Information system development & programming language
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The Slides Were Prepared using Discovering Computers. please inform me ab8 any mistake @ shahid.mohana@gmail.com

The Slides Were Prepared using Discovering Computers. please inform me ab8 any mistake @ shahid.mohana@gmail.com

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Information system development & programming language Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Objectives Overview
    • See Page 417
    • for Detailed Objectives
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 3. Objectives Overview
    • See Page 417
    • for Detailed Objectives
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 4. System Development
    • Page 418
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 5. System Development
    • Page 418
    • Figure 11-1
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 6. System Development
    • System development should follow three general guidelines:
    • Page 419
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 7. System Development
    • System development should involve representatives from each department in which the proposed system will be used
    • Page 419
    • Figure 11-2
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 8. System Development
    • Project management is the process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the activities during system development
    • To plan and schedule a project efficiently, the project leader identifies:
    • Page 420
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 9. System Development
    • Pages 420 - 421
    • Figure 11-3a
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11 A popular tool used to plan and schedule the time relationships among project activities is a Gantt chart Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Gantt Charts below Chapter 11
  • 10. System Development
    • Pages 420 - 421
    • Figure 11-3b
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11 A PERT chart also can be used for planning and scheduling time Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click PERT Charts below Chapter 11
  • 11. System Development
    • Feasibility is a measure of how suitable the development of a system will be to the organization
    • Page 421
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 12. System Development
    • Documentation is the collection and summarization of data and information and includes:
      • Reports
      • Diagrams
      • Programs
      • Other information generated during system development
    • Page 422
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 13. System Development
    • During system development, members of the project team gather data and information using several techniques
    • Pages 422 - 423
    • Figure 11-4
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 14. System Development
    • Page 423
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 15. System Development
    • Page 424
    • Figure 11-5
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 16. System Development
    • The planning phase for a project begins when the steering committee receives a project request
    • Four major activities are performed:
    • Page 425
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 17. System Development
    • The analysis phase consists of two major activities:
    • Pages 425 - 427
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 18. System Development
    • Page 426
    • Figure 11-6
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 19. System Development
    • The system proposal assesses the feasibility of each alternative solution
    • The steering committee discusses the system proposal and decides which alternative to pursue
    • Pages 427 - 428
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11 Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Vertical Market Software below Chapter 11
  • 20. System Development
    • The design phase consists of two major activities
    • Page 428
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 21. System Development
    • To acquire the necessary hardware and software:
    • Pages 428 - 430
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11 Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click E-Zines below Chapter 11
  • 22. System Development
    • The next step is to develop detailed design specifications
      • Sometimes called a physical design
    • Page 430
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 23. System Development
    • Systems analysts typically develop two types of designs for each input and output
    • Pages 430 - 431
    • Figures 11-8 – 11-9
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11 Mockup Layout chart
  • 24. System Development
    • A prototype (proof of concept) is a working model of the proposed system
      • Prototypes have inadequate or missing documentation
      • Users tend to embrace the prototype as a final system
      • Should not eliminate or replace activities
    • Page 431
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 25. System Development
    • Computer-aided software engineering ( CASE ) tools are designed to support one or more activities of system development
    • Page 432
    • Figure 11-10
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 26. System Development
    • The purpose of the implementation phase is to construct the new or modified system and then deliver it
    • Page 432
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 27. System Development
    • Various tests should be performed on the new system
    • Page 433
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 28. System Development
    • Training involves showing users exactly how they will use the new hardware and software in the system
      • One-on-one sessions
      • Classroom-style lectures
      • Web-based training
    • Page 433
    • Figure 11-11
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 29. System Development
    • One or more of four conversion strategies can be used to change from the old system to the new system
      • Direct conversion
      • Parallel conversion
      • Phased conversion
      • Pilot conversion
    • Pages 433 - 434
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 30. System Development
    • The purpose of the operation, support, and security phase is to provide ongoing assistance for an information system and its users after the system is implemented
    • Page 434
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 31. System Development
    • A computer security plan should do the following:
    • Page 434
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 32. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • A computer program is a series of instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks
      • Created by a programmer using a programming language
    • Pages 435 - 436
    • Figure 11-12
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 33. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Machine language is the first generation of programming languages
    • Only language the computer directly recognizes
    • Page 436
    • Figure 11-13
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 34. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Assembly language is the second generation of programming languages
    • Programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes
    • A source program contains the code to be converted to machine language
    • Page 437
    • Figure 11-14
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 35. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • In a procedural language , the programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it
      • Third-generation language ( 3GL )
    • Page 438
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 36. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Pages 438 – 439
    • Figures 11-15 – 11-16
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 37. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • The C programming language is used to write many of today’s programs
    • Page 439
    • Figure 11-17
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 38. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • COBOL ( COmmon Business-Oriented Language ) is designed for business applications, but easy to read because of the English-like statements
    • Page 440
    • Figure 11-18
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 39. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • An object-oriented programming ( OOP ) language allows programmers the ability to reuse and modify existing objects
    • Other advantages include:
    • Page 440
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 40. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Java is an object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems
    • The Just-in-time (JIT) compiler to convert the bytecode into machine-dependent code
    • Pages 440 - 441
    • Figure 11-19
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11 Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Java Platforms below Chapter 11
  • 41. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • The Microsoft .NET Framework allows almost any type of program to run on the Internet or an internal business network, as well as computers and mobile devices
    • Page 441
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 42. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • C++ is an extension of the C programming language
      • Additional features for working with objects, classes, events, and other object-oriented concepts
    • C# is based on C++ and was developed by Microsoft
    • Page 441
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 43. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Pages 441 - 443
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 44. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Page 442
    • Figure 11-20
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 45. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Page 443
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 46. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • PowerBuilder is a powerful program development RAD tool
    • Best suited for Web-based, .NET, and large-scale enterprise object-oriented applications
    • Page 443
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 47. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • A 4GL (fourth-generation language) is a nonprocedural language that enables users and programmers to access data in a database
      • One popular 4GL is SQL
    • Page 443
    • Figure 11-21
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 48. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Classic programming languages include:
    • Page 444
    • Figure 11-22
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 49. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • An application generator is a program that creates source code or machine code from a specification of the required functionality
      • Often bundled as part of a DBMS
    • Pages 444 - 445
    • Figure 11-23
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 50. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • A macro is a series of statements that instructs an application how to complete a task
    • You usually create the macro in one of two ways:
      • Record the macro with a macro recorder
      • Write the macro
    • Page 445
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11 Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Macros below Chapter 11
  • 51. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • HTML is a special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the Web
    • XHTML is a markup language that allows Web sites to be displayed more easily on mobile devices
    • Page 446
    • Figure 11-24
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 52. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • XML allows Web developers to create customized tags and use predefined tags to display content appropriately on various devices
      • WML is a subset of XML and is used to design pages for microbrowsers
    • Two applications of XML are RSS 2.0 and ATOM
    • Pages 446 - 447
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11 Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click XML below Chapter 11
  • 53. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Web browsers can execute short programs to add interactive elements to Web pages
    • To send and receive information between your computer and a Web server, these programs use the CGI (common gateway interface)
    • Page 447
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 54. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Programmers write scripts, applets, servlets, or ActiveX controls using a variety of languages
    • Pages 447 - 448
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11 Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click PHP below Chapter 11
  • 55. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Page 448
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 56. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Web 2.0 allows Web sites to provide a means for users to:
    • Page 448
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 57. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Most Web 2.0 sites use API s
      • An API enables programmers to interact with an environment such as a Web site or operating system
    • Page 448
    • Figure 11-26
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 58. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Web page authoring software can create sophisticated Web pages that include images, video, audio, animation, and other effects
    • Page 449
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 59. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Multimedia authoring software allows programmers to combine text, graphics, animation, audio, and video in an interactive presentation
    • Page 449
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 60. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools
    • Page 449
    • Figure 11-27
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 61. Program Development Cycle
    • Program development consists of a series of steps programmers use to build computer programs
    • Pages 450 - 451
    • Figure 11-28
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 62. Program Development Cycle
    • The sequence control structure shows one or more actions following each other in order
    • Page 452
    • Figure 11-29
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 63. Program Development Cycle
    • The selection control structure tells the program which action to take, based on a certain condition
      • If-then-else
      • Case
    • Page 452
    • Figure 11-30
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 64. Program Development Cycle
    • Page 453
    • Figure 11-31
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 65. Program Development Cycle
    • The repetition control structure enables a program to perform one or more actions repeatedly as long as a certain condition is met
    • Page 453
    • Figures 11-32 – 11-33
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 66. Video: Electronic Arts Going Mobile Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11 CLICK TO START
  • 67. Summary
    • Page 454
    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11
  • 68. Chapter 11 Complete