Score was used to derive the two most important themes. These themes then formed the basis of a scenario matrix. The two key clusters or themes as voted for by the attendees were:  Collaborative Partnerships (score of 88): building partnerships with different sectors, institutions and people, as well as embedding a culture and value system of collaboration and partnership within the organisation  Placemaking (score of 72): working on those elements which are quick, cheap and easy, to make the area a better place to live, work and play in the short and medium term. The formation of the 2040 scenarios were based on the two extremes of these two themes, namely;  Related to collaborative partnerships: A highly isolated and silo’ed approach versus a highly collaborative partnership approach  Related to placemaking: A Grotty car based, fragmented , devastated Place experiencing neglect versus a dynamic, safe, attractive, vibrant, place The clusters and themes are represented below: Fig2.1 Scenarios for the development of the VRC based on the Future Tyger “participlan” exercise
  • 24. Page | 24 Four scenarios were unpacked: A status quo scenario maturing into the future characterised by an isolated silo approach which delivers fragmented spaces called “Eish! (Hillbrow scenario)”, compared to the ideal turn-around situation of highly collaborative partnerships delivering on dynamic places named “Tyger Becomes Great” In the “Eish! (Hillbrow scenario)” could be best described with reference to Phaswane Mpe’s 2001 novel Welcome to our Hillbrow. In his description of the crime ridden neighbourhood, entire buildings are run by international crime syndicates, networks and various operators. Level 1 operators are streetside cigarette sellers, level 2 operators are drug peddlers, and level 3 operators run prostitution rings. These networks double up as money launderers, who have international links to import guns, machinery, and drugs to entrench their hold on the community and purchase buildings with their ill-gotten wealth. Once entrenched within the community the trend is thus perpetuated. In the Latin American cities, suburbs that fell to crime syndicates took decades to stabilise and recover from a situation of economic decay where shops had closed down, slumlords ruled urban spaces, transport had degraded and knowledge bases deteriorated as students had moved away due to the aggressive nature of the territorial violence. For as Mpe recalls, “Hillbrow in Hillbrow. Hillbrow in Cape Town. Cape Town in Hillbrow […] Welcome to our All…” (pages 102-4). In the worst case scenario suburban destabilisation, a problem of the post-industrial buildings, continues to spread vastly. Housing is poorly managed, and in particular social housing, which could have a catalytic effect on regeneration, only causes further societal fragmentation. A lack of decent apartments, non- responsive government subsidy programmes, social housing, and student housing and in general new housing stock compound the housing crisis. Aside from a lack of diversity in the area, there is a poor understanding of how people interact with urban spaces, and their needs for certain facilities and services. The culture of ownership and love for the area is missing with uninspired young people, with no new visionaries emerging from the area. Ultimately, the characteristics, values and systems (including infrastructure) do not support the longevity, tenacity, permanence and resilience of the area towards 2040, but instead are characterised by weak cross-sector links, mistrust, an unsafe urban realm and high levels of pollution. Turning around this status quo scenario required bold thinking and planning. In the “Tyger Becomes Great” phase, characterised by strong links between government, business, academia and civil society, the concept of innovation, mixed-use development and green transport is embraced and delivered through the correct processes and programme modality. The value system is typified by openness and inclusiveness with a sense of integration and equity or ownership of the spaces and development of the broader area e.g. the support of culture, creativity, accommodating the elderly, promoting peace and tolerance, embracing diversity. The social interaction in the area is dynamic with regular conversations and dialogue which promote the area as a social and dynamic hub. The systems embedded in this scenario support learning and a culture is learning that is open and wide-spread, with supporting policy frameworks and participatory governance (horizontal and vertical). The urban environment is supported by a centralised retail management (supportive of open air malls) and an environmental or green pedestrian space network. Elements that form the structure of this network also include urban river management, dedicated walking and cycling lanes, integration between green and non-motorised
  • 25. Page | 25 transport routes, the formation of the “friends of the Elsies Kraal river” and the legal enforceability of spatial frameworks. Ultimately, the characteristics, values and systems (including infrastructure) support the longevity, tenacity, permanence and resilience of the area towards 2040. It is this best case scenario which forms the basis for the VRC Step Path outlined in Chapter 4.
  • 26. Page | 26 3. A Transit Orientated Development Corridor A Rationale for a Transit Orientated Development (TOD) approach to the VRC Transit Orientated Development (TOD) is development and land use response linked and shaped by mass or public transport systems and is planned to provide a synergistic relationship between the growth of public transport or transit ridership. TOD is a concept that developed in the United States in the late 20th Century but has now been applied through the world (Bruce: 2012). Text box 3.1 argues for “5 D’s of TOD” as suggested for Chinese cities. Text box 3.1: The 5D’s of TOD (Bruce 2012)  Density. Density not only refers to the chosen location’s population density, but also dwelling unit density and floor to area ratio.  Diversity. Diversity refers to the degree of land use mix. Land uses are divided into several different categories. When making an analysis, various levels of land uses between different areas are compared in relation to other aspects, such as the proportion of transit use. The elasticity between certain chosen categories and values can then be calculated.  Design. This refers to the design of the street network. A street network can be highly connected with straight streets, typical of a downtown area, to curved streets and culs-de-sacs usually found in suburban areas. It also refers to block sizes, number of four way intersections and number of intersections per area unit. Other urban design aspects are sidewalk coverage, building setbacks, street width, number of pedestrian crossings, presence of street trees, and more. It also includes the grid spacing of the pedestrian and bicycle network.  Distance to transit. This refers to the distance to transit. It measures the shortest routes from the home or workplace to the nearest transit stop, usually a rail station or bus stop. On a more regional scale it can measure number of stations per unit area or the distance between stops.  Destination accessibility. This refers to how accessible destinations are. More specifically it means the chosen locations distance, or ease of access, to the most common destinations. This can be both regional and local destinations. Regional accessibility can be the distance to downtown, or the number of jobs reachable within a certain specified travel time. Usually, being located near downtown means good destination accessibility. Local accessibility measures the amount of stores and services within a certain distance from the home. Source: Bruce, C. 2012. Transit-Oriented Development In China: Designing A New Transit-Oriented Neighbourhood In Hexi New Town, Nanjing, Based On Hong Kong Case Studies. Master Thesis for Urban Design Program | Bleking Institute of Technology & Nanjing Forestry University TOD in South African cities Safe, reliable, effective, efficient, and fully integrated transport operations and infrastructure was a strategic objective for the Department of Transport as described in the 1996 White Paper on National Transport Policy. Moving South Africa, first published in 1998, identified urban strategic challenges that confronted transport planners. The concept of TOD was introduced, and a number of interventions were introduced to facilitate economic growth as per RDP and GEAR macro-economic policies, increased trade in the SADC region, and ensure social integration. Land use was considered a key strategic lever, and Department proposes the focussing of investment, resources and high- density land uses in these linear corridors and nodes and, in so doing, providing the necessary thresholds for public transport” (Marrian 2001:3). In Cape Town, a number of TOD corridors were introduced with the 1996 Municipal Spatial Development Framework (MSDF) and the arguments were strengthened with the 2000 MSDF
  • 27. Page | 27 Handbook. Early readings in the formation of Cape Town’s structuring elements leads Warnich and Verster (2001) to the conclusion that Cape Town’s linear form is reinforced by its road and rail infrastructure, but a developing metropolitan corridors “present a particularly powerful and effective planning strategy for the purpose of restructuring the spatial inequity of the city, as well as initiating economic growth points in close proximity to low-income communities” (2001:344). In a recent World Bank study (2014), every 10% increase in infrastructure provision is paired with an increase of approximately 1% in output over the long term. The quality of infrastructure improvement in developing countries accounts for 30% of the growth attributed to infrastructure (cited in Ittmann et al 2014). Spatial targeting of such infrastructural developments has however been disjointed, and Todes et al (2010) found that spatial development frameworks developed in the late 1990s and early 2000s:  did not understand or engage sufficiently with the actual spatial dynamics in cities;  were poorly linked to infrastructure development;  and were even contradicted by the actual development by both the public and private sectors TOD in Cape Town In Cape Town the TOD concept has been subsumed within the rubric of what is loosely termed “Corridor” development. The City’s IDP and SDF, growth management planning, and identification of integration zones as per National Treasury’s 2014/13 Integrated City Development Grant (ICDG), reflected in its Built Environment Performance Plan (2014-2014), provide the mechanisms to begin to align budgets in favour of envisaged priority corridor development. Furthermore, the Integrated Transport Plan (2014 – 2018) argues “corridor level planning will further contribute to informing this level of alignment” (page 206). Despite the promotion of the “urban core” and Voortrekker Road corridor since 2006, a number of broader forces have worked against the realisation of the corridor’s development potential. Cape Town has struggled to give meaning to the spatial ideals of corridor and nodal development for the following reasons: It was difficult to argue that nodal and corridor demarcation has had any significant effect on patterns of new investment. Similarly, there were no measures in place to create incentives or controls to achieve a pattern of economic investment that relates more strongly to nodal and corridor development. The difficulty in altering patterns of investment through public incentives and controls (Wetton Lansdowne corridor) was however recognised (CTSDF, page 9 and 10). The Spatial Development Framework (CTSDF 2012:33) and the Integrated Transport Plan (2014 - 2018) makes strong cases for the concept of development corridor. Fig 3.1 demonstrates the interaction between urban nodes, civic precincts, land uses, and motorised and non-motorised transport systems and networks. The SDF further comments that “the combined operational capacity of the public and private transportation system supports a mix of land uses, and enables the development of medium and high levels of land use intensity” (ibid).
  • 28. Page | 28 Fig 3.1 Concept of a development corridor (CTSDF, page 30) The CTSDF makes the following observations about development corridors in general.  Development corridors exhibit dynamic roles and land uses, which influence the character of specific areas along the corridor. Development corridors display a strong relationship between transport systems and land uses.  Different nodes and corridors attract different kinds levels and types of private investment, which generate different types of formal and informal economic and social opportunities  Certain land uses are better suited to different environments, and the City must ensure that these needs are catered for.  Generally, more established corridors continue to attract investment. However, in some areas, corridors have changed form, with sections moving downmarket, losing chain retail stores to sub-regional commercial complexes (often located off the grid), serving more of a local convenience function. There may therefore be a need for public intervention in selected areas to retain opportunities provided by development corridors. The Integrated Transport Plan considers Transit Orientated Development to be a core strategy in its ambitions to create a more equitable and efficient urban form and movement system. The objectives of the ITP’s TOD strategy are (ITP pages 201-202):  To maximise the attractiveness of public transport by strategically encouraging supportive forms of development along the transit system. This must be done in a manner that maximises trip productions and attractions for all trip purposes and at extended periods of the day  To ensure a high quality, safe public environment around points of access to the transit system.  To support improved access to public transport, particularly for those who are dependent on it, by supporting the unlocking of proximate land for higher density development, with a particular focus on affordable housing. Monitoring and evaluating the performance of TOD corridors requires an assessment of land uses and market performance Fig 3.2 demonstrates the performance of the Voortrekker Road corridor at various key intersections.
  • 29. Page | 29 Figure 3.2 Assessed values for properties abutting Voortrekker Road (Source: Voortrekker Road Status Quo report, page 13) The arguments presented makes a strong case for a consolidating vision for the urban systems profiled. This should be tied to a performance management system that considers the multiple forces that shape the corridor. Within the City’s definition of corridors a distinction is made between activity routes and development routes. Text box 3.2 differentiates these routes in the context of transit orientated development and accessibility grids in metropolitan planning. A number of activity routes are anchored in Bellville central area. The Integrated Transport Plan (page 102) argues the following:  Durban Road is an extension of the Bellville node. Residential densities are low throughout these corridors save for a few medium-high density points.  The mature corridors (Main and Voortrekker) connect major attractor nodes while smaller- scale economic activity characterises the majority of the corridors’ length. The corridors are dotted with points of medium density between the major attractors. Text box 3.2: Distinguishing activity routes and development routes The primary accessibility grid incorporates: Activity routes: Activity routes are characterised by strip and/or nodal urban development along sections of the route. Activity routes are generally supported by a mix of land uses and higher density urban development. Activity routes are characterised by direct access and interrupted movement flows, especially at bus and taxi stops and traffic lights.
  • 30. Page | 30 Development routes: Development routes have a greater mobility function than activity routes. Mixed land use and higher- density development tend to be nodal, with access provided at intersections and generally linked to parallel and connecting side routes. Development routes may include short stretches of activity route- type development. (Source: CCT, Metropolitan Spatial Development Framework, page 31 TOD and the Voortrekker Road Corridor Our main proposition is that Cape Town has a bi-nodal core, unlike radial cities with a centre and a radial system around that centre. Cape Town Central developed around the Port and is linked via the Voortrekker Road Corridor to Bellville Central, to form bi-nodal nuclei in the “Urban Core”. The urban core, stretching between Central Cape Town and Bellville, accommodates 50% of formal employment and 85% of industrial employment. Text box 3.3 and Figure 3.3 outlines the CTSDF argument for the “urban core” corridor. Text Box 3.3: The “Urban Core” Argument Figure 3.3 The urban core corridor and Voortrekker Road shown relative to economic activity (Economic activity based on 2005 Sub-regional Service Council data indicating company turnover). The urban core corridor is the most accessible and mature corridor in the city. The urban core is concentrated along a broad band from Cape Town CBD to Bellville CBD, attracting a broad range of investment and development opportunities along its length, and accommodating a significant percentage of the city’s employment opportunities – with the potential to grow and intensify this role. Although the Cape Town CBD and Bellville CBD exhibit different attraction levels, and movement between them is not of equal magnitude, they play a pivotal role in the existing economic structure of the city, and the formation of the urban core area between them. The urban core is located in the physical centre of the municipal area, and therefore has the potential to balance the spatial distribution of economic activity, ‘integrating’ the southern and northern parts of the city. (CTSDF, page 34)
  • 31. Page | 31 The City of Cape Town’s Spatial Development Framework (CTSDF) calls for the intensification of mixed used development along the “urban core corridor”, (an alternative term for the VRC) spotlighting the opportunities for compacting and integrating the city. The CTSDF envisages Bellville as the location of a Metropolitan Second Node. Both Cape Town Central and Bellville Central have developed radial systems around them. Bellville Central developed at the centre of regional links to the North, East and South. Both nodes are important centres, the one city- driven and the other city-region driven Being constrained by mountain and sea, Cape Town Central is located in an ec-centric way, since it is at the North East corner of the metropole from a geographical point of view but developed historically as the primary government and business centre and became the main terminal of all connections, notwithstanding the difficulty of connecting with the bulk of the population living on the Cape Flats. This problem intensified with the development of the Metro South East (Mitchells Plain- Phillipi- Khayelitsha) where the bulk of the youngest and the poorest people in the City would have to live 30km – 40km away from the Cape Town Central. As Bellville Central is much closer to the Metro South East at 10 – 15 km and is essential to the integrity of the bi-polar system, the regeneration of the Voortrekker Road Corridor (VRC) and Bellville Central Area as the Metropolitan Second Node are vital to developing Cape Town as a more accessible, efficient and equitable city in the 21st Century. Exploring structuring elements of the VRC The N1 Super Corridor which connects Cape Town to Paarl and beyond to the Gauteng City Regions has become the primary location axis for motor car access based “big box” malls and gated office developments including N1 City, Century City, Tyger Valley, and extending eastwards to Brackenfell including Cape Gate. Studies by Rode and Associates, a private property consultancy, commissioned by the Greater Tygerberg Partnership, found that the rapid expansion and development along the sub-regional N1 corridor had an impact on the erosion of Bellville CBD as an economic hub. Since 1990, such developments have attracted the lion share of commercial, retail and residential development, leading to a decline in retail trade land use in Bellville from 42% in 1995 to 31% in 2006, while residential land uses have increased from 5% to 17%. The decline in active urban management has resulted in urban degradation and escalating crime. A balancing act is required for the continued sprawl enabled by the private motor car based N1 Super Corridor, and the stated rationale for intensifying mixed use development along the Voortrekker Road corridor. The City’s major statutory documents such as the IDP, CTSDF, Table Bay and Tygerberg District Plans, ITP and BEPP calls for the revitalisation of the urban core corridor, in which the Voortrekker Road corridor is nested. Public investment in infrastructure is dependent on sufficient demand, and the City calls for the formation of public-private partnerships to lead the revitalisation process. The consolidation and regeneration of Bellville, understood to be Cape Town’s Second Metropolitan Node, is paramount to the future growth of Cape Town. Within the Urban Core the Voortrekker Road Corridor (VRC) is a broad system of East-West arterial road connections (designated as “Development” and “Connector” Routes in the CTSDF) and railway lines around the Voortrekker Spine and the urban developments supported by this broader system. The VRC in turn is encased by the Central Cape Flats which is the area that is encased by the central Freeway wedge of the N1, R300, M5 and N2 including the Cape Town International Airport and provides a framework of national, international and regional access.
  • 32. Page | 32 Fig 3.4 Structuring elements of the VRC graphically illustrated The central most intensive connecting piece of the VRC is the East-West Voortrekker Spine that is composed of Voortrekker Road (designated as an “Activity Route” in the CTSDF) and the main railway line which together form a road-rail transit-orientated system that binds and connects the intense developments attached to the system. The Spine is what might be called an “open system” (in contradiction to the “closed” systems of modern gated development) and has demonstrated remarkable resilience, adaptability and capacity for the past hundred years. The Spine is able to support and integrate diverse higher order city functions along its length including civic nodes (Maitland, Goodwood, Parow, Bellville), industrial areas, shopping malls and strips, hospitals, universities, schools and colleges, blocks of flats, the massive Maitland Cemetery and to offer ease of access to train, motor car, bus and taxi transport. From a TOD perspective the key points on the Spine are Prime Transit Precincts: areas of up to 1km around stations with significant commercial development and/or potential and/or good North South connectivity and/or significant civic infrastructure including Stikland, Bellville – Tygerberg- Parow, Goodwood, Mutual and Maitland / Koeberg Road.
  • 33. Page | 33 Fig 3.5 Typical TOD neighbourhood economic activities Fig. 3.5 demonstrates a “walkability” matrix of 400m, which translates to a 10minute walk. Once this 400m walkability matrix is applied to corridor, especially interchanges and stations, the connections can be mapped out in possible TOD neighborhoods concentrated around public transport interchanges. A neighbourhood in a TOD plan will typically have a central public transport interchange (train, bus, metro, or light rail) surrounded by higher density development, within a 10- minute walking distance (up to 1km) from the next interchange. Fig 3.6 Walkability matrix applied to the corridor
  • 34. Page | 34 Within the broader supporting framework of the VRC arterial network, the spine also supports an array of residential suburbs that are able to attach to it to the North and South, as well as major industrial and freight logistics functions. A most important complement to this urban system is a natural system with immense potential that links the Tygerberg Hills with the watercourses of the Peninsula Mountain Chain. The proposed Tygerberg Riverine Open Space System (TROSS) follows the Elsieskraal River down from the Tygerberg Hills down into the Elsies River that follows the alignment of the Spine to eventually link into the Liesbeek River. The Black / Liesbeek river confluence at the Western end of the VRC marks an important transition to the inner city of Cape Town Central and is being developed in the context of the Two Rivers mega project. The Metropolitan Node anchors the Eastern end of the Voortrekker Road Corridor and is the nucleus of intense urban development that balances Central Cape Town and its inner city to the West. From a functional perspective the Node embraces a broad area of concentrated development from Tyger Valley in the North (that is also part of the N1 Super Corridor), the traditional Bellville “CBD”, the eastern part of the Spine in Parow, the Tygerberg Hospital Site and Stikland to the West. From the perspective of the Regeneration Framework we refer to the Bellville Central Area as the intensive urban activity located between the N1 in the North, up to an including the CPUT and UWC campuses in the South, the Parow business area to the West and the business and industrial areas flanking the R 300 to the East. It is subdivided into the Eastern Focus Area (North of the main rail line) and Southern Focus Area (South of the main rail line) The Bellville Prime Transit Precinct is the area of most intense development and connected urban spaces around Bellville Station that embraces Tygerberg Hospital in South West Corner, extends along PRASA land South of Bellville Station, north up Robert Sobukwe, east along the Voortrekker Spine to the Old Paarl Road / Strand Road split. The Northern Boundary of the inner core approximates a line from De Lange Road following commercial properties to the Old Paarl / Strand Split. Linking the Prime Transit Precinct to Tyger Valley is the Durban Road Spine which encloses a potential Durban Road Wedge: the area between Durban Road and the old railway line right of way to Tyger Valley that has been identified for commercial intensification. Anchoring the Node to the South is the CPUT / UWC Campus that extends the Symphony Way or North-South Corridor to the Metro South East or Outer Cape Flats. From a TOD Accessibility perspective the North- South routes and activity streets that bisect the VRC are very important “binders” to the Spine and link it with areas to the North of the N1 and the Central Cape Flats. These routes include the M5 (Black River Parkway), N7 (Vanguard Drive), Vasco Boulevard, Halt Road, Hugo Road, Giel Basson/35th Avenue, McIntyre Road, De La Rey Road, Mike Pienaar Drive, and Durban/Robert Sobukwe Road.
  • 35. Page | 35 4. Growth Potential of the VRC To 2040 The GTP appointed property economists and consultants Rode and Associates to project the demand for residential, retail and commercial floor space from current status quo trends towards 2020, 2030 and 2040. The next section outlines some of the main findings of the study. As a first step, the studies considered population growth to 2040. The following studies were considered as core informants to the projections: 1) City of Cape Town Census 2011 and the Community Survey of 2007, Professor Dorrington of UCT’s Centre for Actuarial Research LOW, MEDIUM AND HIGH projections, and 2014 Quantec Property Solutions research. Population growth and residential development projections It was estimated that the population growth of the City of Cape Town will remain at 7,2% of the population of South Africa (based on statistics from 2007 to 2014) based on the above sources. It is most likely that population of Cape Town will grow steady at 3.7% per annum, but declining by 2030. The most likely 2040 population of Cape Town will be close to 4.2 million people, an increase of 500,000 people over the next 35 years. The Voortrekker Road corridor (see definition in 2.3) has a total occupied area of 7,433ha and houses close to 10% of the City’s population or 300,000 people (the N1-N2-R300 bigger box houses 20% of the City’s population or 708 061 (2011 census)). Based on the same projection formula, the population growth of the Corridor is likely to peak by 5,000 people over the next 35 years to 305,000 people. However, if the corridor can be developed at an ambitious gross-base density of 50 dwelling units/ha the population will be 522 000 by 2040, doubling of the population and an increase of 221 995 people. Table 4.1 illustrates the development options for residential development along the corridor. (1) (2) (1) - (2) Buffer Area (ha) Potential du/ha Potential number of dwellings Estimated current number of dwellings Difference Household size Population Total 1 531 37 56 647 13 779 42 868 2,9 164 276 Total 1 531 50 76 550 13 779 62 771 2,9 221 995 Total 1 531 75 113 825 13 779 101 046 2,9 332 993 Table 4.1 Potential density and population around Voortrekker Road Retail take-up projections The Rode study suggest that in the residential development densification option the Corridor offers a mixed use environment. Spaces to live, work and play needs to be within walking distance. To this effect, the retail floor space projection on Bellville Central Area offer promising options. If the Extended Catchment Area (ECA) is considered for retail expenditure drawing on the buying power of the Khayelitsha and Mitchells Plain, 55% of the retail expenditure of the average household in the ECA is required to be spent in the Bellville CBD to explain actual retail space in the CBD (30 000 m2). Such a high share is excessive for such an extensive area while a range of alternative options are
  • 36. Page | 36 available. This means that the required additional expenditure can only come from an inflow from outside the ECA. We introduced 50 000 ‘unique persons’ who use the Bellville Transport Hub on a daily basis into the equation but the share still remained uncomfortably high. Intrinsically it assumes no overlap with residents of the ECA. Table 4.2. Balancing the extended catchment Area for transient shoppers The study notes that the competition for well-located retail centres is fierce. Regional shopping malls along the Voortrekker Road corridor such as the Parow Centre and Middestad Mall need to compete with lower-end merchandise flooding Bellville CBD, and other malls such as the Airport Centre, Zevenwacht Mall, Kenilworth and Kuilsriver Access Parks, Bonquebela Mall in Khayelitsha and Gugulethu Centre. On the other hand, the strength of market demand can be underestimated. Generally transport hubs like Bellville and Parow/Goodwood offer mere convenience products and services to transients. And while the range of products is typically very limited, the extent of apparel and furniture space, as well as indications of a banking and cash-loan hub, together with government service centres, indicate that Bellville CBD is serving the regional function of a CBD (i.e. the prime shopping precinct) for a more substantial section of the population across a far wider geography. Commercial floorspace projections Attracting business corporate headquarters, government services, small and medium enterprises back to the Voortrekker Road corridor is an imperative. Large corporate presence such as the headquarters of Sanlam and The Foschini Group have played an anchoring role, with major operations centres of Vodacom (Durban Road), Telkom (Durban Road) and Eskom (Voortrekker Road) contributing to the consolidation of the Corridor. As mentioned later in the study (See “Growth and Innovation Generating”, Chapter 4), Bellville has the highest concentration of economic activities along the corridor, followed by the more residential nature of Goodwood and Parow neighborhoods (also refered to as the Central Focus Area). In order to ascertain projections for commercial floorspace in Bellville, research reports such as The Bureau for Economic Research’s (BER) Economic Outlook (June 2014), Quantec, and South African Property Owners’ Association (SAPOA). Currently Bellville and Tygervalley precinct accounts for 25% of the Gross Lettable Area in Cape Town (see Table 2.3) Retail category Annual market size (R'000) Balancing share Annual turnover potential (R'000) Estimated warranted space (m2 ) Estimated actual space (m2 ) Food & Groceries 625.130 0,28 172.839 7.095 12.295 Clothing, footwear, textiles & accessories 197.868 0,46 91.178 6.030 10.320 Furniture & appliances 96.192 0,41 39.893 3.403 5.866 Fast food & restaurants 95.004 0,17 16.417 745 1.227 Total 1.572.792 32% 498.698 17.273 29.708
  • 37. Page | 37 Office node GLA (m2 ) Distribution of GLA (%) Vacancy rate (%) Bellville/Tygervalley area 525 920 25% 7,0% Cape Town CBD/V&A Waterfront area 888 543 42% 10,8% Century City 249 196 12% 4,2% Claremont 104 622 5% 19,4% Pinelands 228 425 11% 2,5% Rondebosch/Newlands 98 331 5% 5,9% Total 2 095 037 100% 8,4% Source of data: SAPOA Table 4.3 Cape Peninsula office stock (grades A and B) and vacancies by node as in Quarter 2 of 2014 Between September 2002 and June 2007 Bellville’s median share of the market for new office space outside of Bellville has been 36,7%. This growth needs to fulfil a number of preconditions to attract business and investment confidence such as: Vacant land, Highly educated workforce, Pre-existing wealth, Growth and urban consolidation, Anchored by a regional mall, Accessibility by private cars, Centrality & proximity, Prestige, and security, Safety and cleanliness. Structurally the old Bellville CBD does not comply with any of the pre-conditions for successful office decentralization. However, given the development potential of the corridor, three different scenarios were considered, plus a “Bellville Decades” wild card scenario assuming growth rates experienced in the late 1970s and 1980s. Building on a “base-case” scenario of take-up in the metro to average 30,000 m² per annum and in Bellville 12.000 m², the High-Road scenario, if realised, take-up rations in the Cape Peninsula could average about 59 000 m² per annum and in Bellville 20 000 m². The primary premise for the argument for a Wild Card scenario is that the supply of developable land is finite. As it is depleted developers will move to new pastures. Trends have shown that investors prefer green fields developments, even above the tax-break incentives offered through the extended Urban Development Zones (UDZ), open land in Bellville and Century City is particularly important (identified in Chapter 5, Regeneration Focus Areas). A “Bellville Decades” scenario will have a major impact on the consolidation of Bellville as Cape Town’s Second Metropolitan Node. See Table 2.4 for a comparative view. Table 4.4 A comparative view of the impact of the share-gain modelling on the base scenarios. Period to: Base-Case High Road Note that post share- gain positions are denoted by + Bellville: Peninsula Bellville: Peninsula 2014-2020 44% 36% 2021-2030 39% 33% 2031-2040 40% 50% Base-Case+ High-Road+ Bellville Decades Bellville+ : Peninsula Bellville+ : Bellville Bellville+ : Peninsula Bellville+ : Bellville Bellville+ : Peninsula Bellville+ : Bellville 2014-2020 48% 10% 40% 11% 41% 15% 2021-2030 52% 35% 44% 33% 48% 46% 2031-2040 60% 50% 49% 42% 53% 53%
  • 38. Page | 38 5. Building a Framework for Regeneration Introduction The Framework Regeneration of the VRC contains the following six elements. Firstly a 2040 vision is articulated that draws together the TOD role of the VRC and link them into a framework established by the OneCape 2040 and the City Development Strategy. Linking the vision with a step path as proposed by OneCape 2040 is explained in more detail in Annexure A. As a most critical time period for medium term planning, 2020 outcomes are defined for each of the six regeneration imperatives. Linked to each of these outcomes, are 13 partnership programmes and 18 month targets so as to identify a clear short, medium and long term programme of action for the regeneration of the VRC. This Chapter will make it clear that the recent changes in government policy, such as the UNS from National treasury, will complement the goals of corridor planning and integration zone identification. The 2040 Vision for the Voortrekker Road Corridor and the Second Metropolitan Node As it is integral to the future of Cape Town, the 2040 vision proposed for the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor is coupled to the 2040 vision proposed in the City Development Strategy as well as the urban structure role indicated in the CTSDF. This suggests the following vision statement: By 2040 a socially and economically regenerated and transit-orientated Voortrekker Road Corridor will connect Cape Town’s two metropolitan nodes with the city region to play a leading urban and industrial role in Cape Town’s transition to achieving its 2040 vision of becoming “one of the world’s greatest cities in which to live and learn, work, invest and discover – a place of possibility and innovation, with a diverse urban community and all the opportunities and amenities of city life, within a natural environment that supports economic vibrancy and inspires a sense of belonging in all.” A Step path to 2040 As an “end state” the proposed 2040 Vision needs to be broken down into achievable steps so as to build a sense of how the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor can evolve within useful milestones. Without more detailed modelling this is not a “masterplan” and is rather a narrative “step path” or “story of an unfolding future”. In order to build this step path, we use the narrative framework developed in the One Cape 2040 process, which also makes its links with the 2030 National Development Plan clear. In this way we link the Regeneration Framework to the long term strategy frameworks at national, provincial and City spheres which grow and develop in an interactive way as policies, strategies, programmes and projects across the spheres and within the evolving Regeneration Framework.The full narrative is contained in Annexure A. The following steps are indicated in the Step Path to 2040: 5.3.1.STEP ONE: Creating the platform (2014-2019) The Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor undergo an urban turnaround from urban decay, socio economic fragmentation and disinvestment to urban revitalisation, socio economic
  • 39. Page | 39 upliftment, re-investment and renewal,through the creation of an infrastructural, institutional and networked platform that sets in place a cycle of self-sustaining regeneration. 5.3.2.STEP TWO: Implementation at scale (2020-2025) This steps sees the accelerated development of the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor as a seamlessly managed transit corridor, a leading destination for innovation, job creation, youth development and high density urban lifestyles 5.3.3.STEP THREE: Accelerated improvement (2026-2033)
  • 40. Page | 40 This steps sees the creation of a distinctive identity and economic vibrance that renders the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor as leading destinations to live, work, play, visit and do business in Cape Town. 5.3.4.STEP FOUR: Sustained Performance (2034-2040) This steps sees the phasing out of special measures to regenerate the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor due to their seamless integration within the growth dynamics of the City of Cape Town and the Western Cape.
  • 41. Page | 41 A 2020 Programme of Partnership Action to achieve Regeneration The Regeneration of the VRC, led by the Greater Tygerberg Partnership will entail both the influencing and crafting together of the policies, strategies and programmes of three spheres of government and many departments as well as those of the higher learning institutions, businesses, property owners, investors, NGO’s and other stakeholders involved in the VRC. The process of regeneration is therefore as much a process of partnership building as it is of setting priorities and direction. Achieving Step One Creating the platform (2014-2019) will be achieved through progressive realisation of six regeneration imperatives to achieve the 2020 Outcomes identified below. This time frame is important as it provides the basis for influencing the programmes of action for national and provincial government 2014 to 2019 and for the City of Cape Town’s IDP from 2015 to 2020. The regeneration imperatives would be delivered through Partnership Programmes facilitated by the Partnership. A programme-based approach to regeneration offers the following benefits:  Simplicity: many projects / initiatives / concepts bundled in a few easy-to-understand programmes  Strategic line of sight: programmes are designed to flow from vision and strategy  Securing Support: Programmes can be branded and marketed to stakeholders, investors, potential partners and funders and the public at large to attract support, build understanding and galvanise action  Partnership: each programme has can identify and seam in the partners that are needed to make it happen  Effectiveness: by separating “steering” as the high level-partnership work of the GTP from “rowing” as services & projects delivered by the partners and/or operational entities it is possible to focus the efforts of the Partnership without duplicating the efforts and capacities of many stakeholders  Multi-year planning and budgeting: programmes roll over year to year facilitating ongoing development, prioritisation and management of the regeneration agenda
  • 42. Page | 42  Getting started: programmes allows efforts to start small and innovate and experiment within a bigger pictures  Monitoring and Evaluation: indicators and targets can be attached to programmes, enabling the Partnership to refine, develop, improve and build support over time. 5.4.1.Imperative # 1: Growth & Innovation Generating Description: Foster urban and industrial economic growth and job creation as well as innovation through the “triple helix” interaction between government, industry and academia. 2020 Outcome: By 2020 the VRC will be playing a leading role within the City of Cape Town and the Western Cape with regard to economic development, job creation and innovation. Effective partnerships will be in place in regard to leading sectors and niches and marketing of preferred destinations for property investment will have attracted large scale national and international investors. Partnership Programmes: This will primarily be delivered through the following lead programme(s):  Learning and Innovation Corridor: Synergising the knowledge and learning capacity of institutions located in the Corridor for maximum impact in regard to education, skills development and the application of innovation to business development  Partnership Corridor: Maintaining a visionary, cohesive and integrated programme of partnership action and investment marketing and facilitation to achieve economic, social and urban regeneration  Production Corridor: Integrating the knowledge, air/ road/rail/ sea logistics and manufacturing capacity of the Corridor to drive “aerotropolis” development, ICT, green technology, bio technology and niche manufacturing and ensure the retention of existing manufacturing  Services Corridor: Developing clusters of office development, business process outsourcing, business tourism and retail development that couple large scale corporate businesses and complexes with small and informal business networks 5.4.2.Imperative # 2: People Serving Description: Improve the quality, user friendliness amenity of social, public and health services and leverage learning, training and schooling opportunities for local residents and the populations served by the Node and Corridor 2020 Outcome: By 2020 the Metropolitan Node will have a well established reputation as the main centre in Cape Town for youth development, and programmes will be in place that involve the schools, colleges, and NGOs in the corridor in youth development activities. A well designed system for dealing with the needs of street people, the homeless, informal traders and other vulnerable groups will ensure greater inclusivity. These programmes will not duplicate or replace those of government and service organisations, but will fill gaps that become possible through partnership activity between government, business and community. Partnership Programmes: This will primarily be delivered through the following programme(s):
  • 43. Page | 43  Caring Corridor: Providing quality public facilities and over the counter services for the public at large and livelihood and support opportunities for vulnerable groups  Youth Corridor: Providing leadership development, career guidance, learning support, cultural, sport and recreation opportunities that capture the needs and aspirations of young people for whom the Corridor is the most accessible place to fulfil those needs and aspirations 5.4.3.Imperative # 3: Inter Connected Description: Optimise the development of connective linkages and networks and the movement of workers, residents, learners, public service users, shoppers, through- commuters, long distance travellers and freight through the VRC 2020 Outcome: By 2020 Corridor will be rich with interconnectivity between students, learning institutions, businesses, households and the world at large. The modernisation of the PRASA rail fleet will be a strong impetus for TOD which will be further supported by well-established upgrading plans at prime transit precincts throughout the corridor. These precincts will facilitate seamless transfer between road, rail and bus and the implementation of the BRT MyCiti system complementing other modes of transport. Work will be have been started on the redevelopment of the Bellville Public Transport Interchange which will spearhead transit-orientated regeneration of the VRC. Freight logistics challenges will be resolved and linkages between road-rail-sea-air logistics will be ensured. Non-motorised transport will be in the first stages of roll-out, and plans will be well advanced to develop sections of Voortrekker Road into transit malls. Partnership Programmes: This will primarily be delivered through the following programme(s):  Broadband Corridor: Extending quality affordable last mile broadband and access points in areas of highest need, density and footfall  Ease of Movement Corridor: Modernising public transport, developing non- motorised transport and integrating both with development and private transport  Production Corridor: Integrating the knowledge, air/ road/rail/ sea logistics and manufacturing capacity of the Corridor to drive “aerotropolis” development, ICT, green technology, bio technology and niche manufacturing and ensure the retention of existing manufacturing  TOD Corridor: Coupling the growth of public transport and transit ridership and development that supports it through well designed transit precincts that achieve intensification, mixed use, densification and value capture 5.4.4.Imperative # 4: Fully Developed and Densified Description: Realise the fully developed potential of the VRC. 2020 Outcome: By 2020 the VRC will be well integrated within the City Development Strategy, OneCape 2040, CTSDF, ITP, district and local policies, plans and programmes, the Built Environment Performance Plan and the City’s 15 year growth management plans as a process of regeneration, intensification and densification. The Metropolitan Node would have been designed and planned and integrated development programme will be in full swing together with the necessary infrastructural planning and investments. Programmes to develop under-utilised public land will be advanced and will take into account the City’s growth management plan. A basket of urban acupuncture projects
  • 44. Page | 44 will be at execution or completion stage and high level of confidence from private sector investors and the community would have been achieved. Partnership Programmes: This will primarily be delivered through the following programme(s):  Accomplished Corridor: Developing vacant and underutilised public land  Production Corridor: Integrating the knowledge, air/ road/rail/ sea logistics and manufacturing capacity of the Corridor to drive “aerotropolis” development, ICT, green technology, bio technology and niche manufacturing and ensure the retention of existing manufacturing  TOD Corridor: Coupling the growth of public transport and transit ridership and development that supports it through well designed transit precincts that achieve intensification, mixed use, densification and value capture  Vibrant Living Corridor: Promoting high density housing with an emphasis on social housing, gap market housing and student housing in transit precincts and the most accessible parts of the Corridor whilst protecting the integrity and liveability of lower density suburbs that attach to the Corridor 5.4.5.Imperative # 5: Eco-logical: Description: This entails transition to a low carbon, resource conserving and efficient urban and industrial environment. It means restoring riverine and wetland ecologies and biodiversity, improving connections with nature, sport and recreation, reducing carbon dioxide emissions and ensuring that the flows of energy, waste water and materials through the urban system are reduced, recycled and re-used. 2020 Outcome: By 2020 Voortrekker Road corridor and the Second Metropolitan Node will be progressing in planning, design and implementation towards becoming a leading example/prototype for compact, sustainable, low carbon development in Cape Town through high density and affordable, efficient and low impact water, energy, waste, and transport systems. Partnership Programmes: This will be delivered through the following programme(s):  Green Building and Development Corridor: Championing buildings and development that reduce carbon dioxide emissions and conserve consumption of energy, water, waste and materials  Open Space Corridor: Conserving, coupling and integrating streams, rivers, canals and wetlands and storm water systems within an open space network that proves green relief and amenity, protection of biodiversity, recreation, public access and flood protection 5.4.6.Imperative # 6: Well managed: Description: Ensure the development and maintenance of a seamlessly clean, safe and attractive urban environment through partnerships 2020 Outcome: By 2020 the VRC will be seamlessly managed to be clean and safe from Tygervalley in the north to CPUT/UWC in the south and for the length of the Corridor. By 2020 the VRC will be one of the safest, cleanest, well managed and productive urban regions in South Africa. Partnership Programmes: This will be delivered through the following programme(s):
  • 45. Page | 45  Partnership Corridor: Maintaining a visionary, cohesive and integrated programme of partnership action and investment marketing and facilitation to achieve economic, social and urban regeneration  Well Organised Corridor: Maintaining a seamlessly clean, safe and attractive urban and industrial environment that progressively integrates smart city technologies These six strategic imperatives are used in the Regeneration Framework for assessing how well this part of the City works at the present time and how it can be developed to its full potential in the context of the City Development Strategy. Whilst the ECAMP system developed by the City can play a critical role as a “proxy diagnostic tool” for commercial and industrial areas, a more holistic performance framework is generated by applying these strategic imperatives as performance criteria.
  • 46. Page | 46 6. Developing Regeneration Programmes Introduction In order to achieve this vision, the following six strategic imperatives follow from what the regenerated Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor can offer for Cape Town’s transition. These six strategic imperatives are used in the Regeneration Framework for assessing how well this part of the City works at the present time and how it can be developed to its full potential in the context of the City Development Strategy. While ECAMP plays a critical role as a “proxy diagnostic tool” for commercial and industrial areas, more holistic performance framework is generated by applying these strategic imperatives as performance criteria. Below follows the motivation for Partnership Programmes as presented through the Six Regeneration Imperatives approach: Growth and Innovation Generating 6.2.1.Regeneration Imperative Foster urban and industrial competitiveness and job creation in leading sectors and foster innovation through the “triple helix” approach. A unique opportunity exist to take advantage of the “triple helix” concept and university-government-industry relationships in the Knowledge Era, as explained in Text Box 6.1. Text box 6.1: The “Triple Helix” effect The Triple Helix concept aims to unpack university-government-industry relationships in the context of a shift away from dominant industry-government dyad in the Industrial Era towards an innovation generating effect in the Knowledge Era. Developed primarily through the work of Professor Henry Etzkowitz of Stanford University, USA the Triple Helix concept has cut out a more prominent role for universities to generate new institutional and social formats for the production and application of knowledge in stimulating competitive industrial and economic activity. The “Entrepreneurial University” is closely associated with the “Tripe Helix” concept. This can be interpreted to mean “A pro-active stance in putting knowledge to use and in creating new knowledge. It operates according to an interactive rather than a linear model of innovation… Government acts as a public entrepreneur and venture capitalist, in addition to its traditional regulatory role in setting the rules of the game. As universities develop links, they can combine discrete pieces of intellectual property and jointly exploit them. Innovation has expanded from an internal process within and even among firms to an activity that involves institutions.” (Triple Helix Research Group, Stanford University; available online at: http://triplehelix.stanford.edu/3helix_concept). Innovation is a key building block of the Triple Helix concept. Whether it be in Research and Development, new institutional hybridisation, and/or institutional/individual leadership and networking, innovation in the Triple Helix model aims to close gaps and reinforce regional and global economic competitiveness. Universities located on the Voortrekker Road corridor leads on the following areas, and needs better integration with government programmes and industrial and economic activities:
  • 47. Page | 47  Applied Sciences (University of the Western Cape (UWC) lead role)  Bio-technology (UWC)  Health Sciences (University of Stellenbosch and UWC)  Megatronics and robotics (UWC and Cape Peninsula of Technology)  Engineering (UWC and CPUT) Innovation is a key building block of the Triple Helix concept. Whether it be in Research and Development, new institutional hybridisation, and/or institutional/individual leadership and networking, innovation in the Triple Helix model aims to close gaps and reinforce regional and global economic competitiveness. 6.2.2.Policy Context The City of Cape Town released its Economic Development Strategy in 2014. It adopts a “whole of government” approach to addressing the most fundamental challenges facing the city in the near future: unemployment, poverty and lacklustre economic growth. The EDS recognises that the core drivers of the economy have shifted away from industrial activities towards a service economy. Finance, insurance, real estate and business services constitute 37% of the City’s GGP, followed by wholesale and retail trade (15%) and transport, storage and communication (11%). In a recent OECD report (2014), the EDS is singled out as a key component to the City future growth. It observes that “the City’s EDS addresses the fact the city’s capital-intensive growth path has been unable to accommodate a large pool of unskilled and semi-skilled workers within the labour force. New themes of creativity and low carbon/resource efficiency have emerged instead, to be complemented with spatially by the development of efficient metropolitan growth corridors. Sub-regional priorities are to broaden and deepen the skills base, to invest in economic infrastructure, to position the sub- region as a place to do business and to ensure clear career pathways across all sectors”. Five high level objectives are articulated by the strategy, with a set of integrated strategies for each of the objectives. Economic activities relating to the corridor have been identified for each of the high level objectives. 1. Building an enabling institutional and regulatory environment 2. Ensuring that Cape Town has the right economic infrastructure 3. Promoting economic inclusion, job creation and skills development 4. Promoting Cape Town’s business sectors and attracting investment 5. Putting Cape Town on an environmentally sustainable growth path 6.2.3.Status quo analysis According to a recent study by the City of Cape Town’s department of Spatial Planning and Urban Design: Metropolitan Planning Department, economic activities along the Voortrekker Road are highly differentiated, with Bellville, Parow and Goodwood accounting for the majority of commercial and business land uses, while Maitland is the main manufacturing area. Residential areas are dispersed equally along the corridor, with a higher concentration in Parow and Goodwood. The below data table indicates the number of economic activities along the corridor by neighbourhood.
  • 48. Page | 48 Area No. of Activities Percentages Bellville 850 34% Parow 701 28% Goodwood 516 21% Maitland 406 17% Total: 2,473 100% Table 6.1 Overall economic activities on the Voortrekker Road corridor (Source: CoCT 20145 ). 6.2.4.How Partnership Programmes can deliver regeneration Supporting and championing clusters of high-performing services and manufacturing industries, supporting research and facilitating technology transfer from knowledge institutions into viable business models and nurturing niche sectors have been identified as some of the key economic drivers for a growth and innovation generating regeneration. Such niche sectors could include head office location, business processing, creative technology, retail, green economy and biotechnology manufacturing, logistics and business and health tourism and coupling small business development, human resource training and skills development to growth to maximise the job-creating and poverty-reducing benefits of economic growth. As mentioned before, the “urban core”/ Voortrekker Road corridor currently houses 85% of all industrial activities. A major part of the urban-industrial strategy therefore includes the well developed freight and logistics infrastructure. The development of an urban-industrial strategy which places job creation and competitive and innovative industries at the heart of the 21st Century Cape Town is desperately needed for the corridor. The higher order road-rail-air-freight infrastructure supports the international literature around the notion of “aerotropolis”, as explained in Text Box ?? Text box 6.2: A Cape Town contextual reading of “Aerotropolis” concept Aerotropolis, or “airport city”, is a urban growth plan which prioritises infrastructure, layout and economic development initiatives to be centred around the airport. Since 2000 the term has been popularised by the writing of Dr. John D Kasarda, an academic and air commerce expert. In 2011 Time magazine named the airport-centred concept as one of the "10 Ideas that Will Change the World”. Kasarda argues that “Airports will shape business location and urban development in the 21st century as much as highways did in the 20th century, railroads in the 19th and seaports in the 18th ” (www.aerotropolis.com). The central idea of “aerotropolis” – a combination of “aero”, denoting airspace, and “metropolis”, or city – revolves around the high levels of infrastructure connectivity around airport hubs, which is of major economic relevance. Not only are jobs created by the passenger and freight services in the airport precinct, but it also attracts logistical, warehousing and productive industries. The concept has been criticised for its over-reliance on cheap oil and the future of air-travel. Moreover, many have criticised the concept of overstating the number and types of goods that travel by air. For this reason, the relationship between seaports, airports, and road-rail facilities should be studied in more depth. Cape Town’s prospect of full utilising the networks of airport (Cape Town International Airport), Freight (Belcon back-of-port Marshalling Yard), and Road-Rail (e.g. N1-R300-N2 connectivity, Bellville PTI as a regional rail connector) should be investigated in more depth. The GTP’s reference to “aerotropolis” therefore speaks to this interconnectivity of air-freight-road-rail alignment to stimulate economic growth. 5 CCT, SPUD. Voortrekker Road Economic Land Activity report, 2014
  • 49. Page | 49 People serving 6.3.1.Regeneration Imperative Improving the quality, mix and clustering of national, provincial and local government services while stimulating the full spectrum of retail offerings requires a new paradigm. This could include safe, people friendly and amenable public spaces, ablutions, streets, urban parks and transport interchanges, providing an adequate supply of parking and ensuring a high level of information and “readability” in the environment. It also means managing social cohesion and cultural tolerance so that people of all races, ages, cultures and nationalities feel comfortable and welcomed. Most importantly it implies high levels of public safety, special attention to reducing “crime and grime” and social interventions to have a comprehensive, holistic and developmental approach to vagrants, the homeless, beggars and survivalist traders who are rely on busy urban centres. 6.3.2.Policy Context The City of Cape Town’s recently adopted Social Development Strategy focuses on the City’s core pillars of building a Caring and Inclusive City. The Strategy focuses on programmes that address the following five high-level objectives:  Maximise income generating opportunities for people who are excluded or at risk of exclusion  Build and promote safe households and communities  Support the most vulnerable through enhancing access to infrastructure and services  Promote and foster social integration  Mobilise resources for social development 6.3.3.Status quo analysis Homelessness is a major challenge in this area. More than 700 homeless people eke out a living on the streets, and there are only a number of small number of shelters and rehabilitation facilities. Woman and children and vulnerable groups. A recent survey conducted by the GTP identified youth development, livelihood and job creation, and skills development as core focus areas in a comprehensive social development strategy. The VRCID has mapped of the “journey of a street adult” in the northern suburbs, as outlined in Fig 6.1.
  • 50. Page | 50 Fig 6.1 Journey of Street Adult in Northern Suburbs (VRCID 2014). The Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor need to play a leading in providing high order social, public and health services, public spaces & transport interchanges, learning, training and schooling for local residents as well the millions of Capetonians living in less well located areas like Delft, Khayelitsha and Mitchells Plain. For most in these communities the Second Node will be the most easily accessible place in Cape Town to reach with public transport in order to apply for an ID, register for a government programmes, visit a clinic, hospital or specialist, look for a job, buy goods not found locally. Bellville PTI plays an important function as an interchange to a transport hub that allows them to reach other parts of the City. Quality public facilities and services will also be important for currently wealthier and car owning communities to the North and East who will in future also make more use of public transport. Building a City that “works for all” will encourage inclusive urbanism, a core building block for well performing cities as observed across the world. 6.3.4.How Partnership Programmes can deliver regeneration As a step towards such an integrated and “client-centric” view on social development, the Greater Tygerberg Partnership in association with the VRCID has initiated a coordinating forum called the Socio-Economic Task Team (SETT). The SETT brings together all the major social development NGOs with programmes along the Voortrekker Road corridor. A strong focus on social development, as demonstrated in the case of the VRCID, will translate in taking on social issues at the root. The Greater Tygerberg Partnership continues to network with social development NGOs such as MES, Kolping Society, Tygerberg Association of Street People, Tsiba Education and Cape Town Activa in developing a comprehensive social development strategy for the corridor. Inter Connected
  • 51. Page | 51 6.4.1. Regeneration Imperative The “inter connected” imperative includes the virtual and institutional networks and linkages as well as the physical transport and movement systems that make the corridor work. The term ‘broadband’ is usually used to describe almost any “always on, high speed connection to the internet”. Broadband provides the platform for innovation and communication for 21st century communities. The impacts from investments in broadband infrastructure and broadband-enabled applications are estimated to be up to 10 times the initial broadband investment with a knock on more than a few percentage points of GDP. Broadband infrastructure is essential for the effective participation of businesses and organizations in the economy. Some of the benefits of broadband and connective infrastructures and platforms include: Education: Bringing globally competitive resources into the classroom and access to colossal on line educational resources while enabling seamless communication and partnering among teachers, students and parents. Health Care: Create shared services that reduce operating costs and provide patients with a broader spectrum of enhanced services, including remote diagnostics, administration, scheduling, and electronic patient records. Public Safety & Policing: Rapidly connecting police and crime agencies with vital information improves coordinated, timely reaction. Social Services: Online services improve service reach and quality, save valuable time and public money while improving overall efficiency through services like smart grid technology and platforms to communicate and collaborate. Economic & Workforce Development: Through broadband new business practices and models can be adopted which increase revenues, reduce costs and improve customer service. Being online allows businesses to be anywhere and serve customers everywhere. See http://sngroup.com/about-sng/defining-broadband/#sthash.OZzlkGiK.dpuf In a world increasingly driven by trade, Cape Town needs to take full advantage of its unique location, connective infrastructure and logistics, which will be core drivers of economic development into the future. The Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor contains a high level of globally competitive logistical infrastructure (Back of Port at Belcon, the Cape Town International Airport, Road networks, and Rail) connectivity. This includes a road/ rail freight transfer facility at Belcon with direct links to Port of Cape Town and the Cape Town International Airport on the doorstep. This combined with four international standard universities makes the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor a global hotspot for services, manufacturing, logistics and innovation and lays the foundation for an “urban / industrial” growth path. The Integrated Transport Plan will guide the formulation of a compressive strategy and vision for integrated transport systems. 6.4.2.Policy Context National Government has approved the National Broadband Policy, Strategy and Plan, and the gazetting of the National Integrated Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Policy Green Paper for public consultation. The “South Africa Connect” initiative is expected to contribute significantly to economic growth, development and job-creation. The overall goal is to achieve a universal average download speed of 100Mbps by 2030 starting with an average user experience speed of 5Mbps to be reached by 2016 and available to 50% of the population, and to 90% by 2020.
  • 52. Page | 52 In the Western Cape roll-out of the broadband infrastructure process is expected to begin this year and Minister Winde has stated that the provincial treasury has set aside R1.3-billion over the next three years to achieve their broadband goals. The City of Cape Town stresses the importance of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in meeting its service delivery objectives and has devised the Smart Cape Access Project to help bridge Cape Town’s technology and communications divide by providing computers with Internet access free of charge, and basic training mainly at public libraries. With regard to physical inter connectivity, Cape Town’s Integrated Transport Plan considers Transit Orientated Development to be a core strategy in its ambitions to create a more equitable and efficient urban form and movement system. The objectives of the ITP’s TOD strategy are (ITP pages 201-202):  to maximise the attractiveness of public transport by strategically encouraging supportive forms of development along the transit system. This must be done in a manner that maximises trip productions and attractions for all trip purposes and at extended periods of the day  to ensure a high quality, safe public environment around points of access to the transit system.  to support improved access to public transport, particularly for those who are dependent on it, by supporting the unlocking of proximate land for higher density development, with a particular focus on affordable housing. The Chapter 9 of the City’s Integrated Transport Plan argues a vision for freight transport systems: ’Development of a safe and efficient freight transport system, that will ensure Cape Town’s status as a world class City, build the economy by connecting markets, businesses and people in a sustainable and cost effective manner, while supporting and complementing the City’s mobility corridors and transport strategy’. 6.4.3.Status quo analysis The “digital divide” on the Corridor follows the historical cleavages of race and class above and below the railway line. However the City of Cape Town is planning a wireless mesh network that is larger and more sophisticated than anything else in South Africa. A feasibility study for a ‘gap internet’ project in Khayelitsha and Mitchells Plain is now underway. The project, part-funded by the United States Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) aims to bridge the digital divide. The new wireless mesh technology, which promises 100 mbit/second speeds, requires no physical last mile connection, unlike ADSL lines. These and other emerging technologies need to deployed in the VRC which is a major movement, education and health services channel for those most in need of access to broadband. The Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor are richly endowed with road accessibility including the core of the regional freeway grid, a strong arterial network and well developed local activity streets and grids and a strong metropolitan / regional rail network with massive potential capacity. The national passenger and freight rail systems traverse through the Corridor and the Second Metropolitan Node is the most likely terminal for a future fast rail system linking the rest of South Africa.
  • 53. Page | 53 The fixed investment in transport systems along the Voortrekker Road corridor is significant. Here follows some of the most important aspects to inform the urban-industrial strategy for the regeneration of the “urban core”/ Voortrekker Road corridor.  Cape Town International Airport (CTIA): CTIA is in close (less than 5km) proximity from the Bellville Central Area. Significant industrial, logistical and freight operations are concentrated on and around the airport campus.  Transnet Marshalling Yard/ “Belcon site”6 : 233ha site currently the central hub of Transnet’s back-of-port operations. Significant redevelopment opportunities has been identified and the integration between Bellville Station in the north and the redevelopment of Tygerberg Hospital in the east has been identified as critical factors. Greater Tygerberg Partnership has commissioned a pre-feasibility study into the viability of the Transnet releases pockets of land on the site.  Bellville Public Transport Interchange (PTI): A study has been commissioned to assess the redevelopment of the Bellville PTI. This will include the rationalisation of modal splits between train, mini-bus taxi and Golden Arrow Bus Services. The pedestrianisation of the surrounding area will release additional retail opportunities. The surrounding parking bay, such as “Paint City” site, also needs to be investigated for optimal utilisation. The completion of the Blue Down rail link, connecting Khayelitsha to Bellville with a 15km rail link, and the redevelopment of Bellville Station will have a massive impact on the consolidation and regeneration of Cape Town’s metropolitan second node.  Established road infrastructure: The CTSDF (page 23) found that “approximately ten times more freight enters or leaves the city along the N1 corridor than along the N2 or N7 corridors”. The N1/R300 interchange to the airport is an important road link. Another important connection to the Bellville CBD is the symphony Way/Robert Sobukwe corridor linking the poorer Metropolitan South East and the Durban Road corridor linking the more affluent Tygervalley district. Voortrekker Road boats a road-rail network unlike any other corridor in the city. The corridor is very well serviced, and displays the following core characteristics, and drawing from a preliminary transport infrastructure report by Transport for Cape Town on the Voortrekker Road corridor, the following can be observed:  20km road between Cape Town CBD and Bellville CBD  6 Access roads from the N1 in Eastern half from Vanguard to Durban Road (±8km), only 2 additional access points west of Vanguard to CBD  Road has dual carriageway along most of its length, with medium island along some sections, especially east of Vanguard Drive 6 The Tygerberg District Plan has the following to say about the Belcon site: “The Transnet Marshalling Yard (Belcon Site) is ±233ha in extent. Historically, utilised as a marshalling yard, diesel depot and a civil maintenance department, the precinct represents a significant investment in rail infrastructure and comprises the central hub of Transnet operations which have recently relocated from Culemborg. However, at a district scale the strategic location and extent of the site causes it to act as a substantial ‘mono-functional’ buffer with little or no interaction or interface with surrounding areas. The precinct forms a constraint to the southern extension of the Bellville CBD and spatially reinforces the barrier effect of the rail line by preventing access to and from the south of Bellville Station, and stifling economic development south of Voortrekker Road. However, the potential exists portions of the Belcon Site abutting Modderdam Road to accommodate more intense mixed use activity”
  • 54. Page | 54  Runs parallel to rail line for entire length, with stations mostly within 300m, but Bellville almost 600m from the road.  7 Stations west of M7/Vanguard Drive at 12/7 = 1,7 km spacing  6 Stations east of M7/Vanguard Drive at 8/6 = 1,3 km spacing  5 Rail crossings south of Voortrekker from Vanguard to Modderdam in Bellville  Only 2 rail crossings west of Vanguard until Voortrekker crosses rail line Large freight volumes move through the Voortrekker Road corridor. The major freight logistical nodal points include Culemborg Container Stacking yard, the clusters of industrial parks along the corridor, Belcon Marshalling Yard, and the main road arteries such as the M5, N1, N2, N7, and R300. Voortrekker Road is also intersected by a number of north-south activity spines. These include: M5 (Black River Parkway), N7 (Vanguard Drive), Vasco Boulevard, Halt Road, Hugo Road, Giel Basson/35th Avenue, McIntyre Road, De La Rey Road, Mike Pienaar Drive, and Durban/Modderdam Road. One of the main outcomes of segregationist planning policies of the apartheid state is the lack of north-south route continuity into Voortrekker Road. The railways augments the division between the “bo-dorp” and the “onder-dorp”. Ensuring the linkages of major intersecting routes will ensure further integration and alignment with poorer neighbourhoods south of the railways. 6.4.4.Regeneration Opportunity The “urban core” and Voortrekker Road corridor is considered to be the most mature development corridor in the city, but requires more detailed corridor planning and development. The ITP calls for the development of both Local Area Transport Plans (LATP) and Precinct Plans around major intersections and transport interchanges. A local focus will bring into play a number of key development opportunities such as CBD revitalisation, industrial parks, office parks, recreation and events, residential areas, and shopping centres (ITP, page 167). Another core driver and premise in the ITP is “to achieve a sustainable modal split, is that public transport will become a viable alternative to the middle income portion of the travel market” (ITP, page 201). This will mean that that public transport will become a viable alternative to the middle income portion of the travel market. Moreover, after priority station upgrades to Salt River, Maitland, Goodwood, Elsies River, Parow, Tygerberg, and Bellville Stations have been completed, and rail capacity developed between key routes, the corridor will be the main carrier of passengers and goods. MyCiti bus routes will also be extended in the final roll-out phase. An integrated and networked infrastructure perspective on growth along the corridor will require the following, to be informed by the Local Area Transport Plans (ITP, page 205):  Corridor Plans that will assess the availability of developable land, state of transport infrastructure, and propensity for the market to develop in certain parts of each corridor.  Local Area Transport Plans to guide and facilitate the interventions that will optimise transit oriented development for the node or zone. These plans must emphasize the extent of Public Transport 1 or 2 (PT1 & 2) areas within the node or zone.  A methodology, prioritisation and roll-out of precinct plans along those corridors earmarked for transport interventions, as well as with propensity for development.  Develop the protocol and process for the development of Precinct Plans around Transport Facilities in order to ensure integration between the Transport Facility and the immediate land development.
  • 55. Page | 55 6.4.5.How Partnership Programmes can deliver regeneration The extension of affordable broadband is a key development imperative for the Corridor. Likewise the maintenance, development and inter-connectivity of the transport infrastructure network is of paramount importance. From a developmental perspective the accessibility of the movement network needs to maximised with well-connected trunk and feeder public transport and non- motorised transport accessibility including walkability and dedicated cycle lanes. According to the Voortrekker Road Status Quo Report and the District Plans underground services need extensive upgrading and a range of options will need to be explored for subverting the need for additional capacity with off grid local systems, fiscal impact recovery measures together with conventional delivered and funded infrastructure in the context of the City’s 15 year Growth Management Strategy. With the future introduction of SMART city technologies aided by real time sensors and management, a more dynamic view of corridor performance will be more likely achieved.
  • 56. Page | 56 Fully Developed and Densification 6.5.1. Regeneration Imperative Realise the full development potential of the VRC. This requires:  Optimal development of public land resources by developing available large and smaller public land parcels through public private partnerships  Triggering regeneration with Transit Orientated Development of existing development on the Voortrekker Spine and North South spines by combining integrated transport interchanges at rail and BRT stations with places rich in quality that facilitate intensive mixed use development in partnership with the private sector  Place design for live, work and play throughout cultivating and nurturing places and spaces which are rich in identity, human scale, multiple use and connections with nature  High residential densities in a manner that supports inclusive and liveable settlement including gap housing, social housing and student housing.  Generally sustaining a climate conducive to private investment in new development and redevelopment (see Well Managed) 6.5.2.Policy Context One of the key strategies outlined in the CTSDF and the Tygerberg and Table Bay district plans is the needed for “mixed use intensification” along the Voortrekker Road corridor. The Voortrekker Road corridor status quo report found that investigations are needed “into why existing development rights are not being utilized and introducing supporting mechanisms (e.g. special parking provisions and removal of road set back lines) that will enable the take up of development rights, redevelopment of existing properties and transformation of office accommodation to residential accommodation and densification of the area” (page 39). This has produced sterile and under-utilised pockets of land. It is recommended that “where viable, overlay zones or substitution schemes should be investigated in order to alleviate such constraints” (Ibid). As mentioned before, UDZs have not significantly contributed to the ideals of urban regeneration through tax breaks. The City of Cape Town’s recent promotion of the “Voortrekker Road-Rail corridor” as an “integration zones” according to the criteria of National Treasury’s Integrated City Development Grant (ICDG) is significant. Text box 6.3 outlines some of the criteria and metrics of the ICDG and outlines the implication for the spatial development pf the Voortrekker Road corridor. Text Box 6.3: “Integration Zones” as per Integrated City Development Grant (ICDG) Government has introduced a new grant for metropolitan municipalities in 2014/13. In the first year, this initial tranche of funding came to R10,364 million for the City. The Integrated City Development Grant will provide incentives for participating municipalities to identify and establish integration zones within cities, including the establishment of measureable performance objectives, indicators and targets. It will assist municipalities to plan and programme a series of catalytic investments within these zones that can be
  • 57. Page | 57 funded by existing sources of finance. In the medium term, it will reward municipalities for progress with the implementation of catalytic investments and the achievement of pre-specified performance indicators. The establishment of these “integration zones” will achieve the following:  Allow all public interventions to be focused in an identified spatial context in order to leverage a private investment response.  Enable all spheres of government to measure and manage the change of form and pace in our cities. Concurrent negotiations are underway between representatives of National Treasury and the City of Cape Town with a view to developing performance indicators to measure the performance of the metropolitan municipalities participating in this programme towards achieving spatially restructured and well governed cities. The Regeneration Framework could support this level of performance management planning. In a report to council, it was stated that the “objective of the ICDG grant is to support the development of more inclusive, liveable, productive and sustainable urban built environments. The grant provides a financial incentive to metropolitan municipalities to integrate and focus their use of available infrastructure investment and regulatory instruments within defined integration zones on an urban network to achieve a more compact and inclusive spatial form” (Council Resolution MC 48/09/13, page 2) A densification policy has been adopted by the City of Cape Town, reflected in the City of Cape Town Spatial Development Framework and the Cape Town Densification Strategy. These documents provide a framework outlining a middle path development strategy set to raise the Cape Town gross base density. Two scenarios are presented:  From a Transport perspective, the current 10-13 du/ha (gross) needs to be raised to 25 du/ha (gross) to make greater investment in public transport feasible (ITP, page 201).  The Built Environment Performance Plan is more ambitious and calls for residential developments that will lead to significant densification to 50-180 du/ha (gross) is sought along “development routes”, which translated into developments that are 4-15 storeys tall (BEPP, page 74). Densification needs to be urgently applied to the Voortrekker Road activity spine. Brownfield development opportunities along the Voortrekker Road corridor has also been spotlighted by the City’s 5 year strategic Integrated Development Plan (IDP). According to the IDP, a number of housing opportunities exist along the corridor, and it is ranked as a “potential future project”. Bellville is a major urban centre with higher order services and access. The intention of the City’s densification strategy is outlined below: “An important component of this [densification] is growth management, which includes densification, utilising the urban edge, and optimal and sustainable use of land through densification in transport corridors and economic nodes. To ensure densification on well-located land, infill housing developments will also be pursued. The City of Cape Town aims to improve housing density per hectare, and will implement the following over the next five years” (IDP, page 71) One of the key strategies outlined in the CTSDF and the Tygerberg and Table Bay district plans is the needed for “mixed use intensification” along the Voortrekker Road corridor. The Voortrekker Road corridor status quo report found that investigations are needed “into why existing development rights are not being utilized and introducing supporting mechanisms (e.g. special parking provisions and removal of road set back lines) that will enable the take up of development rights, redevelopment of existing properties and transformation of office accommodation to residential accommodation and densification of the area” (page 39).
  • 58. Page | 58 In the absence of a long term (15 years +) Infrastructure Growth Management Plan, it is not upfront apparent what the carrying capacity of the bulk infrastructure is like. The BEPP recognises the importance for “a new emphasis on preparing a Growth Management Plan for the City which will prioritise areas for resource and investment focus across sectors, spheres of government and adjoining municipalities” (BEPP, page 18). The Growth Management Plan will most likely address the following concerns (Ibid, page 24):  Infrastructure “hot spots” have been identified (areas where enhancement of development rights may need to be limited in the short to medium term, and establish monitoring mechanisms to review their status are to be established).  Areas where infrastructure renewal will assist in meeting Urban Settlement Development Grant (USDG) objectives.  The preferred phasing of the city’s spatial development is explored. The BEPP also comments on possible upgrades needed to Bellville’s Waste Water Treatment Works considering the challenges experienced in achieving required standards of compliance of treated- effluent discharge and calls for the development of a 15-year wastewater upgrade, expansion and rehabilitation plan. 6.5.3.Status quo analysis The Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor need to be well-developed relative to their highly accessible location. Current symptoms of under-development include large tracts of vacant public land (see Table 6.3 below), redundant school, community and parking sites, decayed and derelict private buildings and railway stations on the Voortrekker Spine, badly maintained public squares, spaces and parks and densities that are much too low. The broad brush stroke analysis of the potentially available public land available in the table below indicates the magnitude of this opportunity: Site Area (ha) Estimated available gross area (ha)* Targeted du/ha: 25 Potential no. of dwellings Targeted du/ha: 50 Potential no. of dwellings Targeted du/ha: 75 Potential no. of dwellings Targeted du/ha: 100 Potential no. of dwellings Wingfield 321 199 25 4 976 50 9 951 75 13 927 100 19 902 Tygerberg Hospital 75 47 25 1 163 50 2 325 75 3 488 100 4 650 Transnet 340 211 25 5 270 50 10 540 75 15 810 100 21 080 Stikland Hospital 130 87 25 2 170 50 4 340 75 6 510 100 8 680 Total 876 543 25 13 578 50 27 156 75 40 734 100 54 312 * Based on gross-to-net conversion factor of 0,62. Table 6.2 Potential development yield of greenfield sites To this day the public transport facilities, interchanges and spaces are mainly used by lower income populations who face historical neglect. In the case of Bellville, the provision of public services by government and private banking and other services are typically of a “second class” nature compared with Central Cape Town where the “main” offices or services are located.
  • 59. Page | 59 Although there are signs of social housing in a mixed use environment is appearing in depreciated areas such as Maitland (e.g. along Royal Road), this has not been mainstreamed along the corridor. Brownfield development opportunities along the Voortrekker Road corridor has also been spotlighted by the City’s 5 year strategic Integrated Development Plan (IDP). According to the IDP, a number of housing opportunities exist along the corridor, and it is ranked as a “potential future project”. Construction along the Voortrekker Road corridor has picked up in recent years. Between 2009 and 2012, the Tygerberg district generated the second highest number of BDM applications (21.3% or 12,196 applications) in the City region, although these were of a relatively low proportion of building value (13.3% or R2,132,977,557 built value). Large areas of the Voortrekker Road corridor has also been promulgated as “Urban Development Zones” (UDZ). Of the BDM applications received by council in 2009 - 2012, only 2% were in the demarcated UDZ areas. Table 3.2 outlines the breakdown of land uses developed through UDZ incentives. Table 6.3 Land uses developed through UDZ incentives in Bellville by category7 Economic areas continue to be fragmented and functionally separate and independent. The performance of these areas are also highly differentiated. Voortrekker Road Corridor Status Quo report (page 12) found that virtually no development activity occurred along Voortrekker Road between Vanguard Drive and Giel Basson. Ten large projects proposed for Epping Industrial, predominantly located in close proximity to Vanguard Drive. Other industrial pockets such as Ndabeni, Parow Industria, Sacks Circle, and Triangle Farm has showed low levels of commercial activity. Development activity along Voortrekker Road improves east of Giel Basson Drive. Several new non-residential developments – such as the China Town Centre retail development at Shoprite Park – have been completed or are in the pipeline for Parow CBD. More recently the City of Cape Town released some of its vacant plots to stimulate economic growth in poorer areas8 . This has produced sterile and under-utilised pockets of land. It is recommended that “where viable, overlay zones or substitution schemes should be investigated in order to alleviate such constraints” 7 GTP, Commercial Report prepared by Rode and Associates, page 20 8 Cape Town sells industrial zoned land by tender, EProp News, Available online: http://www.eprop.co.za/news/item/15184-cape-town-releases-land.html 21% 45% 3% 18% 13% Hospital Residential Residential & Other Shops Car dealerships & workshop extension
  • 60. Page | 60 (Ibid). As mentioned before, UDZs have not significantly contributed to the ideals of urban regeneration through tax breaks. Although there are signs of social housing in a mixed use environment is appearing in depreciated areas such as Maitland (e.g. along Royal Road), this has not been mainstreamed along the corridor. Brownfield development opportunities along the Voortrekker Road corridor has also been spotlighted by the City’s 5 year strategic Integrated Development Plan (IDP). According to the IDP, a number of housing opportunities exist along the corridor, and it is ranked as a “potential future project”. 6.5.4.Regeneration Opportunity Cape Town has very low relative densities across the metropolitan region, and it is a well-established imperative throughout the world and in all of Cape Town’s planning and development strategies and policies that much higher residential densities are needed. Although very few parts of the Second Metropolitan Node or the Voortrekker Road Corridor meet the density target that they should meet (350 units/ha gross, 80 units/ha net) as outlined in the City’s Densification Strategy, these are very well located. Increased density offers the multiple cross-reinforcing benefits of increasing the viability, frequency and safety of public transport, walking and other modes of non-motorised transport. It also builds a more vibrant job-rich environment for a host of local personal services and retail activities and generates a more accessible city environment with the higher population thresholds needed to support local people-serving functions like crèches, internet cafes, shops and restaurants as well as more effective policing and safety. A regeneration strategy needs to unlock vacant and underutilised public land, remove needless planning restrictions on denser and release more intensive development in well located areas. This will go a long way in developing social infrastructures such as public squares, spaces and parks and increase densities in well located areas. This will necessitate an approach to planning that is market sensitive and needs driven and indicates that the Greater Tygerberg Partnership needs to play a key role in facilitating development of the right kind in the right place and at the right time. This requires sensitivity to property and development cycles through utilising and extending tools such as ECAMP (see Text Box 4.2 below) and exploring creative partnership mechanisms to facilitate land development. The ongoing development, refinement and localisation of the Regeneration Framework through the Future Tyger conversation will go some way towards ensuring that this occurs. This implies that the regeneration strategy needs to be strongly place and identity conscious. Although higher densities and improved public facilities will do much to introduce a more vibrant and richer urbanity to the public realm, much more needs to be done. In addition to clean and safe measures, a programme of people friendly urban design needs to guide public and private development. This needs to take place within a broader context of legible, bold city design of landmarks, edges and seams that is complemented with a cultural and landscape framework that provides coherence to the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor. In so doing the area can take its place in the City with pride. It is anticipated that the Future Tyger International Design Competition will provide strong impetus for a place-rich approach. Were the 15 km length of the Voortrekker Spine to be developed to the higher densities found in Sea Point, it is estimated that an additional 40 000 housing units or 240 000 residents could be accommodated. This would be able to cope with a substantial portion of Cape Town’s residential growth to 2040, not to mention the vast retail, office and industrial development that would be
  • 61. Page | 61 unlocked through a mixed use integrated development approach. Studies by Rode and Associates as commissioned by GTP confirms the development opportunity the corridor makes. In the 21st century it will be Cape Town’s place rich quality that plays a key role in attracting tourism, business opportunity and investment. In those parts of Cape Town with a rich natural legacy of coastline, mountains, nature reserves, historical buildings and public squares enables the process of achieving place-richness. However, the city centre is much better endowed than in the case of the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor. That is not to say these inherent attributes are lacking, and the Tygerberg Hills, river systems and historical parts of the area offer more potential than many other neighborhoods around the City. The corridor’s location also serves as an access point to the Wine growing regions of Paarl, Stellenbosch and Malmesbury. Voortrekker Road has a lot of potential to be a pedestrian friendly corridor. Despite the concerns of safety and security, the corridor boasts a conducive pedestrian environment, anchored by station precincts, which providing a thriving environment for informal trading. Urban management needs to be stepped up, but a diverse range of distinctive character precincts could inform the future development of nodes and connectors. A dense city also generates the quality of “urbanity” and denser Voortrekker Road Corridor will generate the vibrant place-quality and identity (see the “place rich” imperative below) that will attract investment, visitors and skilled local entrepreneurs that drive economic growth. The resultant “cosmopolitan” lifestyle will ensure that the Voortrekker Road Corridor becomes an attractive part of Cape Town’s offering as a place to live, visit and invest in. Measures must be taken to promote, incentivise and enable the highest possible densities in the best located parts of the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor. It does not mean promoting high rise development in the leafy suburbs and the townships that are next to the Voortrekker Spine as this makes no sense in areas where sensitivity is high and accessibility is low. It also implies a focus on a range of affordability and life-cycle options. The benefits of dense housing in the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor that is also affordable is strongly promoted in the City’s social housing strategy and include providing access to a lifestyle with much lower transport costs for the poor, much better access to employment, education and development opportunities and better social cohesion. The IDP echoes these sentiments when it says “the City will continue to identify and promote housing development along approved transport and development corridors in order to support densification” (IDP, page 71). Infrastructure supply capacity will be a major deciding factor in achieving higher residential densities along the Voortrekker Road corridor. The Built Environment Performance Plan (BEPP) calls attention to the “high risk electricity and high-risk waste water categories [that] are concentrated along a band stretching from Cape Town central business district (CBD) to Bellville” (2014:77). A 10 year waste water upgrade, expansion and rehabilitation plan is proposed in the BEPP (2014:105). The BEPP is however optimistic that public investment in infrastructure is feasible, considering the “areas are well serviced by the city’s rail network, undertaking the necessary service infrastructure upgrades will have the added benefit of allowing their high development and land use intensification potential to be harnessed”. 6.5.5.How Partnership Programmes can deliver regeneration Although it could never substitute for the mass low-cost housing provided by Khayelitsha or Mitchells Plain, a much-increased supply of social housing in the Second Metropolitan Node and
  • 62. Page | 62 the Voortrekker Road Corridor will provide an “upward ladder” or “trickle up” opportunity for urban- aspirant, single-parent, smaller and single households that releases pressure in those areas. Cape Town lacks the affordable flatlands that can intermediate between the unaffordability of housing in the leafy suburbs and the remoteness of the suburbs and the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor can fill a critical gap in regard to the range of housing opportunity the City needs to supply. Finally it is also obvious that the 100 000 students registered at institutions in the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor need access to both student housing as a packaged, subsidised product and an overall supply of the many types of shelter that students require in the area in general. Student housing is thus both a driver and a beneficiary of a much denser Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor. Eco-logical 6.6.1. Regeneration Imperative Transition to a low carbon, resource conserving and efficient urban environment requires:  restoring riverine and wetland ecologies and biodiversity  improving connections with nature, sport and recreation  reducing carbon dioxide emissions  ensure that the flows of energy, freight, people, waste water and materials through the urban system are ever “smarter”, better networked and more regenerative 6.6.2.Policy Context The global drive towards sustainable low carbon development is well captured in all of the City’s strategic and policy documents. Quote City Energy Strategy This is reflected more and more system- based approaches that seek to make the flows of energy, waste water and materials ever more “eco- logical” to minimise the impact of the urban “footprint”. Integration with the City’s clearly demarcated Metropolitan Open Space System (MOSS), city parks, public spaces and green belts are essential in striking an urban-environmental balance. As mentioned before, the corridor offer a vastly superior pedestrian experience to other places in the City of Cape Town, with the exception of the central city. Capitalising on these established networks, and ensuring alignment and promotion of use, will set the corridor apart. 6.6.3.Status quo analysis There are, however, many reasons why the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor are “place poor” by any measure. Development of the area predominantly occurred during the fast-growing fast-industrialising middle part of the 20th Century where development worldwide followed a modernist obsession with functionality and motor car based development. Relatively low land values attracted a large amount of industrial development. Opportunistic strip developments render a relative monotonous urban form with economic activities such as used car dealers, warehousing and informality and depreciated residential areas reinforcing reasons for disinvestment. This usually followed a paradigm of promoting suburban car friendly development and civic localism. A broader sense of the role of spaces and places within a unified metropolitan city has been absent. The Apartheid planning regime excluded non-white property ownership in the well-located
  • 63. Page | 63 Voortrekker Road spine, created mono-functional residential dormitories to the South and adopted a fragmented approach to providing racially designated universities, hospitals and public facilities. Excessive and over-scaled roads and parking lots to accommodate a motor car based view of the future development contribute to the harshness, lack of human scale and “unfriendliness” of much of the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor. Finally, the migration of big box retail and office development from the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor to the malls and office parks on the N1 Regional Corridor in the later part of the 1990s fuelled the disinvestment that introduced a pall of gloom and abandonment over public spaces that were not exceptional to begin with. 6.6.4.Regeneration Opportunity There are many direct measures including park and open space systems and biodiversity corridors and stream management to provide a “greener environment” that is a more effective waste and carbon sink and is a more gentle micro climate, as well as green buildings, “off-grid” energy generating, food growing and water recycling developments, waste to energy schemes and cleaner production and energy /water sharing schemes in industrial areas. Bold low emission, low footprint targets by 2040 are entirely feasible for the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor. 6.6.5.How Partnership Programmes can deliver regeneration The regeneration of the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor will need to be strongly driven by eco-logical approaches. The biggest contribution that the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor can make to Cape Town’s sustainability and reduced carbon footprint is in regard to increasing densities and achieving a compact city. This will reduce carbon emissions in many ways, including driving the use of public and non-motorised transport, reducing the need for travel, requiring less construction materials and lower energy consumption. It also reduces water consumption, provides for all- day utilisation of infrastructure. Well managed 6.7.1. Regeneration Imperative Ensure the development and maintenance of a seamlessly clean, safe and attractive urban environment through partnerships. This would entail  Full engagement with all relevant stakeholders in the vision, strategy and programming of regeneration  Public Private Development Partnerships  Public Private Management Partnerships to maintaining a clean, safe and vibrant urban  Effective resourcing and incentivisation  Strong Monitoring and Evaluation 6.7.2.Policy Context At the major north-south key intersections, development opportunities arise. During 2012 the Urban Development Zone (UDZ) along the Voortrekker Road has been recently been extended to include areas such as Maitland, Parow and Bellville (BEPP 2014:124). In short, tax breaks are offered to property owners who erect, extend and improve buildings for trade purposes in the targeted zones. Although property development and improvement in UDZ’s only account for 2% of total building applications, the instrument offers developers incentives. The BEPP argues that “National Treasury
  • 64. Page | 64 has identified such public-private partnerships as a decisive factor in the success of UDZs, both in terms of improving cleansing and public safety, and also as another means of encouraging investment”. With the February 2014 amendments, large parts of the Voortrekker Road corridor has been promulgated as an Urban Development Zone (UDZ). Investors in UDZs get a tax write-off or a straight line accelerated depreciation allowance on capital investments in either refurbishing existing properties or building new properties in demarcated UDZs. A Special Ratings Area (SRA) has been promulgated in the form of the Voortrekker Road Corridor Improvement District (VRCID) who has initiated a campaign of clean and safe streets and neighbourhoods. Massive improvements have been observed in the first year of operations. 6.7.3.Status quo analysis Turning around the decay requires a dedicated and asserted effort. The Bellville Chamber of Commerce and Tygerberg Radio recognised the need for such interventions, and initiated the establishment of a Special Rating Area. This was coupled to a clearly defined geographical area. According to the Special Ratings Area (SRA) of the City of Cape Town, property owners from the area pay an additional rate to fund top-up services for that specific area as set out in the operational business plan of the SRA9 . Crime has followed the degradation of the urban form, and sharp increases in criminal activities have been observed as outlined in Table 6.4 Stations reporting Theft from Vehicle (per 10,000) Aggravated Robberies (per 10,000) Business Robberies (absolute number) 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011 Woodstock 651 487 21 7 2 9 Maitland 241 173 4 11 0 11 Kensington 68 55 0 2 0 4 Goodwood 98 104 2 7 0 19 Parow 134 133 2 7 0 27 Bellville 210 201 4 6 4 15 Table 6.4 Crimes reported per police district. Sharp increases indicated in bold. 10 Having been declared a Special Rating Area in July 2012, the Voortrekker Road Corridor Improvement District (VRCID) has demonstrated in its first year of operations the effectiveness of coupling urban management with social development. Although the direct services include additional public safety, waste management and cleaning services, and urban management, the VRCID has been unique in its approach to social development. The impact of SRA’s have included:  A safer public environment to the benefit of all residents  Proactive and coordinated communication and direct consultation with the City’s services directorates  Protection and tangible growth in property values and capital investment which encourages economic development in the area. 9 CCT, Voortrekker Road Corridor Status Quo report, page 15 10 South African Police Service (2012), cited in CCT, Voortrekker Road Corridor Status Quo report, page 6
  • 65. Page | 65 Prior to the establishment of the VRCID, a perception survey11 conducted in 2011 found the following about the Bellville and Parow section of the corridor:  61% of respondents indicated that they do not feel safe in the public environment;  58% of respondents regard the general state of cleanliness as poor;  69% of respondents regarded the overall image of the area as dirty and unsafe. A City of Cape Town’s Community Satisfaction Survey in 2012 tallying 405 interviews with a focus area from Vanguard Drive to Stikland found the following urban environment aspects to be key concerns:  road maintenance (e.g. repairs and upgrading of roads)  refuse collection  quality of parks  deterioration in public and community safety  cleanliness of the urban environment, specifically pertaining to litter removal and the  maintenance of public gardens  performance of town planning and building development functions, pertaining to both the  enforcement of regulations and timeous approval processes  public transport These priority areas need to address in comprehensive corridor planning. A report by the SA Cities Network published in 2008 note that the number of applications in the first few years of UDZ that is from 2003, was disappointing. The authors observed that it has taken municipalities a while to understand and optimise take-up of UDZ incentives by private investors but that by 2008 most cities had seen accelerating numbers of applications. They noted greater awareness of the scheme among larger property owners, financiers and investors and even plans for large-scale developments and refurbishments that would have taken advantage of the depreciation allowance. Between 2006 and 2011, the City of Cape Town has issued location certificates to UDZ applicants for R2bn of new construction, and R1.16bn of refurbishments. Of this amount, 73% occurred in 2010 and 2011 alone, confirming a slow early 7 years. The city estimates that these investments have in turn generated approximately 35 000 permanent and temporary job opportunities.12 6.7.4.Regeneration Opportunity The number and value of plans passed between 2011 and 2014 give insight into the dynamics in the UDZ and the central City. In these data tables, it can be observed that the proportion of plans passed for new buildings in UDZs is low compared to plans approved for new buildings in the City of Cape Town. Only 2.2% of all plans in the UDZ in 2012 were for new buildings whereas compared to 35% in the City. New buildings contribute 71% to the total value in UDZs. 11 VRCID. 2011, Perception Survey Report on Proposed Voortrekker Road Corridor Special Rating Area. 12 UDZ tax incentive lucrative boon for property investors, May 28, 2014, www.iolproperty.co.za
  • 66. Page | 66 Year In UDZ In City of Cape Town New buildings Improvements New buildings Improvements No. Rm No. Rm (average excl 2011) No. Rm No. Rm 2011 9 151.5 106 6 412 5330.2 16 508 5 251.1 2012 3 100.9 131 204.5 5 801 6861.9 10 871 4 169.2 2014 5 553.3 166 118.8 6 585 8303.6 11 048 4 877.8 Total 17 805.7 403 323.3 18 798 20495.8 38 427 13 298.1 Average 47.4 1.1 1.1 0.4 Table 6.5 Building plans passed for new buildings and improvements /extensions in the City of Cape Town and in the UDZ An 82% contribution to value in UDZs for half of 2014 is a major contributing factor to this variance. This is also evident in Table 6.6 where the value of plans passed for new buildings in the UDZ increases to 6.7% of value in the City in 2014. The variance is due to a few very large building projects. Relative to Cape Town the number of plans passed in the UDZs reflects a significant uptick in both new buildings and improvements between 2011 and 40% of 2014. Growth in value is more erratic. Table 6.6 Plans passed in the UDZ as a percentage of plans passed in City of Cape Town Infrastructure supply capacity will be a major deciding factor in achieving higher residential densities along the Voortrekker Road corridor. The Built Environment Performance Plan (BEPP) calls attention to the “high risk electricity and high-risk waste water categories [that] are concentrated along a band stretching from Cape Town central business district (CBD) to Bellville” (2014:77). A 10 year waste water upgrade, expansion and rehabilitation plan is proposed in the BEPP (2014:105). The BEPP is however optimistic that public investment in infrastructure is feasible, considering the “areas are well serviced by the city’s rail network, undertaking the necessary service infrastructure upgrades will have the added benefit of allowing their high development and land use intensification potential to be harnessed”. 6.7.5.How Partnership Programmes can deliver Regeneration A regeneration strategy needs to unlock vacant and underutilised public land, remove needless planning restrictions on denser and release more intensive development in well located areas. This will go a long way in developing social infrastructures such as public squares, spaces and parks and increase densities in well located areas. This will necessitate an approach to planning that is market sensitive and needs driven and indicates that the Greater Tygerberg Partnership needs to play a key role in facilitating development of the right kind in the right place and at the right time. This requires sensitivity to property and development cycles through utilising and extending tools such as ECAMP (see Text Box 6.4) and exploring creative partnership mechanisms to facilitate land development. The ongoing development, refinement and localisation of the Regeneration Framework through the Future Tyger conversation will go some way towards ensuring that this occurs. Year New buildings Improvements Number Value Number Value 2011 0.13% 2.8% 0.6% 0.02% 2012 0.05% 1.5% 1.2% 4.9% 2014 0.08% 6.7% 1.5% 2.4%
  • 67. Page | 67 Attracting the investment required for a well-developed Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor will require that they also be well-managed. As high impact zones with high social and economic sensitivity, these areas have extraordinary needs in regard to safety and security, the maintenance of public street spaces and parks and the delivery of cleansing, disaster management and utility services. This also implies dealing with slum land lording, neglect, blight and illegal activities in a professional, effective and coordinated manner. A leading role for local management partnerships like the VRCID and for measures to deal with Problem Buildings such as the Bellville and Parow Area Coordinating Task Teams (ACTTs) located in the sub councils are required for regeneration to be successful. A well-developed Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor which are well- managed will create a virtuous cycle of investment, upgrading and development that creates a platform for achieving the other six strategic imperatives. Text Box 6.4: Economic Areas Management Programme (ECAMP) The ECAMP database, developed and owned by the City of Cape Town: Department of Spatial Planning and Urban Design, integrates the City’s massive SAP databank into “decision making support tool for officials, and as an open data intervention for entrepreneurs” (Rabe, 2014). Administrative and open source data is distilled into 11 expert-verified indicators which – taken together – provides insight into current business conditions and long-term potential. The indicators are grouped under two categories: Performance Locational Potential Rentals Rental Growth Vacancy Completions Submissions Sales Size Land Supply Proximity Infrastructure Safety Area-based interventions can be prioritised by integrating the indicators into a diagnostic model, which classifies each business node according to its stage of development. The ECAMP system furthermore offers credible, comparative and fresh market intelligence to enable entrepreneurs to identify opportunities and allow informed investment location decisions. ECAMP profiles for each Regeneration Focus Area will be presented throughout this document.
  • 68. Page | 68 7. Regeneration Focus Areas Approach and methodology The Regeneration Framework has created a spatial and transit orientated development (TOD) framework against which a vision and strategies for development have been hanged. This section of the Regeneration Framework unpacks proposals and suggestions for development for each of the Focus Areas. In the following chapter, each regeneration focus area’s demographic and development context is profiled (drawing on ECAMP data outputs). Each regeneration focus area’s local regeneration opportunities are briefly discussed under the six strategic imperatives developed in Chapters 3 and 4. These are: 1) Growth and Innovation Generating, 2) People serving, 3) Integrated Transport, 4) Fully developed and densification, 5) Eco-logical and 6) Well managed. Lastly, regeneration proposals for short to medium term urban acupuncture projects and longer term public land repackaging are put forward. The Voortrekker Road corridor will be discussed from East to West under these focus areas.  Bellville to Stikland (Eastern Focus Area); and  Robert Sobukwe/Symphony Way corridors including the university precincts of University of Western Cape (UWC) and Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT) (Southern Focus Area).  Goodwood to Parow (Central Focus Area); and  Salt River to Maitland (Western Focus Area). Text Box 7.1: Urban Acupuncture Projects Urban Acupuncture projects, originally phrased by Barcelonan architect and urbanist Manuel de Sola Morales, have gained prominence as a way of planning and urban design that pinpoints vulnerable sectors of a city and re-energizes them through design interventions. These projects have been particularly successful in urban turn-around strategies utilised in Latin American cities such as Medellin, Columbia and Curitiba, Brazil. Urban acupunctures are usually contrasted with long term urban renewal and major land repackaging and infrastructure development to denote shorter term interventions to catalyse larger changes in the urban fabric. Sites are typically identified through analysis of demographic, social, economic and ecological factors, and are developed through a dialogue between designers and the community. In the Regeneration Framework, urban acupuncture project proposals have been generated through a consultative process. During the Future Tyger “Design the City” phase, a number of proposals were made using a live 3D model (Google Earth Pro). This has proved to be a more cost effective way to generate insights into the lived urban experience, and the triggers to stimulate urban turn around. Metro Node Eastern Regeneration Focus area 7.2.1.Demographic and development context The GTP’s demarcation of the “Eastern Regeneration Focus Area” of the Voortrekker Road corridor is broadly demarcated as sub-council 6 incorporating the following wards.
  • 69. Page | 69  Ward 2 (Avondale, Bellville CBD, Belvedere Tygerberg, Bosbell, Boston, Churchill Estate, Clamhall, De Tijger, Fairfield Estate, Glenlilly, Kingston, Oakdale, Oosterzee, Parow North, Vredelust.)  Ward 3 (Belgravia, Bellair, Bloemhof, Blommendal, Blomtuin, Bo-Oakdale, De La Haye, Groenvallei, Heemstede, La Rochelle, Labiance, Loumar, Marinda Park, West, Meyerhof, Oakdale, Oakglen, Shirley Park, Stellenridge, Stikland Industria, Thalman, Triangle Farm, Vredenberg)  Ward 9 (Bellville South, Bellville South Industrila, CPUT, Glenhaven, Greenlands, Sack's Circle Industria, Vogelvlei)  Ward 10 (Avondale, Beaconvale, Belgravia, Bellrail, Bellville CBD, Chrismar, Dunrobin, Fairfield Estate, Hardekraaltjie, Kempenville, Klipkop, Oakdale, Oostersee, Parow, Parow East, Ravensmead, Sanlamhof, Stikland)  Ward 12 (Belhar)  Ward 22 (Belhar, Modderdam, Parow Industria, Ravensmead, Uitsig) The total population of the Eastern Focus Area is 183,590. From a planning perspective, the focus area is incorporated under the Tygerberg District Plan, approved in October 2012. Bellville served an important role as a historical commercial node prior to the construction of the N1 Freeway and subsequent capital flight. Major investment by corporates such as Sanlam and the Foschini Group still have large commercial headquarters located on Voortrekker Road. It remains the “second most important concentration of service sector activities and public institutions in the city” (VR Status Quo report, page 12). According to the Tygerberg District Plan, industrial property in the surrounding area accounts for 26.7% of the city’s total stock in terms of value. Despite the locational advantages, the area has been negatively impacted by new decentralised developments along the N1 Freeway.
  • 70. Page | 70 A number of significant planning initiatives area underway or have been recently completed in the area. These which present exiting new opportunities for the area and include: The CPUT Masterplan and UWC campus planning The Bellville Transport Interchange upgrading and/or total redesign The redevelopment of the Tygerberg Hospital Site, the rationalisation of the site The rollout of the MyCiti Integrated Rapid Bus Network The integration of work done on a Contextual Framework for the Broader Tygervalley Precinct Fig 7.1 Metro Node North and South graphically illustrated ECAMP considers Office and Retail land uses to be in a “Growth Zone”, and mixed use in the “Opportunity Zone”. This is mostly driven by high numbers of building applications and completed business/non-residential redevelopments, even though the value of these applications were average to low. Grade A office vacancies were 8% in 2014, which is deemed average compared to other City regions profiled. At the same time, office rental growths between 2009 and 2014 was 20%, which is considering high growth. There are signs of an emergence in Grade A and B commercial developments in Bellville, which is the highest portion of non-residential land use.
  • 71. Page | 71 Fig 7.2 Bellville ECAMP profile There is a high concentration of workers with higher educational and post-graduate qualification, which has a direct impact on average household disposable income, which is deemed high. Bellville is therefore displaying growth trends, which is spurred by its locational advantage. Although infrastructure (especially the Bellville WWTW and trunk electricity risk) capacity is limiting factor, Bellville has potential opportunity in mixed use development. The four stages of development on the Metropolitan Node linked to the VRC are indicated below: 7.2.2.Regeneration Opportunities
  • 72. Page | 72 Growth and Innovation Generating Several major publicly owned land parcels are located adjacent or close to Voortrekker Road Activity Route, including Belcon, Hardekraaltjie, Tygerberg Hospital, Stikland Hospital, the La Belle triangle site and Erf 26364, Bellville. The realisation of these development prospects will serve as a catalyst for increased investment. People serving This area is relatively well‐served by community facilities and includes 7 private hospitals, the Medical Research Council, 2 government hospital, 16 schools, 2 libraries and 3 clinics. Networked Infrastructure The Bellville Central Area (BCA) has excellent sub-regional connectivity as it is located:  central to the wider Cape Town functional sub-region  at the cross roads of existing east-west Voortrekker Road Activity corridor and the emerging Symphony Way north-south activity route  The Cape Town International Airport (CTIA) falls within a 8 kilometer radius (approximately a 10 minute vehicular trip)  Bellville is located on a primary rail route, and the BCA is located at the Bellville railway station where more than 162,000 unique trips recorded each day  High value industry and 7 major industrial areas are located within this 8 kilometer radius  A number of tertiary institutions are located within the 8 kilometer radius  a number of hospitals and medical facilities are located within this radius Fully Developed and Densification A number of depreciated areas in the Bellville Central Area can be sites for housing development and mixed land use intensification. The Belrail neighbourhood opposite the old Bellville CBD is an underutilised site, as is parking sites such as Paint City and Sanlam’s underutilised parking bays. Durban Road could also be a site for significant social housing investment. The rationalisation of Stikland Hospital site is already experiencing increased submissions of building plans, and the City could utilise this site too. Bellville has undergone the formal legislated process of identifying and demarcating informal trading areas, also known as Gazetted trading plans, allowing trading bays to be allocated to licenced traders. In the City’s latest amendment to the Informal Trading by-law, a call was made for the rationalisation of informal trading hot-spots, such as Kruskal Avenue, the Taxi rank, Paint City and so on. The Greater Tygerberg Partnership proposes a consolidating trading environment akin to an “Ubuntu Market” or Middle Eastern “Sooq”. There are also a number of opportunities to integrated city parks and open space networks of residential suburbs into the pedestrian network. Eco-logical Opportunities for Waste-to-Energy value chain is possible at the Bellville Waste Transfer Station. The Elizabeth Park development is an important anchor on the Tygerberg Riverine Open Space System feeding down from the Tygerberg Hills into the Elsies Kraal and Elsies Rivers Well managed
  • 73. Page | 73 The Bellville Central area has a variety of land use mixes. The Status Quo report found that “different responses to these modern forces can be observed in different parts of the corridor. For instance, the transformation of the Bellville CBD has resulted in a lack of attractiveness for higher profile/income commercial uses, but has been replaced with predominantly smaller scale cash‐and- carry businesses and informal traders” (page 23). An urban design framework for the consolidation of Bellville Central Area as Metropolitan Node should be a pressing priority, anchored by the redevelopment of Bellville Public Transport Interchange (PTI). 7.2.3.Regeneration Proposals Public land repackaging (long term)  Tygerberg Hospital: A process has been initiated and consultants appointed to investigate the transaction management and urban design framework for the rebuilding of Tygerberg Hospital and the rationalisation of the 75ha site.  Stikland Hospital: The Tygerberg District Plan calls for the rationalisation of the 130ha Stikland Hospital site. Residential developments have been granted permission on the peripheries of the site.  La Belle triangle site: Erf 13601 on the intersection of Voortrekker Road and La Belle Road holds development potential  Paint City: Erf 26364, Bellville is currently being utilised as a parking lot across Middestad Mall. The site has been out for tender a number of times, and the lack of a comprehensive urban design framework for the Bellville CBD pampers development. Prime Transit Precincts  Bellville PTI: This facility needs an urgent intervention and will play an anchoring role in the development of Bellville CBD. Work has been commissioned by the City of Cape Town on an urban design framework, and will be the basis of further planning Urban acupuncture projects (short to medium term)  Tygerberg Hospital (as Facility Investment): The urban design framework for the Tygerberg site needs to consider the interconnections with the rationalisation of the Belcon site, a pedestrian access network from both Bellville and Tygerberg stations, and the potential of the TROSS  TROSS: The Tygerberg Riverine Open Space System needs to be designed and opened up as a green belt for public recreational use.  Boston creative hub: As articulated in the GTP’s comment on the proposed New Boston Policy Plan (2014), development along north-south routes of Broadway, Lincoln and Boston Streets need to be avoided and concentrated along VRC. This gives an opportunity to rebrand and repurpose Boston as a “Creative Hub”, akin to Observatory and/or upper Woodstock of the northern suburbs.  Technology Incubator: The GTP is driving an application for a Technology Incubator in close proximity to the Bellville Station and the co-location of university and corporate business support services. The Incubator will be operated by the Bandwidth Barn with a focus on youth and skills development.  Urban Design Framework for the New Bellville Inner Core: Key sites need ot be consolidated in the Bellville Inner Core/ CBD, but for this to happen, a comprehensive urban design framework for the Inner Core needs to be commissioned. Transport for
  • 74. Page | 74 Cape Town’s recent tender for a “Local Transport Plan” will be co-managed between TCT and GTP. A focus on an inner pedestrian network needs to be a foundation building block. The new Inner Core needs to consider the following: o North: De Lange (pedestrian access routes, Kerkplein redevelopment, open spaces) o East: Charl Malan (adjacent parking lots, vacant plots along AJ West, mixed use and high density intensification required) o South: Willshammer (foot of green corridor, integration with station, pedestrian networks) o West: Kruskal (high concentration of informal trading activities) o Cross cutting: access routes into Voortrekker Road and neighboring sites such as Middestad Mall, HS Marais Hospital, parking lots and so forth.  Hardekraaltjie Sports Ground: The GTP has commissioned a pre-feasibility study on the establishment of a Centre of Excellence Sport Science Facility and the rationalisation and consolidation of the site. The findings were favourable Metro Node South Regeneration Focus area 7.3.1.Demographic and development context The GTP’s demarcation of the “Metro Node South Regeneration Focus Area” of the Voortrekker Road corridor includes Wards 13 (Leiden, Roosendal, The Hague), 20 (Delft, Delft South, Eindhoven, Voorbrug), 24 (Adriaanse, Airport City, Bishop Lavis, Cape Town Airport, Valhalla Park), and 106 (Cape Town Airport, Delft, Delft South, Leiden, The Hague), which forms part of Sub-council 5. The total population of the Southern Focus Area is 179,759. From a planning perspective, is incorporated under the Tygerberg District Plan, approved in October 2012. There is significant development potential is concentrated along the Durban Road‐Symphony Way axis. Although there is a lack of continuity, where the flow is interrupted by Voortrekker Road, the corridor draws attention to eminent release of large City and State‐owned land parcels such as the Velodrome site in Tyger Valley and the Belcon site. The Voortrekker Road Status Quo found that “this emerging north‐south development focus may have adverse implications for the short‐ to medium‐term viability of intensification of east‐west economic activity along Voortrekker Road”. (page 13). Other key characteristic of the southern focus area is the CPUT and UWC campuses. These face onto Symphony Way and Robert Sobukwe, creating an activity route. The locational advantage is significant, and the lack of student housing is both an obstacle and an opportunity to develop underutilised public-owned land. Fig 7.3 illustrates the high concentration of industrial pockets integrated with southern portions of the Belcon site and the airport.
  • 75. Page | 75 Fig7.3 The locational potential of the Southern Focus Area to become an internationally competitive “aerotropolis” urban-industrial activity corridor Property market performance is varied and unequal in the southern focus area. Demand and supply in dynamics Airport Industria are driving commercial, Wharehousing, Light Industrial and Office rentals, new developments and redevelopments, which is showing promising growth. Industrial rental growth between 2005 – 2014 was 113%, and applications and completions of new industrial, office, shopping centre, and wharehousing developments have all been high, according to ECAMP databank.
  • 76. Page | 76 Fig 7.4 Airport Industria ECAMP Profile In Sacks Circle Industria (see Fig 7.5), on the other hand, take up on industrial floorspace has been average, resulting in 20.3% gross vacancies in 2012. The time distance to regional business centres and economic infrastructure is average, which means the area is well located. This could explain the major projected additional industrial bulk supply for the period 2012-2032. Surrounding communities are poor, indicated by average household disposable income. Fig 7.5 Sack’s Circle Industria ECAMP profile 7.3.2.Regeneration Opportunities Growth and Innovation Generating The most significant land development is the rationalisation of Belcon, especially the southern part of the 233ha site. This will have a massive impact in the consolidation of the sub-region. Such a rationalisation will release major developable land, which will reinforce the Robert Sobukwe and Symphony Way corridors. Another Growth and Innovation generating driver is the potential of an urban-industrial strategy drawing on the concept of “Aerotropolis”. The GTP could play an enable role as the facilitator of the “triple helix” space between Industry, Government and Academia (especially technology transfer offices). People serving A significant window of opportunity exists when CPUT and UWC both initiated long term campus planning in 2013. This will have a particular impact on the Symphony Way corridor which open up the corridor to the needs of the Central Cape Flats. An opportunity exist for a private operator to run a shuttle service for students connecting Robert Sobukwe and Durban Roads. Integrated Transport The airport precinct and associated industrial and logistical activities are large drivers in the southern focus area. The well located access to major transport routes such as the R300 and N1, which A transport opportunity that exist in this focus area is the integration of the “Outer Cape Flats” with
  • 77. Page | 77 the more affluent northern suburbs and the Tygervalley Precinct with dedicated shuttle services for CPUT and UWC students via the Symphony Way-Robert Sobukwe-Durban activity route. Fully Developed and Densification CPUT and UWC have indicated a need for well located land for student housing developments. The rationalisation of Belcon could have a particular positive benefit for such developments. The Southern Focus area is “place poor”, apart from the two university campuses. UWC sports on the “greenest” campuses in Africa with a nature reserve on the campus estate. Repurposing of old industrial areas and greater integration with residential neighborhoods is essential to create more liveable urban spaces. Eco-logical Significant capacity exist in the first class universities to partner with industrialists to create new value chains of Green manufacturing. UWC ranks in the highest performing universities in its varied applied science research fields. This should be tapped, and technology transfer offices play an important role in stimulating economic growth, informed by cutting edge research. Well managed The Southern focus area is in close proximity to the industrial parks of the Eastern focus area. For the most part, large portions of the Southern focus area is lower income government-subsidised housing neighborhoods such as Delft, Valhalla Park and so on. Improving access to economic opportunities will go a long way in alleviating poverty in these areas. 7.3.3.Regeneration Proposals Public land repackaging (long term)  Belcon South: GTP in partnership with UWC has commissioned an investigation into the rationalisation of the Transnet Freight Marshalling Yard (Belcon site). The study will investigate the following, which will also be tabled at the CoCT – PRASA Joint Planning and Development Committee (JPDC) o Align with sequencing of development activity and infrastructure development in the wider area; o Maximises industrial land development south of the railway lines linking to an industrial/economic corridor between the airport node and the N1/R300 intersection; o Be recognisable and consistent with Transnet plans and development phasing for the Belcon site; o Align with north/south movement and development plans for UWC and CPUT; o Will be proposed for implementation in three phases – 1-5 years; 5-10 and 10-20 years.  Airport Corridor (Aerotropolis): As a part of the “urban-industrial” strategy for the VRC and METROPOLITAN NODE , an investigation is required into the modalities of improving the economic performance and potential of the Airport Corridor around the “Triple Helix” concept Prime Transit Precincts
  • 78. Page | 78  Pentech and Unibell Station: These stations already play an important integration role with CPUT and UWC campuses. The rail line services the majority of the Cape Flats. The campus planning of the two campuses need to consider the integration and development potential of these two prime transit precincts. Urban acupuncture projects (short to medium term)  UWC CPUT Linear Integration Strip on Symphony Way: Phase 1 of the construction of the Symphony Way corridor was completed in 2007. The aim of the corridor is provide better access between Philippi and Bellville. The Tygerberg District Plan calls for “High-density residential development with light industrial uses”. As an essential part of the “Aerotropolis” corridor, integration between Robert Sobukwe and Symphony Way needs to be improved with labour absorbing industrial activity. Central Regeneration Focus area 7.4.1.Demographic and development context The GTP’s demarcation of the “Central Regeneration Focus Area” of the Voortrekker Road corridor includes sub-council 4 incorporating:  Ward 25 (Connaught, Cravensby, Eureka Estate, Florida, Ravensmead, Uitsig),  Ward 26 (Avon, Beaconvale, Churchill Estate, Glenlilly, Leonsdale, Parow, Parow Valley, Riverton),  Ward 27 (Elsies River Industrial, Goodwood Estate, Goodwood EXT1, Richmond Estate, Townsend Estate, Vasco Estate),  Ward 28 (Adriaanse, Avonwood, Balvenie, Clarke Estate, Elnor, Elsies River, Epping Forest),  Ward 30 (Bihop Lavis, Elsies River, Epping Forest, Epping Industria, Goodrail, Kalksteenfontein, Matroosfontein, Ruyterwacht, The Range, Valhalla Park); And sub-council 5 incorporating  Ward 31 (Bonteheuwel, Boquinar Industrial, Charlesville, Durheim, Kalksteenfontein, Montana Extension, Montevideo, Nooitgedacht, Valhalla Park)
  • 79. Page | 79  Ward 50 (Bonteheuwel) Fig. 7.6 Central Regeneration Focus Area The combined population of the Central Focus Area is 233,924. From a planning perspective, it is incorporated under the Tygerberg District Plan, approved in October 2012. Parow and Goodwood is generally characterised by lower density residential neighbourhoods. This explains the below average DBM applications, although there has been a surge in commercial building development. Between 2005 and 2012 there was 18 demolitions, regarded as “high” by ECAMP. The total value of business redevelopments in 2012 was R152 033 462, also regarded as “high” compared to other ECAMP profiles. This puts the central focus areas’ commercial property in an upwards growth trajectory.
  • 80. Page | 80 Fig 7.7 Parow-Goodwood ECAMP Profile Retail and mixed use is regarded as “Opportunity Zones”, and the drivers in this analysis are size (vacant industrial land, relatively inexpensive rentals, improved properties), proximity (to regional business centres and economic infrastructure) and catchment (workers with higher education qualifications, high household disposable income). 7.4.2.Regeneration Opportunities Growth and Innovation Generating The Voortrekker Road Status Quo report comments that “Developable land surrounding rail stations: Vacant developable land holdings under the ownership of PRASA and the City of Cape Town exist at Goodwood, Elsies River, Parow and Tygerberg Stations. The development of these land holdings would provide further opportunities for densification within the Voortrekker Road corridor.” The Central Focus area also has a number of north-south development routes intersecting Voortrekker Road corridor (see 5.4.2.7). An example of economic growth potential is the Parow Centre, which captures traffic from the south via De Lay Rey and traffic from the north via Tierberg Roads. These prime transit areas have major economic potential. People serving This section of the corridor has numerous community facilities which include 4 private hospitals, 1 government hospital, 4 clinics, 2 libraries and 36 schools. Networked Infrastructure In Central focus area of the corridor is intersected by major activity routes which has major implications for a Transit Orientated Development (TOD) approach to transport and land use. These routes include N7 (Vanguard Drive), Vasco Boulevard, Halt Road, Hugo Road, Giel Basson/35th Avenue, McIntyre Road, and De La Rey Road, and in many cases represent continuous penetration deep into the “Outer Cape Flats”. While “general issues regarding station interchange facilities include lack of adequate ablution facilities (or unsatisfactory conditions due to lack of maintenance), safety and security due to lack of police enforcement, littering and general cleanliness, and lighting”
  • 81. Page | 81 (VR Status Quo report, page 17), stations present a significant development opportunity. Upgrades to these stations should be carried out in accordance with the typological interchange function that each station plays. Fully Developed and Densification The Tygerberg District plan argues for intensification of mixed use development in residential block to the west of Parow Centre, south of Voortrekker Road, east of Giel Basson and north of the railway. Another major opportunity for a high rise development is on the intersection of McIntyre and Voortrekker, and the consolidation of City-owned parking lots is essential to ensure maximisation of the opportunity. Parow have undergone formal legislated process of identifying and demarcating informal trading areas, also known as Gazetted trading plans, allowing trading bays to allocated to licenced traders. The Voortrekker Road Corridor Status Quo Report (CCT 2012) argues that informal trade in Parow is focused in a narrow strip between Parow station and Voortrekker Road, taking advantage of pedestrian movement generated by the surrounding residential land uses, the movement of workers during peak periods alighting from public transport interchanges. Eco-logical A number of city parks and recreational spaces exist in the Central Focus area. These include city parks in Goowood Ext 7, Goodwood Estate, Richmond Estate, Parow Gold Course, and a few isolated parks in Ravensmead, Parow Valley and Beaconvale/Elsies River Industria. Neighborhoods south of the railways are generally “place poor”, although open spaces have development potential. Well managed A sub-regional retail shopping centre Sanlam Centre and the Grandwest Casino anchors this part of the corridor, although it could be argued that these centres have not generated the expected positive economic spill overs. The Foschini Group’s headquarters borders the Sanlam Centre and has also been an anchor in this part of the corridor, with significant investments in properties. Other economic activities include auto sales and associated repairs/services which has become a niche market of metropolitan significance. Edding Industria is a high performing industrial area with good access. 7.4.3.Regeneration Proposals Public land repackaging (long term) There are no apparent large public land holdings in the Central Focus area. Prime Transit Precincts  Goodwood Station and Civic Node: The Grand West Casino and Leisure development has not rendered the expected return on job creation, economic growth and investment that was expected. Goodwood Station is an important connector between the CBD and Grand West, but access is not facilitated.  Vasco / Voortrekker Intersection & Station: Vasco Boulevard does not continue through Voortrekker Road. An opportunity exist to develop the station precinct as an iconic open space and an anchor of the Central Focus Area. Urban acupuncture projects (short to medium term)
  • 82. Page | 82  Mc Intyre Street precinct: McIntyre Road is an important intersection with Voortrekker Road, connecting to Plattekloof in the north. At the intersection of Voortrekker Road, a number of parking lots can be rationalised to yield greenfields land with major development value and potential. This should be integrated with the Parow civic precinct.  Parow Station & Station Road Mall: Parow Station south of Voortrekker Road enables a pedestrian network that extends far beyond the station’s reach. This network is currently a very popular informal trading area, and more than 60,000 unique commuters pass through daily. Northlink College – Parow Campus is also a major attractor.  Hugo / Halt Road and Voortrekker Intersection with Elsies River Station: Hugo/ Halt Road is an important north-south route intersecting Voortrekker Road connecting N1 City in the north and extending into Polkadraai Road towards Stellenbosch in the south. At the intersection is Elsies River station which is an important access route into Elsies River Industria. This route also links Fairbairn College and President High School. The intersection should be developed via the TOD strategy rationale. Western Regeneration Focus area 7.5.1.Demographic and development context The GTP’s demarcation of the “Western Regeneration Focus Area” of the Voortrekker Road corridor includes Wards 51 (Langa), 52 (Langa), 53 (Epping Industria, Maitland, Maitland Garden Village, Ndabeni, Pinelands, Thornton) and 56 (Acacia Park, Factreton, Kensington, Maitland, Windermere, Wingfield), which forms part of Sub-council 15. The combined population is 110,788 (2011 Census). From a planning perspective, is incorporated under the Table Bay District Plan, approved in October 2012. Higher order transport networks define this area, which includes Salt River circle to the west, the N1 to the north, Vanguard Drive/M7to the east and Voortrekker Road to the south. The Western Regeneration Focus is very well located at the crossing of major higher order transport networks such as the N1/M5 intersection, Voortrekker Road and Vanguard Drive/M7. The intersection between Voortrekker Road and Vanguard/M7 is regarded the highest frequency road accident location in the whole City, and traffic interventions are eminent (IDP 2014:120).
  • 83. Page | 83 Fig. 7.8 Western Regeneration Focus Area Maitland is the industrial heartland of the corridor, and this is confirmed by the ECAMP profile. Although industrial rental growth was strong between 2005 and 2009, the period 2009 to 2014 was marked by a negative growth of -3%. Building improvement applications and completions have been below average, and demolitions have been very high (26 demolitions between 2005 and 2012). Maitland is considered an “Opportunity Zone”, with size, catchment and land supply signalled out as core drivers. Office rentals have been growing steadily at 19% off a weak base.
  • 84. Page | 84 Fig. 7.9 Maitland ECAMP Profile Maitland is a job creating hot spot, registering “high” numbers of office, retail and industrial workers. There is also a high concentration of highly skilled workers, which translates to higher monthly disposable incomes. Maitland is also very well located to all major business centres and economic infrastructure. The preferred mode of transport appears to be by train. 7.5.2.Regeneration Opportunities Growth and Innovation Generating Land use adjacent to Voortrekker Road in this section is to a large extent affected by the operations on PRASA and Transnet land, particularly Culemborg. These large land holdings close to the Black River Parkway Bridge (M5) which limits opportunities for mixed use developments. The People serving This area has a number of community facilities including a government hospital, 3 clinics, 3 libraries and 18 schools. Significant potential exist for improving the public realm as part of a civic node in the vicinity of Maitland Station, town hall and public open space. Similarly the Salt River station precinct should be intensified and integrated with the Salt River market precinct as part of a mixed use development (VRC Status Quo report, page 22). Networked Infrastructure The Focus Area is well served by passenger rail infrastructure, with more than 7 stations west of Vanguard Drive at an average spacing of 1,7km. General issues regarding station interchange facilities include lack of adequate ablution facilities (or unsatisfactory conditions due to lack of maintenance), safety and security due to lack of police enforcement, littering and general cleanliness, and lighting. Fully Developed and Densification Along Royal Road in Maitland, a number of housing projects have already been initiated. The industrial nature of the western focus area limits housing opportunities, considering the heavy industrial activities such as container stacking yards. That said, large parcels of open land close to the Black River and Jan Smuts Drive might have housing development and densification potential. Maitland, however, has remained a “free trade” area, which means that traders can utilise any space for the purpose of trading. Basic principles of the City’s informal trading by-law needs to be adhered to. Initial investigation on the take up of informal trading might suggest that the traders do not consider this to be a viable informal trading environment. Broad sidewalks around Maitland Park is a conducive environment, and new developments in the area might promote more diversified economic activities. Eco-logical The south-eastern side of the corridor road is dominated by the Maitland Cemetery. Although edge conditions have been improved by a recent upgrade, this still presents a negative interface that could be improved by increasing building heights and residential densities on the opposite side of the road to increase passive surveillance. The cemetery itself has the potential to function as a green amenity.
  • 85. Page | 85 Well managed Industrial and commercial land uses dominate the urban characteristic of the area, with lower density residential buildings. The gentrification of the Observatory and Woodstock is starting to work into Salt River, but has not reached Maitland. The number of prime transit precincts (see 5.5.2.7) might render additional opportunities for mixed use intensification. 7.5.3.Regeneration Proposals Public land repackaging (long term)  Transnet / Century City: A vast track of Transnet land falls between Century City and Sable Way and the Voortrekker Road. This barrier does not allow for access between the economic benefits of the Century City development, and poorer communities south of the N1 freeway. The Table Bay district spatial plan (page 95) argues that a new road link could see the extention of Frans Conradie Road (connecting Goodwood and Wingfield and linking up with an extension of Sable Road) that would ultimately link into Koeberg Road in the Rugby area. Current planning calls for a grade-separated interchange at the N7/ Vanguard and Frans Conradie intersection. This will free up pressure from the N1 freeway. Such new road links will ensure greater spatial integration and unleash development potential of major sites, such as the Wingfield Aerodome.  Wingfield Aerodome: Wingfield Aerodome was the first municipal airport in Cape Town. After the construction of the then-D. F Malan airport (now called Cape Town International Airport), Wingfield was transferred to the South African Air Force (SAAF), before being used by the Royal Navy as a Fleet Air Arm base. The City of Cape Town has identified Wingfield as an important site for social housing, with a possible uptake of up to 195ha delivering a yield of 40+ dwelling units/ha. Although the current price-tag set by the Department of Defence and the Military Veterans exceeds R2 billion, making housing delivery unfeasible in the current subsidy structure, a major opportunity exists for significant infill and development.  Culemborg rationalisation: Culemborg it is expected that a significant portion of the site will in future remain allocated to back-of-port facilities. This consists of two types of clusters: transport, logistics and freight activities and an engineering/ manufacturing cluster. The logistics operations require efficient access to the port and will possibly be located closer to the harbour. Opportunities for mixed land uses along this stretch of Voortrekker Road are limited.  Two Rivers Urban Project: Planning proposals for the more than half of the 350ha land pockets along the banks of the Liesbeek and Black Rivers between Berkley Road and the N2 has been in motion for more than 15 years. The size of the development compares with Cape Town’s CBD, Century City and the V&A Waterfront. The project’s project implementation feasibility and capital investment structuring are ongoing discussion points. Prime Transit Precincts  Koeberg Road Station and Canon Road bridge: This intersection has been out for tender three times for social housing. This could be a landmark site for a mixed use development that consolidates an important intersection on the Corridor.  Mutual Station / Langa: Mutual Station is a very important interchange between the Metro South-East line and the Northern Line. It also provides excellent connectivity to Langa, which is seen as the Gateway to the Cape Flats and Ndabeni Industrial area. Urban acupuncture projects (short to medium term)
  • 86. Page | 86  Maitland Station / Civic Precinct: Significant potential exist for improving the public realm as part of a civic node in the vicinity of Maitland and Station, town hall and public open space. This also calls for the definition of the Maitland CBD, which could be seen as: Royal in the north, Prestige in the east, Berkley in the south, and Canon in the west  Ndabeni: In a council report August 2010, the City argued that an ideal site for the establishment of a Health Technology Park could be Ndabeni on properties owned by the City of Cape Town. The National Department of Science and Technology (DST) has initiated the establishment of a Health Technology Hub in South Africa as an effort to unite the different players in the value- chain, to strengthen South Africa's advanced capabilities of bio-technology, to improve cooperation within the sector, to create jobs and to generates export earnings and improves regional competitiveness.  Maitland Cemetery and Mutual station: upgraded to become a multi-purpose green space (Table Bay District Plan) and create an interface with the high capacity public transport interchange towards Voortrekker Road  Salt River Station: Salt River station precinct should be intensified and integrated with the Salt River market precinct as part of a mixed use development
  • 87. Page | 87 8. The Way Forward Introduction This chapter wraps up the major arguments developed in the Regeneration Framework, and proposes recommendations under each of the partnership programmes for the next 18 months. This is a critical period for the Partnership in the context of formulating its 5 year Strategic Plan and linking it with National and Western Cape Government Programmes of Action 2014 – 2019 Cape Town’s 2015 – 2020 IDP. Accomplished Corridor Purpose of this Programme: Developing vacant and underutilised public land The Role of Key Partners: • The GTP will ensure the establishment of effective development vehicles, structured finance networks, and will champion and support local and foreign direct investment • The City of Cape Town can integrate the land development and regeneration programme with its infrastructural planning and develop an infrastructural audit and opportunity assessment linked to the corridor 15 year growth and management plan as proposed by the BEPP • Public Land Owners can make land available, provide resources for planning and relocate low level on-site activities Performance Indicators:  Ha of public land in the VRC released for development per annum  Ha of readiness of major public land sites for development as per the Package of Plans approach:  Level 0: No approach or agreement to develop the land  Level 1: Initial pre-feasibility study to confirm developability and secure agreement from public land owner to develop  Level 2: Mandating Agreement for an entity to develop the land  Level 3: Approval of Contextual Framework including high level development parameters, bulk infrastructure and financing  Level 4 : Approval of Development Framework and zoning rights  Level 5 : Provision of Bulk (or first phase) infrastructure and approval of Precinct Plans for first phase(s) of development  Level 6: Approval for Site Development Plans for first phase(s) of development  Level 7: Approval of Building Plans and construction of first phase(s) of development Priorities for the next 18 months:  Preparation of a database of all undeveloped public land in the VRC  Development of an accelerated land release / transfer mechanism that meets the requirements of the MFMA and the PFMA  Assessment of feasibility, legality and modelling of Special Purpose Vehicles for very large integrated re-developments as well as strategic land sites.
  • 88. Page | 88  Level 1 investigations of Transnet site (adjacent Wingfield), Stikland Hospital and Belcon  Agreement with City and WCPG on Level 3 & 4 planning for Tygerberg Hospital Estate Broadband Corridor Purpose of this Programme: Extending quality affordable last mile broadband and access points in areas of highest need, density and footfall Performance Indicators:  Bandwidth and cost thereof to households and businesses  Free WiFi Coverage for commuters, students and lower income communities  Unrestricted access to educational sites The Role of Key Partner:  The Greater Tygerberg Partnership will provide a lobbying role  The City of Cape Town will make underutilised fibreoptic cable available  The Western Cape Provincial Government will align its broadband roll out programme  NGOs such as Project Isizwe and community-based organisations to assist in roll out, networks and capacity building  Higher Education Institutions to extend and share broadband and free WiFi to the total student population Priorities for the next 18 months:  The GTP will lobby, consult and engage with key partners to extend broadband in high need areas on the Corridor (Bellville Central and areas South of the Northern railway line) Caring Corridor Purpose of this Programme: Providing quality public facilities and over the counter services for the public at large and livelihood and support opportunities for vulnerable groups Performance Indicators:  Level of satisfaction with public over the counter services in Bellville Central  % of street people in the VRC accessing shelters / entering programmes  Number and reach of social care organisations and government departments and agencies linked within sub regional networks  Socio economic impact of programmes linked within sub regional networks The Role of Key Partner:
  • 89. Page | 89  The Greater Tygerberg Partnership will provide an advocacy role to champion social development partnerships, and high quality public over-the-counter and information services  Local CIDs (such as VRCID) will prioritise high public circulation areas and support integrated social development solutions.  The City of Cape Town will align its social development programmes and rationalise, align and develop its municipal halls, libraries, office complexes and over-the- counter services in a manner that complements urban regeneration partnerships.  The Western Cape Provincial Government will align health and education departmental programmes to support social development programmes  Local NGOs and community-based organisations to form coalitions with other service-orientated organisations along the corridor in a “client-centric” view of social development activities.  Higher Education Institutions to partner with new research and development programmes concerning bottom-of-the-pyramid socio-economic interventions. Priorities for the next 18 months:  The GTP in partnership with the VRCID to continue work on the Socio-Economic Task Team (SETT) to prioritise programme alignment between service NGOs in the sub region with regards to youth development, skills development and job creation and placement  Performance and capacity audit of public over-the-counter services delivered by government taking into account accessibility, safety, customer service, waiting times, and public information  Work with the City of Cape Town to develop a rationalisation plan for the Maitland, Goodwood, Parow and Bellville civic halls, libraries and office complexes so that services are provided in the areas where they are most needed and surplus land and infrastructure are released for private sector development  Through the Fragility of the City project ethnographic research linked to social fault lines will be mapped, thereby locating work on Refugees and Migrants Strategy within a bigger picture of causal analysis and focussed intervention Ease of Movement Corridor Purpose of this Programme: Modernising public transport, developing non-motorised transport (NMT) and integrating both with development and private transport Performance Indicators:  Afternoon and morning peak queue waiting times at key intersections in the VRC and on the N1, N7 and R 300  Average travel speed of public transport modes in the Voortrekker City Spine  Km of Non Motorised Transport networks in the VRC  Rate of growth / decline in choice ridership of public transport
  • 90. Page | 90  Level of satisfaction of freight hauliers with the road network and road/ rail/ air/ sea cargo transfer  Level of public satisfaction with public transport modes and public transport interchanges on the VRC The Role of Key Partners:  The Greater Tygerberg Partnership will facilitate a shared vision and approach to ease of movement in the VRC between Transport for Cape Town (TCT), PRASA, Transnet, bus and taxi operators and major institutions, landowners and the private sector  The City of Cape Town’s Transport for Cape Town (TCT) can lead on transport planning, implementation and management  PRASA and its agencies can lead on inter-city and metropolitan passenger rail and LRT planning, stations and operations  Transnet and its agencies can lead on freight planning and operations  ACSA can lead on air passenger and freight planning and operations Priorities for the next 18 months:  Design a pilot project for Integrated Transport Operations Management for the VRC in collaboration with TCT which will investigate the development of an integrated real time information, modal transfer and operations scheduling network for traffic management, bus, BRT, rail, mini bus taxi and NMT on the VRC with a view to progressively creating a more efficient user friendly movement corridor.  Develop a short, medium and long term parking plan and strategy for Bellville Central in collaboration with TCT  Work with TCT, PRASA, Transnet, the WCPG and the private sector to develop a transit system (LRT, BRT or a mixture of both) for the Metropolitan Node integrating UWC and CPUT campuses via Robert Sobukwe, the Bellville inner core business district and Tyger Valley  Prioritise the upgrading of Bellville Station and Transport Interchange as a PPP Project Green Building and Development Corridor: Purpose of this Programme: Championing buildings and development that reduce carbon dioxide emissions and conserve consumption of energy, water, waste and materials Performance Indicators:  Co2 emissions per capita in the VRC : residential and in-transit  CO2 emissions per GRP  % of new buildings receiving green certification  % of energy generated locally on the Corridor through SVP and waste-to-energy  % of waste recycled by residences, commercial and industrial development  % of industries with Cleaner Production Programmes  Number of industrial clusters in Industrial Symbiosis which network energy, heat, waste and water for increased efficiency and reduced consumption
  • 91. Page | 91 The Role of Key Partners:  The Greater Tygerberg Partnership will champion and promote green building, development and infrastructural solutions including off-grid energy, waste and water, green buildings, and integrated industrial processes to recycle wastewater and energy.  The Green Building Council and the National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa (NCPC-SA) can support the programme  The City of Cape Town can support the programme with its Energy and Climate Change activities  The Western Cape Provincial Government can support the programme with its 110% Green initiative.  National government departments (DTI, Environmental Affairs, State owned enterprises, development finance institutions) can provide capacity building, technical support and financing for Cleaner Production initiatives  The Higher Learning Institutions can provide technical support, research, for green development, cleaner production and Industrial Symbiosis  The corporate sector, industries, local property owners and developers can invest in green infrastructure and development of labour absorbing and job creating growth paths Priorities for the next 18 months:  Develop the Green Building and Development Corridor Programme through consultation with potential key partners  Distribute and promote green development and building guidelines in all Partnership events and communications  Undertake pre-feasibility study for waste-to-energy and green hub complex on the Bellville Waste Transfer station Learning and Innovation Corridor Purpose of this Programme: Synergising the knowledge and learning capacity of institutions located in the Corridor for maximum impact in regard to education, skills development and the application of innovation to business development Performance Indicators:  Level of integration of technology transfer offices of local universities with each other and the innovation in the sub region  Number of patents originated from the Greater Tygerberg sub-region per annum  Number of successful start-up companies originating in the Greater Tygerberg sub region per annum  Number of shared academic and student programmes between CPUT, Northlink College, UNISA, UWC, US Tygerberg and Business School campuses  Quantity, quality and accessibility of student housing and facilities The Role of Key Partners:
  • 92. Page | 92 • The Greater Tygerberg Partnership will coordinate and facilitate local innovation networks and ensure the integration and alignment with City, Provincial, National and Global innovation networks and partnerships. • The City of Cape Town can align its Economic Development Strategy and business support programmes with sub-regional innovation initiatives. • The Western Cape Provincial Government can align the activities of the Department of Economic Development and Trade (DEDT) and its sector support vehicles with sub-regional innovation initiatives. • National government through Technology Innovation Agency, Department of Science and Technology (DST) and the Department of Trade and Industry can support local efforts around an “urban-industrial” strategy around the “triple helix” concept. • Development finance institutions, banks and multi-later organisations, locally and internationally, can provide long term development and infrastructure finance • The Higher Learning Institutions can partner through applied innovation and business incubation including technology transfer offices. • The corporate sector through implementation of measures to identifying innovation opportunities and implementing business models and to participate and invest in regeneration programmes Priorities for the next 18 months: • Develop the Learning and Innovation Corridor Programme through a think tank of key experts within local higher learning institutions, relevant local and national government agencies, and the private sector in order to develop a strategy, programme and institutional framework for sub-regional innovation • Establish the Tygerberg Technology incubator including co-location of university, private sector and government programmes aimed at skills development, business support and incubation in the context of an Inspiration Village in Bellville Central • Develop and design a student city concept to link, support and complement the Higher Learning campuses as well as private learning institutions with shared student service interfaces, advisory and career guidance services, student housing, broadband services, student transport and the cultural and retail activities that support student life • Investigate possible roll out of free broadband in Bellville Central Area as a key priority (see Broadband Corridor) n Partnership Corridor: Purpose of this Programme: Maintaining a visionary, cohesive and integrated programme of partnership action and investment marketing and facilitation to achieve economic, social and urban regeneration Performance Indicators:  Extent and diversity of GTP membership  Breadth and depth of Future Tyger Public Engagement  Investor and Developer Perception Rating  Extent of partner resource commitment to partnership programmes
  • 93. Page | 93 The Role of Key Partners: • The Greater Tygerberg Partnership will coordinate and facilitate networks and partnerships and maintain a partnership programme management system • GTP Partners can ensure that the Partnership is sufficiently resourced in order to play its role Priorities for the next 18 months: • Develop the Partner Corridor Programme in the context of the GTP 5 Year Strategic Plan • Formulation of a destination marketing value proposition and programme in partnership with the EDP and WESGRO and the City’s marketing department • Publicise and secure comment on the beta version of the Regeneration Framework with a view to undertaking a comprehensive review in July/August 2014 • Develop detailed regeneration frameworks for each of the four focus areas and include these in the mid-year comprehensive review • Manage an international design competition as part of the World Design Capital 2014 programme in order to secure global best practice, planning and design thinking • Establish effective coordination, communication and planning forums with all major government departments and state-owned enterprises in collaboration with the City of Cape Town • Establishing a membership model and financing framework to better engage the corporate sector and private investors in urban regeneration programmes • Set up a Future Tyger communication mechanism with local property owners in each of the four focus areas with the view to participating in local precinct design, development entities, land packaging, and regeneration and urban acupuncture projects Production Corridor: Purpose of this Programme: Integrating the knowledge, air/ road/rail/ sea logistics and manufacturing capacity of the Corridor to drive “aerotropolis” development, ICT, green technology, bio technology and niche manufacturing and ensure the retention of existing manufacturing Performance Indicators:  Rise in Foreign Direct Investment along the Voortrekker Road corridor  Positive growth and development indicators of industrial, retail and residential neighborhoods as measured through ECAMP  Stimulating well performing manufacturing sectors to create x number of jobs The Role of Key Partners:  The Greater Tygerberg Partnership will coordinate and facilitate sector and niche clusters and ensure the integration and alignment with City, Provincial and National industrial and freight logistics strategy.
  • 94. Page | 94  The City of Cape Town can align its Economic Development Strategy and business support programmes with sub-regional innovation initiatives.  The Western Cape Provincial Government can align the activities of the Department of Economic Development and Trade (DEDT) and its sector support vehicles  National government through Department of Trade and Industry can support local efforts around an “urban-industrial” strategy  Development finance institutions, banks and multi-later organisations, locally and internationally, to provide long term development and infrastructure finance  The Higher Learning Institutions can provide technical support, research, for green and bio-tech industries Priorities for the next 18 months:  Develop the Production Corridor Programme through consultation with potential key partners  Initiate pre-feasibility studies for o a Green Hub o a large scale Bio Science Park o an advanced manufacturing and logistics hub connecting Bellville to the CTIA  Engage with national government departments (DTI, Environmental Affairs, State owned enterprises, development finance institutions) to provide capacity building, technical support and financing for green economy initiatives  Engage with Higher Learning Institutions to provide technical support, research, for green and bio-tech industries Riparian Corridor Purpose of this Programme: Conserving, coupling and integrating streams, rivers, canals and wetlands and storm water systems within an open space network that proves green relief and amenity, protection of biodiversity, recreation, public access and flood protection Performance Indicators:  Number of city parks managed and integrated in a green belt corridor  Number of parks and urban rivers adopted through a “Friends of” approach  Integrated planning around Catchment, Stormwater and River Management plan for urban rivers and city parks The Role of Key Partners:  The Greater Tygerberg Partnership to identify opportunities for integration between city parks and green belts with non-motorised transport, public space and residential development.  The City of Cape Town through its City Parks department to continue support and maintenance of parks, cemeteries, greenbelts, road amenities, street trees and many other public open spaces.
  • 95. Page | 95  Organised business and industry to contribute to the rehabilitation of urban rivers and urban parks where business activities contribute to waste and degradation of environmental assets  Community based organisations such as environmental groups and civic groups lobbing for access to green spaces to Priorities for the next 18 months:  Develop the Riparian Corridor Programme through consultation with potential key partners  Development storm water and stream management plan for the Elsieskraal- and Elsie River catchments as a guide to TROSS Services Corridor Purpose of this Programme: Developing clusters of office development, business process outsourcing, business tourism and retail development that couple large scale corporate businesses and complexes with small and informal business networks Performance Indicators:  Number of local and regional service centres located in CBDs increased at the proportion of population growth through densification The Role of Key Partners: • The Greater Tygerberg Partnership will coordinate and facilitate services sector investment and local value and supply chain integration. • The City of Cape Town to align its Economic Development Strategy and business support to local economic development plans • The Western Cape Provincial Government will align the activities of the Department of Economic Development and Trade (DEDT) and its sector support to local economic development plans • The Higher Learning Institutions can locate offices and faculties in the Metropolitan Node • The corporate sector through implementation of measures to identifying innovation opportunities can locate its head offices and business processing functions in the VRC Priorities for the next 18 months: • Develop the Services Corridor Programme through consultation with potential key partners • Negotiate and pursued with finance and insurance companies, banks, and other business processing operations to locate in the Metropolitan Node • Develop a retail development and management programme with local business associations and traders TOD Corridor:
  • 96. Page | 96 Purpose of this Programme: Coupling the growth of public transport and transit ridership and development that supports it through well designed transit precincts that achieve intensification, mixed use, densification and value capture Performance Indicators:  Initiation of the corridor planning approach with Transport for Cape Town, Spatial Planning and Urban Design and other relevant departments, integration with Urban Network Strategy and draw down of CDG / Integration Zone funding  Responsiveness of land use planning system for the corridor  Successful completion of urban acupuncture projects which leads to larger repackaging of public land holdings The Role of Key Partners: • The Greater Tygerberg Partnership to champion Urban Acupunture projects in Prime Transit Precincts and ensure the establishment of effective development vehicles, structured finance networks, and will champion and support local and foreign direct investment • The City of Cape Town’s departments to provide support local economic development plans, consolidation of informal trading activities, local spatial and transport plans, and other place-making imperatives. • Higher Learning Institutions can act as “place makers” through land and infrastructure development that is responsive to regeneration programmes and thus become active partners in development initiatives • Area Coordinating Task Team of Sub-councils to articulate and develop the local action plans to be included in subsequent IDP reviews and budget allocations • The Province and state-owned enterprises such as PRASA and Transnet to integrate land development programmes together with other stakeholders • Affiliations and associations (such as Informal trading associations) to organise better and organisation development Priorities for the next 18 months: • Develop the TOD Corridor Programme through consultation with potential key partners including key components, stakeholders, research and partners for the formulation of a comprehensive urban acupuncture place making strategy for Prime Transit Precincts • Assess the feasibility, legality and modelling of a development vehicle that is able to promote mixed use regeneration through property assembly, development and rolling re-investment to integrate retail, office, and high density residential (student, subsidised, social and Gap housing) on public and private land • Develop roll out programme of design inspired TOD through the Tyger Design Lab partnership with the Dutch Alliance for Sustainable Urban Development in Africa (DASUDA) in collaboration with the City of Cape Town
  • 97. Page | 97 • Develop an “overlay zone” of special zoning and to development approval and land assembly process which is appropriate to need for quick decision making regarding investment characterised by a design-led “package of plans” approach is investigated. • Develop visually appealing easy to understand perspectives, models and illustrations of TOD areas in the four focus areas as marketing collateral to attract investors and galvanise local support for regeneration • Develop scenarios for the upgrading of Durban Road and the “Durban Road wedge” as a quality activity spine as part of a transit, connections and linkages between Bellville inner core business district and Tygervalley to the north and Robert Sobukwe to the south • Work with the Area Coordinating Task Team of Subcouncil 6 to articulate and develop the Bellville pedestrian network and commission detailed design and planning to be included in the IDP review 2015/2016 and budget allocation • Initiate a consultation and planning process around Kerk Plein with a view to integrating it into the Bellville pedestrian network • Consolidated informal trading environment as an “Ubuntu market” or Middle Eastern “souk” in Central Bellville • Facilitate an integrated planning and design for the redevelopment of Inner Core business district • Collaborate with Metropolitan Spatial Planning and Urban Design (SPUD) around performance criteria and tendering terms of reference on “Integration Zone” as per Integrated City Development Grant Vibrant Living Corridor Purpose of this Programme: Promoting high density housing with an emphasis on social housing, gap market housing and student housing in transit precincts and the most accessible parts of the Corridor, whilst protecting the integrity and liveability of lower density suburbs that attach to the Corridor Performance Indicators:  Number of mixed use development plans submitted, approved and built  % of capital budget for social housing spent along corridor to reach 30%  Proportion of public and private land holdings leveraged in mixed use developments The Role of Key Partners: • The City of Cape Town’s Department of Human Settlements to prioritise housing developments that contribute to urban regeneration in mixed use environments • The Western Cape Provincial Government to align infrastructural budgets to corridor planning • National government departments to provide capacity building, technical support and financing for corridor development
  • 98. Page | 98 • Social housing companies and NGOs to collaborate on inner city rental and owned housing projects and community engagement Priorities for the next 18 months: • Develop the Vibrant Living Corridor Programme through consultation with potential key partners • Initiate pre-feasibility study for a Student Village in the Metropolitan Node Well Organised Corridor: Purpose of this Programme: Maintaining a seamlessly clean, safe and attractive urban and industrial environment that progressively integrates smart city technologies Performance Indicators:  Positive growth and development as measured by the ECAMP district profiles  Perception Surveys on the improvement of living conditions, access to services and socio-economic development The Role of Key Partners: • The Greater Tygerberg Partnership will provide an overall strategic, integration and development role for urban management • Local CIDs (such as VRCID) will provide supplementary security, cleansing and social development measures based on the Special Ratings Area by-law • The City of Cape Town will support urban management through deployment of additional policing measures in high impact areas, service integration through sub- council Area Coordination Task Teams (ACTT), enforcement of problem building, fire and traffic by-laws, and enable an effective multi-tier urban management strategy through Special Rating Areas/City Improvement Districts. • Ward committees, Community Policing Forums (CPF) and neighbourhood watches provide for supplementary monitoring, incident reporting, early stage crime prevention • The Western Cape Provincial Government to its oversight role over SAPS to ensure effective integration of all policing measures to fight and prevent crime • Rail agencies to ensure seamless integration between station platform policing with CID safety and security • Local NGOs and community-based organisations to facilitate care and development of street people, administrate drug and substance abuse rehabilitation, and generate personal/individual development plans • The Higher Learning Institutions to ensure campus security and CID operations integrate Priorities for the next 18 months: • Develop the Green Building and Development Corridor Programme through consultation with potential key partners • ECAMP diagnostic tool and/or the development of a performance measurement system for corridor planning based on the criteria recommended under the “Six Strategic Imperatives” outlined in Chapters 3 and 4
  • 99. Page | 99 • Champion the uptake and implementation of the Urban Development Zone (UDZ) tax-break incentives and investigating additional incentive measures such as density bonuses, public land value write-down, and mixed use typologies • Support the establishment of new Special Ratings Areas for Goodwood and Maitland • Investigate the establishment of a corridor servicing “regional CID” which plays an intermediary service between rate payers and CID operations which includes a smart management system including CCTV, incident monitoring, censors, control rooms, and so forth • Investigation a multi-agency approach to an integrated law enforcement and an overall security services integration (SAPS, CID, Rail police, campus security, private security, neighbourhood watches) into “security clusters” approach • Continue the efforts of monitoring “problems buildings” • Identify scope for a capacity building programme to enable better integration between SAPS, CID supplementary services, ward committees, CPF, and neighbourhood watches • CIDs needs to be established for Robert Sobukwe/Symphony Way corridor, Parow and Goodwood • Investigate the options for residential CIDs • Seek alternative accommodation measures for migrant communities trading in central areas • Undertake spatial mapping of crime, problem building and neglect of public spaces hot spot Youth Corridor Purpose of this Programme: Providing leadership development, career guidance, learning support, cultural, sport and recreation opportunities that capture the needs and aspirations of young people for whom the Corridor is the most accessible place to fulfil those needs and aspirations Performance Indicators:  Youth unemployment  Youth participation in partnership programmes The Role of Key Partners: • The Greater Tygerberg Partnership will play an intermediary role between between job seekers and • Local CIDs (such as VRCID) will provide supplementary security, cleansing and social development measures based on the Special Ratings Area by-law • The City of Cape Town through its Cape Town Activa to connect job seekers and job providers, • Ward committees, Community Policing Forums (CPF) and neighbourhood watches provide for supplementary monitoring, incident reporting, early stage crime prevention • The Western Cape Provincial Government to its oversight role over SAPS to ensure effective integration of all policing measures to fight and prevent crime • Rail agencies to ensure seamless integration between station platform policing with CID safety and security
  • 100. Page | 100 • Local NGOs and community-based organisations to facilitate care and development of street people, administrate drug and substance abuse rehabilitation, and generate personal/individual development plans • The Higher Learning Institutions to ensure campus security and CID operations integrate Priorities for the next 18 months:  Develop the Future Cities Future Leaders Sub Programme of integrated capacity building, leadership and through consultation with potential key partners
  • 101. Page | 101 9. Ongoing Engagement to Improve the Regeneration Framework The Greater Tygerberg Partnership (GTP) will play a facilitation role as co-manager of the regeneration conversation and will seek to integrate the outcomes and priorities of the conversation in the programmes of government, institutions, and corporate sector. This will involve a detailed process of further engagement and reworking of the Beta Edition. These activities will include: • Publicise and secure comment on the beta version of the Regeneration Framework with a view to undertaking a comprehensive review on the basis of assimilated inputs • Develop detailed regeneration plans and marketing collateral for each of the four focus areas and include these in the mid-year comprehensive review • Manage an international design competition as part of the World Design Capital 2014 programme in order to secure global best practice, planning and design thinking • Establish effective coordination, communication and planning forums with all major government departments and state-owned enterprises in collaboration with the City of Cape Town • Establishing a membership model and financing framework to better engage the corporate sector and private investors in urban regeneration programmes • Set up communication mechanism with local property owners in each of the four focus areas with the view to participating in local precinct design, development entities, land packaging, and regeneration and urban acupuncture projects • Formulate a 5 year Strategic Plan for the Greater Tygerberg Partnership to facilitate implementation of this Regeneration Framework
  • 102. Page | 102 10. Conclusion Confronting the fragmentation and urban decay in Cape Town requires bold thinking. Cape Town’s demographic and spatial form is changing rapidly and new thinking is required to addressing the burgeoning needs of the growing city. The City’s recently adopted Spatial Development Plan (2012), Integrated Development Plan (2012 – 2017), Integrated Transport Plan (2014 – 2018), Built Environment Performance Plan (2014/2014) and associated sectoral documents supports the multi-facetted work of urban regeneration. Planning tools such as urban edges, nodes, corridors, densification and land use intensification guided by the “Compact City” model, and emphasis of public and non-motorised transport above private car dominance are levers for change. Moreover, the City’s recent promotion of Voortrekker Road as one of two “integration zones” as per National Treasury’s criteria in the Integrated City Development Grant (ICDG) together with the Local Transport Plan of Bellville Central Area provides short term leverage to position the Voortrekker Road corridor (VRC) and Bellville as Cape Town’s Metropolitan Second Node. This Regeneration Framework has developed a rationale, vision and detailed proposals for focus area frameworks. The central proposition of a holistic performance management framework to be grouped under the “Six Strategic Imperatives”, which is aligned to the step-path transition logic that OneCape 2040 follows, has been articulated, followed by recommendations for the next 18 months. Building partnerships based on the values of inclusivity and innovation is the core building blocks of the Greater Tygerberg Partnership. This requires alignment between sectoral plans, public and private interests, investor culture and multiple policies, programmes and projects that relate to the development of the Voortrekker Road corridor and Bellville Central Area as Cape Town’s Second Metropolitan Node.
  • 103. Page | 103 ANNEXURE A: NARRATIVE OF THE STEP PATH 2014 – 2040 The Long Term Change Road Map of the One Cape 2040 strategy identifies the following four phases to 2040 which are applied to a Step Path for the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor:
  • 104. Page | 104 Creating the platform (2014-2019) In the One Cape 2040 Long Term Change Road Map the first phase from 2012 to 2019 is focused on “creating the necessary platform for effecting change at scale”. The first priority is “fixing the school system” and the second linked priority will be to massively increase the opportunities for work experience available to young people. The third priority is to “stabilise our economy and gear it towards the future” through sector partnerships by means of “a collaborative programme of support”, product and market innovation. Most importantly the following two infrastructure shifts are envisaged. The One Cape 2040 hard infrastructure shift would focus on public transport (a priority for every urban policy in every sphere of government), low carbon energy generation, low carbon energy, water resource management, and “fast cheap and reliable broadband and other connectivity infrastructure required to compete in a digital age”. The Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor must play a leading role in the hard infrastructure shift, due to the pivotal role the sub region plays in regard to city and regional public transport, reduced carbon footprint and water consumption through more compact urban form and better public transport, off grid energy generation, “green development” and consolidating broadband and connectivity infrastructure in the pivotal eastern pole of the metropolitan Urban Core. The One Cape 2040 soft infrastructure shift would focus on knowledge infrastructure, partnerships, enterprise growth and innovation and” job intermediation infrastructure needed to optimise our level of employment and to lower barriers to entry level jobs”. The Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor must play a leading role the soft infrastructure shift due to its heavily invested knowledge infrastructure, it’s location in the heart of the youngest fastest growing communities, the powerful sub regional economy and the important role that Bellville Central Area can play as a highly accessible place for the full spectrum of business support, entrepreneurship, and youth development in the sphere of bridging the employment gap. The Greater Tygerberg Partnership is itself a leading example of a “soft infrastructure” investment that can play a leading role in making the links across sectors, institutions and social partners in the sub region. Applying this phase to the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor we suggest renaming the first phase “Turnaround & Creating the platform” since it involves key measures to reverse the process of decline and put in place a positive virtuous cycle of regeneration. The high level outcome to be achieved in this phase would be: The urban turnaround of the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor from a trend of urban decay, socio economic fragmentation and disinvestment to urban upgrading, socio economic revitalisation and re- investment renewal to through the creation of an infrastructural, institutional and networked platform that sets in place a cycle of self-sustaining regeneration The year 2014 marked the beginning of concerted process to prepare the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor as a platform for regeneration. The process, which was facilitated by the Greater Tygerberg Partnership, entailed a linked programme of planning and design for an Innovation Network, Hard Infrastructure, Major Public Land and Facilities, Urban Development and Design and Investment Facilitation and Promotion. Intensive discussion began to develop a sub-regional Innovation Network between leading local education and training institutions (Northlink College, CPUT, University of Stellenbosch, UWC, High Schools and others), the national Technology Innovation Agency (TIA), the City, the Western Cape
  • 105. Page | 105 Government, the EDF and sector SPVs as well the technology industry and businesses as a whole within the Greater Tygerberg region. Whilst this would have physical expression in the Student City and Inspiration Village, it would also extend to national and international networks in innovation and research, particularly in areas where the sub region has a competitive advantage such a medical services, biotechnology and green technology. Hard Infrastructure and Major Public Land and Facilities: A 5 year plan for hard infrastructure development was prepared and aligned with work on the City’s 2015 – 2019 IDP for consideration by the new Council for its term of office, linked to its 15 year Growth Management Strategy. This plan emphasised public transport and densification and dovetailed with work by the railway authorities on the Rail Master Plan, on the hospital expansion plans of the Western Cape Government and on the road/rail/port/ airport logistics framework linking the Bellville Central Area, Transnet’s Belcon hub and Cape Town International Airport. Careful attention was paid to urban development and design both the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor. On the Node partnerships were established and designs produced to develop the Central Public Core with a revamped Bellville Station, a well-integrated new 1 200 bed Tygerberg Academic Hospital linked to a health services cluster and a student housing supported with abundant high density housing catering for a mix of incomes and lifestyles. A Student City would link, support and complement the campuses of UNISA, CPUT, UWC, the University of Stellenbosch, the Northlink College and a host of private learning institutions with shared student interface, advisory and career guidance services in the Inspiration Village, significant build out of student housing in the Node and the Corridor in general, a free broadband network also providing student services and information, student transport services, possible cultural and learning investments such a great library and museums and the cultural and retail activities that support student life. The geographical footprint would extend from the UWC / CPUT campuses in the South, concentrate in the Bellvillle Inner Core, extend west to Parow / Tygerberg and North to the Stellenbosch Business School campus. Around the station an Inspiration Village was designed to regenerate old buildings and stimulate new mixed use developments with entrepreneurship and business support, business incubation, technology innovation and skills development together with youth development services to ensure that the Node inspires and supports the large population of developing communities and young people with easy access to the Node Discussions began with major banks, insurance companies and business processing companies to locate their business processes in the Node and a project was stated to analyse the over-the-counter services provided by the three spheres of government to provide an easily accessible basket of services most frequently needed by the large slice of the City’s population for whom the Node would be the most convenient place to reach those services. This was supported with planning for a pedestrian network and public spaces linking the new Station with Voortrekker Road and connecting with Tyger Valley and the Durban Road Spine to the North, and an open space system of walkways and cycle paths and a local public transport system linking the Tygerberg Hills and the Tyger valley development with the Node and the UWC and CPUT campuses to the south. Work also proceeded an arterial road grid that would provide convenient links to the N1 and the R300 for both urban and industrial development together with a parking strategy to facilitate vehicular access to the Node and promote “park and ride” access to the public transit system. On the Voortrekker Spine, planning and design efforts focussed on selecting and designing a set of “urban acupuncture” projects that would capture the possibilities offered by redeveloped stations enjoying good access to North South road and public transport links supported by a road based
  • 106. Page | 106 transport spine on Voortrekker Road. The urban acupuncture projects were designed to as catalysts for broader development of the corridor with commercially viable mixed use development combined with quality local spaces and high density housing. The development possibilities and infrastructure needs of developing the spine and major public land parcels were modelled to develop viable development briefs for those sites and inform the public infrastructure upgrading programme. Investment Facilitation and Promotion: Detailed investigations were completed on how best to facilitate and promote private development and investment. This included consultations with local and international project and development finance institutions on how best to finance development on the corridor and leverage the full benefits of Public Private Partnerships. It included investigating a suitable property development entity that could champion the mixed high density housing developments needed to transport the Voortrekker Spine as well as special property development entities to drive the major redevelopments of large sites. This was accompanied with working on special zoning dispensation for the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor that would facilitate rapid and design-led approval of complex mixed use transit orientated development, similar to the Package of Plans approach developed for the V&A Waterfront. In order to guide and stimulate a design-led approach an intensive urban design process got underway as a partnership between the private sector, the City and local and overseas bodies. This process was inspired by the great ideas emerging from the International Design Competition which formed part of the wave of innovative design thinking emerging from World Design Capital 2014. These efforts were supported with a destination marketing drive in partnership with the City, WESGRO, the EDF and the DTI to market and promote innovation and urban development investment and partnerships. Most importantly Urban Management efforts to make the Node and Corridor clean, safe and well managed through the VRCID, the Maitland CID and the work of Problem Buildings committees in Bellville and Parow. Planning and discussions were undertaken to “fill the gap” in CID operations in the Parow/ Goodwood / Wingfield and to extend these to the North (Tyger Valley) and South (UWC / CPUT) together with the possibility of a “Mega CID” providing high level umbrella support for localised CID operations. This was accompanied with “Smart City” investigations to create a real time, on-line management system for the Corridor combining CCTV, public transport information and scheduling, crime and safety management, centralised retail management and information and all of the many possibilities offered by networked systems and information. By the middle of 2015, the high level planning and modelling for the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor was sufficiently detailed to incorporate in the 2015/2020 IDP, the development programmes of the higher learning institutions, the Integrated Transport Plan and the Rail Master Plan. It was also sufficient to draw down a sizeable percentage of the R 150 m City Development Grant earmarked for Cape Town, as well as a range of donor funding programmes for socio economic development projects. Progress was well established on a basket of Urban Acupuncture projects which aimed to be up and running by 2020 and the full set of institutional vehicles needed to drive regeneration in innovation, socio economic development and land development were either established or well underway for doing so. As a result of these efforts, by 2019 the Greater Tygerberg Sub Region was poised to take advantage of accelerating development of the African Continent and global trade and innovation forces. A tangible difference had been made to crime and grime, the first phases of Smart City were making an impact and most property owners on the Voortrekker Spine had plans to upgrade or redevelop their properties and young people. With sound planning in place and visible progress in infrastructure, development and networks the turnaround was complete. A new atmosphere of
  • 107. Page | 107 business confidence combined with inspired developmental relevance attracted a high level of interest in Cape Town and her growth prospects.
  • 108. Page | 108 Implementation at scale (2020-2025) In the One Cape 2040 Long Term Change Road Map “the second phase from 2020 is the period when the economic and infrastructure innovations of the first phase scaled up…at an economic level, priority is given to supporting the expansion of innovative sectors into new markets and infrastructure implementation at scale and big investments in renewable energy and gas-generation begin to reduce the Western Cape’s carbon footprint. Major improvements in waste and water infrastructure and systems management reduces costs, creates new opportunities and reduces environmental risk. The work experience programme of the first phase continues but the emphasis now shifts to facilitating access to formal jobs as a growing demand for human resources is generated by sustained higher rates of growth…in education, attention is focused on refining the curriculum to be more responsive to future skills requirements. Improvements in the post-education system are also consolidated with a view to rapidly increasing the scale and variety of post-school educational needs in the next phase” Applying this phase to the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor the scaling up imperative is highly applicable as the sub region becomes a powerful motor for growth and innovation and a bustling hive of re-generation and re-urbanisation. The high level outcome to be achieved in this phase would be: The accelerated development of the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor as a seamlessly managed transit corridor, a leading destination for innovation, job creation, youth development and high density urban lifestyles The year 2020 marked the beginning of implementing a second IDP of the City of Cape Town to focus on the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor as the emphasis shifted to securing their full potential through well designed array of institutional vehicles, financial frameworks, management systems and projects. The Innovation Network set targets for developing Africa’s leading Bio Technology Park that would link in with and expand value chains already established in the Cape Health Technology Park and other industrial areas in the Western Cape. This would link into a medical services complex supported by commercial portal comparable with the Mayo Clinic in the United States that would be a leading destination for health tourism and a palette of alternative medical therapies and bio tech augmented medical services. The introduction of modernised stations and rolling stock combined with MyCiti services will ensure that a world class public transport system develops during this phase, which is complemented by an emerging NMT network. At this stage detailed planning and implementation will begin on establishing transit malls on key sections of Voortrekker Road as rising densities begin to establish 18 hour urbanity and a public transport driven urban lifestyle. Green building, plus off grid solutions for recycling water, waste and materials will become commonplace and the Bellville Waste Transfer Station will be supplying energy to most of the Node using the latest waste to energy technologies. Thanks to the “Green Hub” of downstream recycling industries developing around the Bellville Waste Energy Plant and the implementation of integrated energy and waste schemes in industrial areas in partnership with CPUT the Sub Region will develop into a global centre of excellence for green energy business models and technologies. The road/rail/port/ airport logistics framework linking the Bellville Central Area, Transnet’s Belcon hub and Cape Town International Airport will develop as a spine of advanced manufacturing, bio
  • 109. Page | 109 tech, business tourism, conferencing and logistics services linking Africa and the Western Cape with Latin America, Asia, Australasia and traditional markets. The Node will become one of the most important places to do business in Cape Town with a distinctive iconic architecture of buildings and fine public spaces in the Core as the new Hospital and Station become operational. The fast developing Student City will see the streets, squares and shops filled with students and young people who enjoy the cosmopolitan yet affordable lifestyle afforded in the Node. This will fuel the popularity and academic effectiveness of the universities and the Northlink College and will attract global attention as an ideal place to learn, live and play in Cape Town. The Inspiration Village in the Bellville Core will have spread its footprint to a large percentage of buildings and a bustling shopping experience will support diverse and vibrant street life. The skyline will be graced with several cranes as new office buildings are earmarked for Cape Town’s “New City” and well-designed public services portals will be easily accessible from the new station. Moving from the Bellville Station and Core to the Tyger Valley development, Parow and the UWC and CPUT campuses will be quick and easy via shuttle buses, a possible light rail or tram service and cycle ways will be rolled along the Elsieskraal river. Access to the Node will be quick and easy by motor car and well managed parking facilities will encourage everybody to use the quick, safe and attractive 20 minute train ride to the Central City. On the Voortrekker Spine, the first stage of “urban acupuncture” projects will mature and end-to- end densification of the Spine will begin. By 2025 a 20% redevelopment of the Spine might see an additional 30 000 to 50 000 people living there, which would further stimulate investment, public transport and liveable urban places. At this time the planning for major sites such as Wingfield will develop which would have major role in integrating the Urban Core with linkages to Kensington / Factreton and the Goodwood. At this time it will become viable to better link the Urban Core and the Voortrekker Spine with the Central and Outer Cape Flats with the Eastern (Symphony Way) corridor and more localised North- South routes like Halt Road Elsies River and 35th Avenue Ravensmead. Thanks to excellent investment marketing and development facilitation the further development of the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor will be strongly market driven with a range of PPP’s in place to provide affordable housing, quality public spaces and ensure that emerging businesses and small and micro enterprises find their place in the sun to create much needed employment and wealth generation. Foreign Direct Investment in high tech industrial processes, global HQ’s and business processing offices will be high as the global reputation for Cape Town’s “place to do business” grows. By 2025 the Greater Tygerberg Sub Region was developing a global and national reputation for converting academic research into viable businesses that took advantage of excellent global logistics integration and superb connectivity infrastructure. The Node was well linked to the airport, Tyger Valley and surrounding areas and confidence in the future of the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor was high amongst local and international investors, businesses, industries, communities and public agencies. Bellville had established a strong reputation as place to look for work, decide on study path and start a business. Students and visitors were visibly adding vibrance and energy to the streets and public spaces of Bellville and Parow, and a new generation of urban residents were enjoying the accessibility, convenience and safety of their newly built housing in Urban Acupuncture projects scattered along the Corridor.
  • 110. Page | 110
  • 111. Page | 111 Accelerated improvement (2026-2033) In the One Cape 2040 Long Term Change Road Map “the third phase builds on the momentum created in the first two phases and the emphasis changes from the quantitative emphasis of basic functionality and delivery at scale of the first two phases to enhancing quality while continuing expansion at scale..the Western Cape economy has now grown at an accelerated rate for a number of years and exports particularly have seen major expansion. The strong collaboration between the private and public sector that developed during the earlier phases now any new markets and to establish the region as a market leader and innovator in a range of niche areas linked to key economic sectors…unemployment has now dropped to close to a ‘natural’ rate and the employment focus now shifts from job creation to productivity improvement with a view to increasing economic competitiveness as well as employee remuneration. Inequality starts to fall as the income of majority of the population increases…the school system is performing at a high level and quality public education is now available to all… quality of life particularly for poor residents has improved substantially… the human development index rises as mortality rates, crime and other social pathologies diminish rapidly and a new generation emerges. At the same time, the expertise gained in implementing the green, social and settlement infrastructure provides further impetus for a growing export of products and services particularly to the growing market in Africa and Asia which experience similar challenges”. Applying this phase to the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor the term Accelerated Improvement as with innovation, development and urban regeneration occurring at scale a focus on quality can take place. The high level outcome to be achieved in this phase would be: The creation of a distinctive identity and economic vibrance that renders the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor as leading destinations to live, work, play, visit and do business in Cape Town. From a Growth and Innovation perspective this would mean that the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor have come to play leading roles in balancing the eastern pole of the Urban Core economic nexus and enabled Cape Town to be a leading city in regard to job creation, industrial development, logistics and business services on the African Continent From a People Serving perspective this would mean that the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor have been regenerated to offer a complementary and equal level of public and private services and a leading role in regard to entrepreneurial, business support, innovation and youth development services. From a Dense perspective this would mean that the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor have now fully enabled their settlement capacity and have greatly reduced the need for costly, inefficient and carbon emission generating expansion of the City. This would mean offering housing opportunity to up to 750 000 people (double the current population) and that some 1,5 million people or some 25% of a future possible City population of 4 million people could be living in highly accessible, well located and job rich environment that would have major positive spin offs on the overall functioning of the City. It would certainly make it far easier to integrate and provide easier access to employment and services to the large and relatively poor population of the City living in the Metro South East in Mitchells Plain, Phillipi, Delft and other dormitory areas. From a Well Developed and Managed perspective this would mean that the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor are fully developed with regard to land and infrastructure
  • 112. Page | 112 in regard to foreseeable development modalities and lifestyles and that the highest levels of service are enjoyed in regard to safety, transport, public space and settlement. From a Place Rich perspective this would mean that the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor will have developed a bold, legible and people friendly system of public places, landmark structures that express the unique identity and aspirations of an urban population that is likely to be increasingly cosmopolitan in nature, without losing the rich history of the “Voortrekkkers” and other pioneering communities whose dreams, aspirations and cultures shaped the area from the 17th Century onward. From an Eco-logical perspective this would mean that the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor have attained a carbon emission status of 1 – 1,5 ton of CO2 per resident, which is the globally sustainable norm and will have had a major impact in reducing Cape Town’s emissions per capita. Industrial and urban processes will similarly have minimal or much reduced impact on water and energy consumption and waste generation, all of which will be embraced within a sustainable urban ecology. A well- developed riverine system will play the role of water management, storm impact mitigation, connective routes for NMT, biodiversity conservation, urban food growing and as crucial areas of parkland and natural relief in a densely urban environment. From a Networked Infrastructure perspective this would mean that the Second Metropolitan Node and the Voortrekker Road Corridor enjoy “smart” affordable and efficient water, energy and transport supply as well as world class internet connectivity. Although we can barely imagine the extent to which the future City will be networked through robotics, drones, sensors and information channels that are personal to the user, we do know that the dense, layered and well-connected urbanism of a regenerated will easily adapt itself to the technologies of the future. Sustained performance (2034-2040) In In the One Cape 2040 Long Term Change Road Map the fourth and final phase from 2034, the growth of the economy slows down from the high levels experienced during the previous two phases as the potential for substantial productivity gains slows down, as rates of population growth fall due to the maturing demographic profile and as basic consumption needs are met. The key transitions outlined have largely been achieved. The focus now is on sustaining performance. It is also a time of reflection on what the future looks like and rethinking the Western Cape economy to address the challenges and opportunities of a new era but from a very different starting point from 2012. Applying this phase to the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor the success of the previous phases will ensure that the urban system keeps pace with Cape Town and the Western Cape. The need for special measures and institutions to drive regeneration will have fallen away, particularly in the context of far more equitable urban society and integrative technologies and processes. The high level outcome to be achieved in this phase would be: The phasing out of special measures to regenerate the Second Metropolitan Node and Voortrekker Road Corridor and seamless integration with the City of Cape Town and the Western Cape.
  • 113. Page | 113 References • Bruce, C. 2012. Transit-Oriented Development In China: Designing A New Transit-Oriented Neighbourhood In Hexi New Town, Nanjing, Based On Hong Kong Case Studies. Master Thesis for Urban Design Program | Bleking Institute of Technology & Nanjing Forestry University • Cape Higher Education Council (CHEC). 2012. Future Cape Contextual Report, Discussion Paper, draft by the African Centre for Cities and the Sustainability Institute • City of Cape Town (CCT), Transport for Cape Town. 2014. Base Information for Voortrekker Road Corridor. Draft 1.0, Drafted by Winston J. Harris, 24 July 2014. • City of Cape Town (CCT). 2006. Planning For Future Cape Town: An Argument For The Long- Term Spatial Development Of Cape Town. Draft Document for Discussion, August 2006 • City of Cape Town (CCT). 2011. Census 2011. The following profiles were consulted on http://www.capetown.gov.za/en/stats/Pages/Census2011.aspx: Sub-council 15 (wards 56, 53, 51 and 52 (Langa), Sub-council 5 (wards 13, 20, 106, 24, 31, 50), Sub-council 4 (wards 25, 26, 27, 28, 30), Sub-council 6 (2, 10, 9, 12, 22) • City of Cape Town (CCT). 2011. Tygerberg District Plan: Technical Report, Spatial Development Plan and Environmental Management Framework. Final Draft Approved as a Structure Plan in terms of section 4(10) of the Land Use Planning Ordinance, Ordinance 15 of 1985. October 2011 • City of Cape Town (CCT). 2012. Table Bay District Plan: Technical Report, Spatial Development Plan and Environmental Management Framework. Final Draft Approved as a Structure Plan in terms of section 4(10) of the Land Use Planning Ordinance, Ordinance 15 of 1985. October 2012 • City of Cape Town. 2012. Cape Town Metropolitan Spatial Development Framework. Cape Town • City of Cape Town. 2012. Integrated Development Plan (2012 – 2017). Transport for Cape Town, draft for discussion • City of Cape Town. 2012. OneCape 2040: From Vision to Action. The Western Cape agenda for joint action on economic development. Approved by the Council of the City of Cape Town on the 31st October 2012, C 63/10/12 • City of Cape Town. 2012. OneCape 2040: From Vision to Action. The Western Cape agenda for joint action on economic development, Approved by the Council of the City of Cape Town on the 31st October 2012 C 63/10/12 • City of Cape Town. 2012. Voortrekker Road Status Quo report. Compiled by City of Cape Town, final draft, 13 June 2012 • City of Cape Town. 2014. Built Environment Performance Plan (BEPP) 2014/13. Human Settlements Directorate, May 2014 • City of Cape Town. 2014. Council Resolution MC 48/09/13: Integrated Development Grant (ICDG). • City of Cape Town. 2014. Draft Social Development Strategy. Strategic Policy Unit, Office Of The Executive Mayor • City of Cape Town. 2014. Economic Growth Strategy. Strategic Policy Unit, Office Of The Executive Mayor, July 2014 • City of Cape Town. 2014. Integrated Transport Plan (2014 – 2018). Transport for Cape Town, draft for discussion
  • 114. Page | 114 • City of Cape Town. 2014. Voortrekker Road Economic Land Activity Survey. Metropolitan Spatial Planning Branch, Spatial Planning & Urban Design Department, Economic, Environment and Spatial Planning Directorate. First draft, January 2014 • Ittmann, H; Viljoen, N Cooper, A; and van Dyk, F. 2014. Bridging the Gap Between Private Industry and Government In Infrastructure Development Planning. Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Southern African Transport Conference (SATC 2014), CSIR International Convention Centre, Pretoria, South Africa, 8-11 July 2014 • Marrian, B and Freeman, P. 2001. Towards a general theory of corridor development in South Africa. Paper presented at the 20th Southern Africa Transport Conference, CSIR International Convention Centre, Pretoria, South Africa, 16 – 20 July 2001 • Mpo, P. 2001. Welcome to our Hillbrow: A Novel of Post-Apartheid South Africa. Ohio University Press • National Treasury. 2014. Neighborhood Development Programme. Available online: http://led.co.za/sites/led.co.za/files/cabinet/forum/2014/feb/ndp_presentation_2014feb.p df (accessed 13/01/2014) • Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (PRASA). 2012. PRASA Strategic Plan. Stage 2 Report: Western Cape Regional Strategic Plan. Document prepared by ARUP, Rep/215962/04, Final Draft2, 11 May 2012 • Perez, C. 2014. Unleashing a golden age after the financial collapse: Drawing lessons from history. Available online: http://www.carlotaperez.org/pubs (accessed 26/01/2014) • Rabe, C. 2014. The Economic Areas Management Programme (ECAMP): Data-driven diagnostic of business districts. A presentation to Business, City of Cape Town: Department of Spatial Planning and Urban Design, October 2014. • Swilling, M and Annecke, E. 2010. Just Transitions: Explorations of Sustainability in an Unfair World. UCT Press: Cape Town • Voortrekker Road Corridor Improvement District (VRCID). 2014. Annual Report 2014. Cape Town • Warnich, S and Venter, B. 2005. The Answer is: Corridor Development, but what is the Question? Paper presented at the 24th Southern Africa Transport Conference, CSIR International Convention Centre, Pretoria, South Africa, 11 – 15 July 2005 • Todes, A, Karam, A, Klug, N and Malaza, N, 2010. Beyond master planning? New approaches to spatial planning in Ekurhuleni, South Africa. Habitat International, vol 34, pp 413-420.